1,724 research outputs found

    Effekter av økt temperatur og et framtidig krillfiske på fangstutbytte i Barentshavet - en økosystemmodellering i Ecopath med Ecosim.

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    I løpet av de siste 49 årene har Arktisk blitt varmet opp tre ganger raskere enn gjennomsnittet for verden som helhet. Økende havtemperaturer har en innvirkning på marine økosystemer ved å påvirke primærproduksjon og rekruttering av fisk. I Barentshavets økosystem spiller krill en viktig rolle som et viktig byttedyr for flere økologiske og økonomiske viktige fiskearter. Med stigende temperatur forventes krill og andre arter i Barentshavet å øke i biomasse. Ved bruk av en økosystemmodell (Ecopath med Ecosim) ble det simulert effekter av ulike klimascenarier og fiskedødelighet uten krillfiske. Resultatene viste at fiskedødelighet og temperatur var avgjørende faktorer for endringer i biomasse hos ulike arter i Barentshavet, og disse faktorene varierte avhengig av art og simulerte scenarier. For å imøtekomme det økende behovet for høsting av arter på lavere trofisk nivå ble det simulert et moderat krillfiske, som resulterte i nedgang i biomasse for alle kommersielt beskattede arter. I tillegg ble det simulert et intensivt krillfiske, likt et enbestandsfiskeri, for å undersøke konsekvensene for fangst og førstehåndsverdi sammenlignet med et moderat krillfiske. Resultatene viste at et intensivt krillfiske ville gitt alvorlige negative konsekvenser for fiskeressursene og førstehåndsverdien. Klimaendringer og fiskeriaktiviteter har betydelig innvirkning på økosystemet i Barentshavet, og det er nødvendig med en balansert tilnærming for å opprettholde en bærekraftig utnyttelse av disse ressursene

    Mitochondrial genome of Pseudopotamilla reniformis (Annelida: Sabellidae)

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    Here, we report the complete mitochondrial genome of sabellid Pseudopotamilla reniformis (Bruguière, 1789) (16,408 bp) and comprised of two ribosomal RNAs, the ubiquitous set of 13 protein-coding sequences, and 22 tRNAs. The order of protein-coding genes is consistent with the proposed conserved pattern, which contradicts recent discovery in other members of the family (Sabella spallanzanii in Daffe et al., and Bispira melanostigma in Hornfeck et al., )

    Surviving the Anthropocene: the resilience of marine animals to climate change

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    If marine organisms are to persist through the Anthropocene, they will need to be resilient, but what is resilience, and can resilience of marine organisms build within a single lifetime or over generations? The aim of this review is to evaluate the resilience capacity of marine animals in a time of unprecedented global climate change. Resilience is the capacity of an ecosystem, society, or organism to recover from stress. Marine organisms can build resilience to climate change through phenotypic plasticity or adaptation. Phenotypic plasticity involves phenotypic changes in physiology, morphology, or behaviour which improve the response of an organism in a new environment without altering their genotype. Adaptation is an evolutionary longer process, occurring over many generations and involves the selection of tolerant genotypes which shift the average phenotype within a population towards the fitness peak. Research on resilience of marine organisms has concentrated on responses to specific species and single climate change stressors. It is unknown whether phenotypic plasticity and adaptation of marine organisms including molluscs, echinoderms, polychaetes, crustaceans, corals, and fish will be rapid enough for the pace of climate change

    The peculiar case of Myxicola infundibulum (Polychaeta: Sabellidae): echo from a science 200 years old and description of four new taxa in the Mediterranean Sea

