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    The impact of mechanical bowel preparation in elective colorectal surgery: a propensity score matching analysis.

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    PURPOSE: To evaluate the influence of preoperative mechanical bowel preparation (MBP) based on the occurrence of anastomosis leakage, surgical site infection (SSI), and severity of surgical complication when performing elective colorectal surgery. MATERIALS AND METHODS: MBP and non-MBP patients were matched using propensity score. The outcomes were evaluated according to tumor location such as right- (n=84) and left-sided colon (n=50) and rectum (n=100). In the non-MBP group, patients with right-sided colon cancer did not receive any preparation, and patients with both left-sided colon and rectal cancers were given one rectal enema before surgery. RESULTS: In the right-sided colon surgery, there was no anastomosis leakage. SSI occurred in 2 (4.8%) and 4 patients (9.5%) in the non-MBP and MBP groups, respectively. In the left-sided colon cancer surgery, there was one anastomosis leakage (4.0%) in each group. SSI occurred in none in the rectal enema group and in 2 patients (8.0%) in the MBP group. In the rectal cancer surgery, there were 5 anastomosis leakages (10.0%) in the rectal enema group and 2 (4.0%) in the MBP group. SSI occurred in 3 patients (6.0%) in each groups. Severe surgical complications (Grade III, IV, or V) based on Dindo-Clavien classification, occurred in 7 patients (14.0%) in the rectal enema group and 1 patient (2.0%) in the MBP group (p=0.03). CONCLUSION: Right- and left-sided colon cancer surgery can be performed safely without MBP. In rectal cancer surgery, rectal enema only before surgery seems to be dangerous because of the higher rate of severe postoperative complications.ope

    MAPK signaling is involved in camptothecin-induced cell death

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    Camptothecin, a topoisomerase I inhibitor, is a well-known anticancer drug. However, its mechanism has not been well studied in human gastric cancer cell lines. Camptothecin induced apoptotic cell death in human gastric cancer cell line AGS. Z-VAD-fmk, pan-caspase inhibitor, blocked apoptotic phenotypes induced by camptothecin suggesting that caspases are involved in camptothecin-induced cell death. An inhibitor of caspase-6 or -8 or -9 did not prevent cell death by camptothecin. Various protease inhibitors failed to prevent camptothecin-induced cell death. These results suggest that only few caspases are involved in camptothecin-induced cell death. Camptothecin induced phosphorylation of ERK1/2, JNK, and p38 MAPK, in a dose and time-dependent manner in AGS. Z-VAD-fmk did not affect MAPK signaling induced by camptothecin suggesting that caspase signaling occurs downstream of MAPK signaling. Blocking of p38 MAPK, but not ERK1/2, resulted in partial inhibition of cell death and PARP cleavage by camptothecin in AGS. Taken together, MAPK signaling is associated with apoptotic cell death by camptothecin.ope

    Reappraisal of the Immunogenicity and Safety of Three Hepatitis A Vaccines in Adolescents

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    Although the overall incidence of hepatitis A in Korea has been decreasing, adolescents remain highly vulnerable to its outbreaks. This study was conducted to compare the immunogenicity and safety of three hepatitis A vaccines in Korean adolescents. Healthy anti-hepatitis A virus seronegative subjects aged 13 to 19 yr were randomized in three equal groups to receive two doses of Avaxim�꽓, Epaxal짰, or Havrix짰, 6 to 12 months apart. Seroconversion rates one month after the first dose were 98%, 95%, and 93% for Avaxim�꽓, Epaxal짰, and Havrix짰, respectively. Seroconversion rates reached 100% for all vaccine groups one month after the second dose. Anti-HAV geometric mean concentrations (GMCs) were 7,207.7 mIU/mL (95% CI, 6023.1-8684.7), 1,750.5 mIU/mL (95% CI, 1362.9-2248.3), and 1,953.5 mIU/mL (95% CI, 1459.4-2614.7) after two doses of Avaxim�꽓, Epaxal짰, and Havrix짰 respectively. Avaxim�꽓 was significantly more immunogenic than Epaxal짰 and Havrix짰, whereas there were no significant differences in antibody responses between Epaxal짰 and Havrix짰. Local and systemic solicited adverse events (AEs) were mostly of mild-to-moderate intensity and resolved within 5 days. No serious AEs were reported. In conclusion, all three vaccines are highly immunogenic and well-tolerated in Korean adolescents. (Clinical Trial Registry NCT00483470).ope

