8,108 research outputs found

    Warm Molecular Layers in Protoplanetary Disks

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    We have investigated molecular distributions in protoplanetary disks, adopting a disk model with a temperature gradient in the vertical direction. The model produces sufficiently high abundances of gaseous CO and HCO+ to account for line observations of T Tauri stars using a sticking probability of unity and without assuming any non-thermal desorption. In regions of radius R > 10 AU, with which we are concerned, the temperature increases with increasing height from the midplane. In a warm intermediate layer, there are significant amounts of gaseous molecules owing to thermal desorption and efficient shielding of ultraviolet radiation by the flared disk. The column densities of HCN, CN, CS, H2CO, HNC and HCO+ obtained from our model are in good agreement with the observations of DM Tau, but are smaller than those of LkCa15. Molecular line profiles from our disk models are calculated using a 2-dimensional non-local-thermal-equilibrium (NLTE) molecular-line radiative transfer code for a direct comparison with observations. Deuterated species are included in our chemical model. The molecular D/H ratios in the model are in reasonable agreement with those observed in protoplanetary disks.Comment: 11 pages, Latex (aa.cls), to be published in Astronomy and Astrophysic

    Two-dimensional Distributions and Column Densities of Gaseous Molecules in Protoplanetary Disks II

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    We have investigated the two-dimensional (R,Z) distribution of deuterated molecular species in circumstellar disks around young stellar objects. The abundance ratios between singly deuterated and normal molecules (``D/H ratios'') in disks evolve in a similar way as in molecular clouds. Fractionation is caused by rapid exchange reactions that are exothermic because of energy differences between deuterated and normal species. In the midplane region, where molecules are heavily depleted onto grain surfaces, the D/H ratios of gaseous molecules are higher than at larger heights. The D/H ratios for the vertical column densities of NH3, H2O, and HCO+ are sensitive to the temperature, and decrease significantly with decreasing radial distance for R < 300 AU. The analogous D/H ratios for CH4 and H2CO, on the other hand, are not very sensitive to the temperature in the range (T=10-50 K) we are concerned with, and do not decrease with decreasing R at R > 50 AU. The D/H column-density ratios also depend on disk mass. In a disk with a larger mass, the ratios of deuterated species to normal species are higher, because of heavier depletion of molecules onto grains. In the second part of the paper, we report molecular column densities for disks embedded in ambient cloud gas. Our results suggest that CN and HCO+ can be tracers of gaseous disks, especially if the central object is a strong X-ray source. Our results also suggest that the radial distributions of CN, C2H, HCN, and H2CO may vary among disks depending on the X-ray luminosity of the central star.Comment: 13 page

    Effects of accretion flow on the chemical structure in the inner regions of protoplanetary disks

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    We have studied the dependence of the profiles of molecular abundances and line emission on the accretion flow in the hot (\ga 100K) inner region of protoplanetary disks. The gas-phase reactions initiated by evaporation of the ice mantle on dust grains are calculated along the accretion flow. We focus on methanol, a molecule that is formed predominantly through the evaporation of warm ice mantles, to show how the abundance profile and line emission depend on the accretion flow. Our results show that some evaporated molecules keep high abundances only when the accretion velocity is large enough, and that methanol could be useful as a diagnostic of the accretion flow by means of ALMA observations at the disk radius of \la 10AU.Comment: 6 pages, 5 figures, Accepted for publication in A&

    Thick-target yields of radioactive targets deduced from inverse kinematics

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    The thick-target yield (TTY) is a macroscopic quantity reflected by nuclear reactions and matter properties of targets. In order to evaluate TTYs on radioactive targets, we suggest a conversion method from inverse kinematics corresponding to the reaction of radioactive beams on stable targets. The method to deduce the TTY is theoretically derived from inverse kinematics. We apply the method to the natCu(12C,X)24Na reaction to confirm availability. In addition, it is applied to the 137Cs + 12C reaction as an example of a radioactive system and discussed a conversion coefficient of a TTY measurement.Comment: 8 pages, 3 figures, Accepted to Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research

    Fundamental aspects of episodic accretion chemistry explored with single-point models

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    We explore a set of single-point chemical models to study the fundamental chemical aspects of episodic accretion in low-mass embedded protostars. Our goal is twofold: (1) to understand how the repeated heating and cooling of the envelope affects the abundances of CO and related species; and (2) to identify chemical tracers that can be used as a novel probe of the timescales and other physical aspects of episodic accretion. We develop a set of single-point models that serve as a general prescription for how the chemical composition of a protostellar envelope is altered by episodic accretion. The main effect of each accretion burst is to drive CO ice off the grains in part of the envelope. The duration of the subsequent quiescent stage (before the next burst hits) is similar to or shorter than the freeze-out timescale of CO, allowing the chemical effects of a burst to linger long after the burst has ended. We predict that the resulting excess of gas-phase CO can be observed with single-dish or interferometer facilities as evidence of an accretion burst in the past 10^3 - 10^4 yr.Comment: 5 pages, 3 figures, accepted by ApJ Letters (emulateapj format). May 8, 2013: added erratum to correct Eq. 1. This equation was implemented correctly in our code, so all results and conclusions are unaffected. Figure 2 is updated with minor changes to the labels above the panel

    Tentative Detection of Deuterated Methane toward the Low-Mass Protostar IRAS 04368+2557 in L1527

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    The millimeter-wave rotational transition line (JK=1000J_K = 1_0 - 0_0) of deuterated methane CH3_3D has tentatively been detected toward the low-mass Class 0 protostar IRAS 04368+2557 in L1527 with the Heinrich Hertz Submillimeter Telescope. This is the first detection of CH3_3D in interstellar clouds, if confirmed. The column density and fractional abundance of CH3_3D are determined to be (9.1±3.4)×1015(9.1\pm3.4) \times 10^{15} cm2^{-2} and (3.0±1.1)×107(3.0\pm1.1) \times 10^{-7}, respectively, where we assume the rotational temperature of 25 K. The column density and fractional abundance of the gaseous CH4_4 are estimated to be (1.34.6)×1017(1.3-4.6) \times 10^{17} cm2^{-2} and (4.315.2)×106(4.3-15.2) \times 10^{-6}, respectively, by adopting the molecular D/H ratios of 2--7% reported for various molecules in L1527. The fractional abundance of CH4_4 is higher than or comparable to that found in high-mass star-forming cores by infrared observations. It is sufficiently high for triggering the efficient production of various carbon-chain molecules in a lukewarm region near the protostar, which supports the picture of the warm carbon-chain chemistry.Comment: 13 page

    Modeling Molecular-Line Emission from Circumstellar Disks

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    Molecular lines hold valuable information on the physical and chemical composition of disks around young stars, the likely progenitors of planetary systems. This invited contribution discusses techniques to calculate the molecular emission (and absorption) line spectrum based on models for the physical and chemical structure of protoplanetary disks. Four examples of recent research illutrate these techniques in practice: matching resolved molecular-line emission from the disk around LkCa15 with theoertical models for the chemistry; evaluating the two-dimensional transfer of ultraviolet radiation into the disk, and the effect on the HCN/CN ratio; far-infrared CO line emission from a superheated disk surface layer; and inward motions in the disk around L1489 IRS.Comment: 6 pages, no figures. To appear in "The Dense Interstellar Medium in Galaxies", Procs. Fourth Cologne-Bonn-Zermatt-Symposiu
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