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    AbstractMyxicola infundibulum Montagu, 1808 is the most reported species of its genus, showing an unusually wide distribution from the Mediterranean area to Australia, North Europe, and North America, a situation deriving from a wide synonymizing of numerous species with M. infundibulum. Recently, genetic analysis confirmed that the Australian form of this species is an introduced taxon from the Mediterranean area, while the examined North American specimens were genetically and morphologically different. In the present paper we travel through the history of M. infundibulum from the first descriptions, trying to trace both the origin of this taxon and the origin of its wide distribution, through an analysis of the descriptions of all valid and invalid taxa to date. We also examined material present in the collection of one of the authors previously identified as M. infundibulum, comparing Mediterranean material to some from the English Channel, and material from North America. This led to the erection of four taxa new to science from material recently collected along the Italian coasts, and the restoration of Myxicola pacifica Johnson, 1901. Delimitation of taxa is based only on morphology, and we propose new morphological features to be considered; however, a molecular examination is planned in the near future.http://zoobank.org/urn:lsid:zoobank.org:pub:7CF64CB2-8B9C-4001-BE57-199B5F95213

    An Assessment of The Capabilities of The In-faunal Quality Index (IQI) To Detect Benthic Ecological Change Within Offshore Windfarm Developments

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    Many governments are turning to renewable sources of energy to tackle the current climate emergency and ensure current and future energy demands are met. Offshore wind energy is one of the fastest growing areas of the energy sector, however with increasing areas of the ocean floor being used for wind and other structural installations, the need for effective envi-ronmental monitoring is crucial to ensure sustainable management of these sites. The Water Framework Directive (WFD) is one such monitoring strategy, which includes the Infaunal Qual-ity Index (IQI) method which is used by the United Kingdom to monitor benthic community health within coastal and estuarine (transitional) waterbodies. There are, however, concerns around the IQI’s capability to suitably detect ecological changes within areas modified by struc-tures (such as wind turbine monopiles). Within this investigation the IQI waterbody assess-ment protocol was compared to multivariate community analysis to assess the IQI’s ability to detect ecological change at near and far field waterbody levels within four windfarm develop-ment sites before and after windfarm construction. Findings from this investigation suggest the IQI failed to detect ecological change at a waterbody level with no significant change ap-parent, while multivariate community analysis found significant change at the same spatial and temporal scale. The suggested reasons for the IQI’s inability to detect change in these circumstances are A change in habitat (sediment characteristics) driving community change will not be identified within the IQI model as the reference conditions within the model are derived from sediment characteristics; and the waterbody scale conflates impacted areas with non-impacted areas. Alternatives to the IQI in these scenarios and possible repercussions for these findings are discussed

    Marine invasive alien species in Europe: 9 years after the IAS Regulation

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    Biological invasions, resulting from human activities, exert substantial impacts on ecosystems worldwide. This review focuses on marine invasive alien species (IAS) in Europe, examining the current state, proposing strategies to address the problem, and offering recommendations for enhanced management. Effective management of biological invasions relies on accessible, accurate data to inform decision-making. Information systems such as the European Alien Species Information Network (EASIN), Aquatic Non-Indigenous and Cryptogenic Species (AquaNIS), and World Register of Introduced Marine Species (WriMS) provide comprehensive databases on IAS, but their sustainability requires long-term maintenance, continuous updates, and support. Most countries lack specific monitoring programs for marine IAS, and standardization and improvement of monitoring methods are needed. Port monitoring plays a vital role in the early detection of new arrivals, and recent advancements in molecular techniques show promise for effective IAS monitoring. Risk screening tools are commonly employed to rank taxa based on their invasiveness potential in European regions, but variations in protocols can yield inconsistent results. European impact assessments highlight resource competition, novel habitat creation, and predation as primary mechanisms for negative impacts on biodiversity, while the creation of novel habitats represents a key mechanism for positive impacts. Preventing IAS introductions is critical, and measures such as ballast water treatment systems are implemented to reduce the likelihood of marine introductions. However, understanding introduction pathways remains uncertain for many IAS. Eradication and control efforts for marine IAS have limited success, emphasizing the need for enhanced biosecurity measures. Climate change, especially ocean warming, can intensify IAS impacts on native species and ecosystems. In climate change hotspots, some tropical aliens may, however, compensate for the loss of thermally sensitive natives with similar traits. Therefore, it is imperative to consider the interactions between climate change and IAS in developing effective management and conservation strategies. Enhancing IAS management in Europe entails i) securing adequate funding, ii) expanding the list of IAS of Union Concern to adequately cover marine invasions, iii) learning from countries with successful biosecurity practices, iv) sustaining information systems, v) improving monitoring and early warning systems with innovative technologies, vi) enhancing prediction models, vii) conducting integrated impact assessments and mapping cumulative IAS impacts, and vii) considering the potential benefits of IAS in ecosystem functioning and services