    Pancreatic Ductal Adenocarcinoma: Rim Enhancement at MR Imaging Predicts Prognosis after Curative Resection

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    Purpose To identify features at preoperative magnetic resonance (MR) imaging that could predict favorable prognosis after curative resection of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC). Materials and Methods From January 2009 to December 2014, this retrospective study included 143 patients with surgically resected (ie, R0) PDAC who underwent preoperative MR imaging within 1 month before surgery. Clinical-pathologic and MR imaging findings for predicting disease-free survival (DFS) and overall survival (OS) were identified by using a Cox proportional hazards model. Important MR imaging features were compared with clinical-pathologic findings. Results Tumor size at histopathologic analysis was associated with both DFS and OS (hazard ratio per centimeter, 1.37; 95% confidence interval: 1.15, 1.63; P .05). Rim-enhancing lesions had more aggressive histologic tumor grades, less frequent remaining acini, and more frequent necrosis within the tumor compared with non-rim-enhancing pancreatic lesions (P = .002, P = .008, and P < .001, respectively). Conclusion Greater tumor size and rim enhancement were associated with lower DFS and OS rates after attempted curative resection of PDAC.restrictio

    Outcomes of Aggressive Surgical Resection in Growth Hormone-Secreting Pituitary Adenomas with Cavernous Sinus Invasion

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    BACKGROUND: Cavernous sinus (CS) invasion is an unfavorable factor hindering the remission of growth hormone (GH)-secreting pituitary adenomas. Little data exist on aggressive surgical resection, however. We investigated the role of CS exploration for GH-secreting pituitary adenomas with CS invasion. METHODS: We classified 132 patients with GH-secreting pituitary adenomas invading CS into 4 groups. The patients underwent surgery using a microsurgical transsphenoidal approach (TSA) with endoscopic assistance. Adenomas with CS invasion confined to the medial compartment of the internal carotid artery (ICA) were classified as type A (without radiologic evidence) or type B (with radiologic evidence). Adenomas with ICA encasement were classified according to the surgical approach as type C (standard TSA) or type D (far-lateral TSA). Surgical and endocrinologic outcomes were compared across groups. RESULTS: For type A, B, C, and D tumors, the rates of gross total resection were 100%, 73.6%, 14.7%, and 0%, respectively, and the rates of endocrinologic remission by surgery alone were 100%, 62.3%, 26.5%, and 0%, respectively. There was no endocrinologic remission by surgery alone for type D tumors; nevertheless, compared with type C tumors, type D tumors showed marked reductions in the postoperative nadir of GH at 1 week, 6 months, and 1 year and of insulin-like growth factor I at 1 year. CONCLUSIONS: For tumors with CS invasion confined to the medial compartment of the ICA, total resection should be attempted by direct visualization of the entire medial wall of the CS. Even for tumors with ICA encasement, aggressive tumor resection by far-lateral TSA can increase the chance of remission with the help of adjuvant treatment.restrictio

    Endovascular and Clinical Outcomes of Vertebrobasilar Intracranial Atherosclerosis-Related Large Vessel Occlusion

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    Background and Purpose: Endovascular treatment (EVT) for acute vertebrobasilar intracranial atherosclerosis-related large vessel occlusion (ICAS-LVO) and its outcomes are not well known. We aimed to evaluate endovascular and clinical outcomes of vertebrobasilar ICAS-LVO patients who underwent EVT. Methods: Consecutive acute stroke patients who underwent EVT for vertebrobasilar LVO were retrospectively reviewed. Patients were assigned to the ICAS (+) or the ICAS (-) group based on angiographical findings. Procedural details and clinical outcomes were compared between the ICAS (+) and ICAS (-) groups. Results: This study included 77 patients with acute vertebrobasilar LVO who underwent EVT. Among the study subjects, 24 (31.2%) had an ICAS-LVO. Recanalization was achieved in 19 patients in the ICAS (+) group (79.2%), which was comparable with the ICAS (-) group (84.9%; p = 0.529). However, recanalization using conventional endovascular modalities (stent retriever thrombectomy, contact aspiration thrombectomy, or intra-arterial urokinase infusion) was less successful in the ICAS (+) group (36.8%) than the ICAS (-) group (100.0%; p < 0.001). All the remaining patients in the ICAS (+) group required specific rescue treatments appropriate for ICAS, including balloon angioplasty, stenting, or intra-arterial glycoprotein IIb/IIIa inhibitor infusion to obtain a successful recanalization. Procedural time was not significantly longer in the ICAS (+) group. The rates of favorable outcomes (37.5% vs. 41.5%; p = 0.740), death, and symptomatic intracerebral hemorrhage were not significantly different between the groups. Conclusion: ICAS-LVO was common in patients who underwent EVT for acute vertebrobasilar LVO. Although conventional modalities were often ineffective for vertebrobasilar ICAS-LVO, a comparable recanalization rate could be obtained with ICAS-specific modalities. Recanalization rate and procedural time were comparable, and clinical outcomes did not differ between patients with or without ICAS-LVO.ope

