471 research outputs found

    Alʔilbīrī’s Book of the rational conclusions. Introduction, Critical Edition of the Arabic Text and Materials for the History of the Ḫawāṣṣic Genre in Early Andalus

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    [eng] The Book of the rational conclusions, written perhaps somewhen in the 10th c. by a physician from Ilbīrah (Andalus), is a multi-section medical pandect. The author brings together, from a diversity of sources, materials dealing with matters related to drug-handling, natural philosophy, therapeutics, medical applications of the specific properties of things, a regimen, and a dispensatory. This dissertation includes three different parts. First the transmission of the text, its contents, and its possible context are discussed. Then a critical edition of the Arabic text is offered. Last, but certainly not least, the subject of the specific properties is approached from several points of view. The analysis of Section III of the original book leads to an exploration of the early Andalusī assimilation of this epistemic tradition and to the establishment of a well-defined textual family in which our text must be inscribed. On the other hand, the concept itself of ‘specific property’ is often misconstrued and it is usually made synonymous to magic and superstition. Upon closer inspection, however, the alleged irrationality of the knowledge of these properties appears to be largely the result of anachronistic interpretation. As a complement of this particular research and as an illustration of the genre, a sample from an ongoing integral commentary on this section of the book is presented.[cat] El Llibre de les conclusions racionals d’un desconegut metge d’Ilbīrah (l’Àndalus) va ser compilat probablement durant la segona meitat del s. X. Es tracta d’un rudimentari però notablement complet kunnaix (un gènere epistèmic que és definit sovint com a ‘enciclopèdia mèdica’) en què l’autor aplega materials manllevats (sovint de manera literal i no-explícita) de diversos gèneres. El llibre obre amb una secció sobre apoteconomia (una mena de manual d’apotecaris) però se centra després en les diferents branques de la medicina. A continuació d’uns prolegòmens filosòfics l’autor copia, amb mínima adaptació lingüística, un tractat sencer de terapèutica, després un altre sobre les aplicacions mèdiques de les propietats específiques de les coses, una sèrie de fragments relacionats amb la dietètica (un règim en termes tradicionals) i, finalment, una col·lecció de receptes mèdiques. Cadascuna d’aquestes seccions mostren evidents lligams d’intertextualitat que apunten cap a una intensa activitat sintetitzadora de diverses tradicions aliades a la medicina a l’Àndalus califal. El text és, de fet, un magnífic objecte sobre el qual aplicar la metodologia de la crítica textual i de fonts. L’edició crítica del text incorpora la dimensió cronològica dins l’aparat, que esdevé així un element contextualitzador. Quant l’estudi de les fonts, si tot al llarg de la primera part d’aquesta tesi és només secundari, aquesta disciplina pren un protagonisme gairebé absolut en la tercera part, especialment en el capítol dedicat a l’anàlisi individual de cada passatge recollit en la secció sobre les propietats específiques de les coses

    Principles of generalization for sensorimotor cerebellar learning

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    Principles of generalization for sensorimotor cerebellar learning

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    Revista de Științe ale Sănătății din Moldova = Moldovan Journal of Health Sciences. 2023, Vol. 10(2)

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    Revista de Științe ale Sănătății din Moldova (Moldovan Journal of Health Sciences) a fost lansată în octombrie 2014. Aceasta este editată în limbile română și engleză, conform standardelor și ghidurilor internaționale actuale în domeniul științelor medicale, și are o apariție trimestrială. Revista este înregistrată în Instrumentul Bibliometric Național IBN/IDSI (nr.1 din 16.11.2015), iar din 21 decembrie 2017, prin Hotărârea Consiliului Suprem pentru Știință și Dezvoltare Tehnologică nr. 169, a fost inclusă în lista revistelor științifice de Tip B. Revista este înregistrată în 2 baze de date internaționale

    Propaedeutics of Internal Diseases

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    УЧЕБНЫЕ ПОСОБИЯДИАГНОСТИКАПИЩЕВАРИТЕЛЬНОЙ СИСТЕМЫ БОЛЕЗНИ /ДИАГНОСТИКАМОЧЕПОЛОВЫЕ БОЛЕЗНИ /ДИАГНОСТИКАГЕМАТОЛОГИЧЕСКИЕ БОЛЕЗНИ /ДИАГНОСТИКАДИАГНОСТИЧЕСКИЕ МЕТОДЫ ЭНДОКРИННЫЕДИАГНОСТИЧЕСКИЕ МЕТОДЫ ПИЩЕВАРИТЕЛЬНЫЕКОСТНО-МЫШЕЧНОЙ СИСТЕМЫ БОЛЕЗНИ /ДИАГНОСТИКАТЕРАПИЯ (ДИСЦИПЛИНА)DISEASES OF THE ENDOCRINE GLANDSDISEASES OF THE MUSCULOSKELETAL SYSTEMDISEASES OF THE BLOODDISEASES OF THE URINARY TRACTDISEASES OF THE DIGESTIVE SYSTEMINTERNAL DISEASESPROPAEDEUTICS OF INTERNAL DISEASESINTERNAL MEDICINEИНОСТРАННЫЕ СТУДЕНТЫСодержит следующие разделы: обследование пациентов с заболеваниями органов систем пищеварения, мочевыделения, крови, желез внутренней секреции и опорно-двигательного аппарата. Для студентов 2 и 3 курсов, изучающих пропедевтику внутренних болезней на английском языке. It contains the following sections: examination of patients with diseases of the digestive system, urinary tract, blood, endocrine glands and musculoskeletal system