    Biodiversity associated with the commercially important polychaete Diopatra neapolitana

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    [Resumen] El uso de D. neapolitana como cebo vivo en la pesca deportiva convierte a las explotaciones marisqueras gallegas de este poliqueto en una importante fuente de ingresos. Sin embargo, la poca información disponible sobre este recurso hace difícil llevar a cabo una gestión ecosistémica de sus poblaciones. Por ello, el objetivo general de este trabajo es iniciar la recogida de esta información y facilitar así en un futuro el seguimiento de la salud del ecosistema. Para lograrlo se muestrearon en dos ocasiones (otoño de 2022 y primavera de 2023) cuatro hábitats principales, donde habita D. neapolitana dentro del ámbito territorial de la Cofradía de Pescadores de San Juan de Redondela. Estos muestreos consistieron en la identificación y recuento de los macroinvertebrados bentónicos epifaunales asociados a D. neapolitana, así como la recogida de sedimento para la posterior identificación de los taxones infaunales y estudio de la granulometría y contenido en carbono orgánico. Los resultados sugieren un aumento de la densidad de D. neapolitana en primavera, excepto en el hábitat de fango. En cambio, la diversidad de los macroinvertebrados bentónicos asociados a este recurso fue bastante mayor en otoño. Por otra parte, las praderas de Z. marina destacaron frente al resto de hábitats por su alto número de taxones exclusivos. Las clases Bivalvia, Gastropoda y Polychaeta fueron las más diversas.[Resumo] O uso de D. neapolitana como cebo vivo na pesca deportiva convirte ás explotacións marisqueiras galegas deste poliqueto nunha importante fonte de ingresos. Sen embargo, a pouca información dispoñible sobre este recurso fai difícil levar a cabo unha xestión ecosistémica das súas poboacións. Polo tanto, o obxectivo xeral deste traballo é iniciar a recollida desta información e facilitar así nun futuro o seguimento da saúde do ecosistema. Para logralo tomáronse mostras en dúas ocasións (outono de 2022 e primavera de 2023) de catro hábitats principais, onde habita D. neapolitana dentro do ámbito territorial da Cofradía de Pescadores de San Juan de Redondela. Estas mostraxes consistiron na identificación e reconto dos macroinvertebrados bentónicos epifaunais asociados a D. neapolitana, así como a recollida de sedimento para a posterior identificación dos taxóns infaunais e estudo da granulometría e contido en carbono orgánico. Os resultados suxiren un aumento da densidade de D. neapolitana en primavera, excepto no hábitat de lama. En cambio, a diversidade dos macroinvertebrados bentónicos asociados a este recurso foi bastante maior en outono. Por outra parte, os prados de Z. marina destacaron fronte ao resto de hábitats polo seu alto número de taxóns exclusivos. As clases Bivalvia, Gastropoda e Polychaeta foron as máis diversas.[Abstract] The use of D. neapolitana as live bait in sport fishing turns Galician shellfish exploitations of this polychaete into an important source of income. However, the short available information about this resource makes difficult to carry out a ecosystem management of its populations. Therefore, the general objective of this study is to begin collecting this information and thus facilitate the monitoring health of the ecosystem in the future. To achieve this, four main habitats, where D. neapolitana lives within the territorial scope of the Cofradía de Pescadores de San Juan de Redondela, were sampled on two occasions (autumn 2022 and spring 2023). These samplings consisted of the identification and recount of epifaunal benthic macroinvertebrates associated with D. neapolitana, as well as the collection of sediments for the subsequent identification of infaunal taxa and the study of granulometry and organic carbon content. The results suggest an increase in the density of D. neapolitana in spring, except for the mud habitat. Conversely, the diversity of benthic macroinvertebrates associated with this resource was much greater in autumn. On the other hand, Z. marina meadows stood out compared to the rest of the habitats for their high number of exclusive taxa. The Bivalvia, Gastropoda and Polychaeta classes were the most diverse.Traballo fin de grao (UDC.CIE). Bioloxía. Curso 2022/202