    Endovascular Management for the Treatment of Pancreas Transplant Venous Thrombosis: A Single-Center Experience

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    PURPOSE: To investigate the safety and efficacy of mechanical thrombectomy used as a tool for graft rescue in patients with pancreas graft venous thrombosis (PGVT). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Graft venous thrombosis was discovered in 36 (33%) of 110 patients who underwent pancreas transplantation. Percutaneous aspiration thrombectomy was performed in seven patients (mean age, 31 y; range, 15-36 y) who had complete or severe thrombosis of the splenic vein or superior mesenteric vein seen on postoperative computed tomography. RESULTS: Successful evacuation of PGVT was possible in six of seven patients; the thrombus was partially evacuated in one patient. In this patient, subsequent anticoagulation salvaged the graft, rendering primary and secondary technical success rates as 86% and 100%, respectively. As pancreas grafts were successfully functioning in all seven patients within 1 month after endovascular treatment, the clinical success rate was 100%. There were no procedure-related complications. At the last follow-up evaluation, all seven patients were alive with no graft loss (mean follow-up time, 9.4 mo; range, 3.6-22.2 mo). CONCLUSIONS: Endovascular treatment may be considered in patients with severe PGVT to prevent early graft loss.restrictio

    Prostatic Arterial Embolization for Control of Hematuria in Patients with Advanced Prostate Cancer

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    Nine patients with advanced prostate cancer (stage T4) underwent prostatic arterial embolization (PAE) for refractory prostatic hematuria. Angiograms showed prostatic neovascularity in all cases, and complete PAE was achieved in 8 cases (89% technical success rate). Gross hematuria ceased after PAE in 6 cases, translating to a 67% clinical success rate. There were no PAE-related complications. At 3-month follow-up, 2 cases showed recurrent hematuria, 4 patients had died from PAE-unrelated etiologies, and only 3 patients survived and were without gross hematuria. PAE could represent an alternative option for patients with advanced prostate cancer to control hematuria.restrictio

    Twist and Snail/Slug Expression in Oropharyngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma in Correlation With Lymph Node Metastasis

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    BACKGROUND/AIM: Oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma (OPSCC) could be clinically undetectable despite the relatively large size of lymph node metastases. Here, we aimed to elucidate the correlation of p16 expression with epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) markers. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Radically resected 121 OPSCC and 270 non-OPSCC tissue samples were included in the analysis, and p16, Twist, and Snail/Slug immunohistochemistry was performed. RESULTS: Compared to non-OPSCCs, OPSCCs were significantly associated with lymphovascular invasion, lymph node metastasis, larger maximal diameter of metastatic foci in the lymph nodes, and p16 expression. In addition, p16 expression correlated with high Twist and Snail/Slug expression. CONCLUSION: Expression of EMT markers, such as Twist and Snail/Slug, is related to p16 expression in OPSCC. This might indicate that HPV infection in OPSCCs alters the expression of EMT markers and results in metastases.restrictio

    Cognitive function and oral health-related quality of life in older adults

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    OBJECTIVES: To examine the relationship between cognitive function and self-reported oral health-related quality of life (HRQoL) in community-dwelling older adults. DESIGN: Cross-sectional. SETTING: Community in West Virginia. PARTICIPANTS: Two hundred twenty-six community-dwelling older adults. MEASUREMENTS: Oral HRQoL was measured using the Geriatric Oral Health Assessment Index (GOHAI) (range 12-60), and cognitive function was assessed using a comprehensive neuropsychological test battery. Dental professionals performed oral health examinations. RESULTS: Participants with normal cognitive function had higher GOHAI total scores (mean 55.1), indicating better oral HRQoL, than participants with cognitive impairment without dementia (CIND) (mean 52.3) and mild dementia (mean 51.0). The difference remained significant after controlling for sociodemographic, health status, comorbidity, and clinical dental status covariates. CONCLUSION: Oral HRQoL, as measured using the GOHAI, was better in participants with normal cognitive function than in those with CIND of mild dementia in the population studied.ope
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