    The retinal topography of the red lionfish (Pterois volitans): towards an understanding of the visual system of a highly invasive species

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    Retinal specializations provide organisms with the spatial information needed to engage in visually guided behaviours aimed at maximizing fitness; nevertheless, little is known about the retinal topography of crepuscular fish, as most studies address diurnal or deep-sea species. I evaluated the types of photoreceptor and neural cells in the retina of the red lionfish, their distribution in the retinal surface, and their spatial resolving power. Single, double and triple cones are imbedded in a rod-dominated field over the entire inner layer. Single and double cones occur in higher densities towards the dorsal and ventral areas, arranged in a square mosaic pattern all along except in the central region of the retina, where they concur with triple cones. Ganglion and amacrine cells cover the outer layer with higher densities in the ventral-nasal region, a mismatch to single and double cones, and occasionally assemble as glomeruli or striation. Cell distribution and single and double cone arrangements in conjunction with spatial resolving power values suggest vision in P. volitans is adapted for vertically open habitats and performs better in dim-light environments while maintaining a moderate capacity for color vision, which denotes an advantage for predatory capabilities and success as an invasive species

    Orbital Imaging

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    A broad range of pathologies can affect the orbit, making the diagnosis and management of orbital diseases challenging. Orbital imaging has an important role in the work up of paNents with orbital disease, helping to narrow the differential or make a diagnosis.Thesis (Ph.D.) -- University of Adelaide, Adelaide Medical School, 202

    Brain Computations and Connectivity [2nd edition]

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    This is an open access title available under the terms of a CC BY-NC-ND 4.0 International licence. It is free to read on the Oxford Academic platform and offered as a free PDF download from OUP and selected open access locations. Brain Computations and Connectivity is about how the brain works. In order to understand this, it is essential to know what is computed by different brain systems; and how the computations are performed. The aim of this book is to elucidate what is computed in different brain systems; and to describe current biologically plausible computational approaches and models of how each of these brain systems computes. Understanding the brain in this way has enormous potential for understanding ourselves better in health and in disease. Potential applications of this understanding are to the treatment of the brain in disease; and to artificial intelligence which will benefit from knowledge of how the brain performs many of its extraordinarily impressive functions. This book is pioneering in taking this approach to brain function: to consider what is computed by many of our brain systems; and how it is computed, and updates by much new evidence including the connectivity of the human brain the earlier book: Rolls (2021) Brain Computations: What and How, Oxford University Press. Brain Computations and Connectivity will be of interest to all scientists interested in brain function and how the brain works, whether they are from neuroscience, or from medical sciences including neurology and psychiatry, or from the area of computational science including machine learning and artificial intelligence, or from areas such as theoretical physics

    The thalamocortical symphony:How thalamus and cortex play together in schizophrenia and plasticity

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    The work presented in this thesis aimed at investigating the function and mechanism of corticothalamic-thalamocortical network in schizophrenia and experience-dependent plasticity, further discussed their possible connection.In Chapter 2, we examined the effects of low-dose ketamine on the corticothalamic circuit (CTC) system. Our findings reveal that ketamine induces abnormal spindle activity and gamma oscillations in the CTC system. Notably, ketamine also leads to a transition in thalamic neurons from burst-firing to tonic action potential mode, which may underlie deficits in spindle oscillations. Chapter 3 addresses sensory perception deficits in schizophrenia, emphasizing disruptions in beta and gamma frequency oscillations due to signal-to-noise ratio imbalances. Chapter 4 explores experience-dependent plasticity, highlighting the role of thalamic synaptic inhibition in ocular dominance plasticity and the influence of cortical feedback. Chapter 5 investigates the involvement of endocannabinoids, particularly CB1 receptors, in inhibitory synaptic maturation and ocular dominance plasticity within the primary visual cortex.The general discussion raises the possibility of a link between neural plasticity and schizophrenia, particularly during the transformative phase of adolescence when the brain undergoes significant changes. An abnormal balance between inhibition and excitation, influenced by GABAergic maturation deficits, connectivity disruptions, and altered perceptual information transfer, may contribute to the development of schizophrenia.This thesis offers valuable insights into the intricate mechanisms underlying schizophrenia, with a particular focus on the CTC circuit, NMDA receptors, and endocannabinoids in the context of neuronal plasticity and cognitive function
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