    Investigation of the molecular mechanisms which contribute to the survival of the polychaete Platynereis spp. under ocean acidification conditions in the CO2 vent system of Ischia Island (Italy)

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    The continuous increase of CO2 emissions in the atmosphere due to anthropogenic activities is one of the most important factors that contribute to Climate Change and generates the phenomenon known as Ocean Acidification (OA). Research conducted at the CO2 vents of Castello Aragonese (Ischia, Italy), which represents a natural laboratory for the study of OA, demonstrated that some organisms, such as polychaetes, thrive under acidified conditions through different adaptation mechanisms. Some functional and ecological traits promoting tolerance to acidification in these organisms have been identified, while the molecular and physiological mechanisms underlying acclimatisation or genetic adaptation are still largely unknown. Therefore, in this study we investigated epigenetic traits, as histone acetylation and methylation, in Platynereis spp. individuals coming from the Castello vent, and from a nearby control site, in two different periods of the year (November-June). Untargeted metabolomics analysis was also carried out in specimens from the two sites. We found a different profile of acetylation of H2B histone in the control site compared to the vent as a function of the sampling period. Metabolomic analysis showed clear separation in the pattern of metabolites in polychaetes from the control site with respect to those from the Castello vent. Specifically, a significant reduction of lipid/sterols and nucleosides was measured in polychaetes from the vent. Overall results contribute to better understand the potential metabolic pathways involved in the tolerance to OA

    Designation of a neotype for Myxicola infundibulum (Montagu, 1808) (Annelida: Sabellidae) and a new species from the UK

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    The historical context of Myxicola species identification, around the UK and Europe, is reviewed and confusion surrounding the type species for the genus, Myxicola infundibulum (Montagu, 1808), discussed. Myxicola infundibulum is re-described and a neotype designated. A new species, M. polychroma sp. nov., is also described from the UK and is discussed, along with M. infundibulum, in relation to historical synonymised species from the region as well as current species known worldwide. Genetic and morphological details are provided for both species to aid in distinguishing them and determining the validity of other taxa in the future. Myxicola polychroma sp. nov. is distinguished through a combination of non-differentially coloured radiole tips, long, fine pinnulae that terminate below the lower margin of the basal membrane, large, fleshy, triangular radiolar appendages that arise centrally, interramal eyespots, dense, fine notochaetae and uncini with upper teeth 0.6–0.8 × length of the main fang. The type specimens of Myxicola steenstrupi Krøyer, 1856 and the status of that species are also discussed

    Biofouling characteristics in Xinghua Bay of Fujian, China

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    Biofouling is one of the main factors affecting the efficiency and safety of cooling water systems in coastal nuclear power plants. Understanding the population dynamics, succession rules and cumulative effects of major fouling organisms is the basis for targeted prevention and control. A 1-year simulated concrete panel test was conducted from December 2020 to November 2021 in Xinghua Bay, China. A total of 78 species of fouling organisms were recorded by combining the monthly, seasonal, semiannual, annual and monthly cumulative panels, and the community composition was dominated by nearshore warm-water species, making for a typical subtropical inner bay-type community. The fouling organisms had a peak attachment period from June to October. Significantly more attachment was observed during summer (from June to August) than during the other three seasons. The attachment amount in the second half-year (from June to November) was much higher than that in the first half-year (from December to May). The attachment thickness, density, and biomass of the bottom summer panels reached 20 cm, 105,150 ind./m2, and 19,274.50 g/m2, respectively, while those of the bottom annual panels were 40 cm, 27,300 ind./m2, and 17,762.50 g/m2, respectively. The dominant fouling organisms with calcified shells mainly included Amphibalanus reticulatus and Pernaviridis. These species had high attachment amounts,could accumulate attachments for a long time, and even might cause secondary blockage, making them the most detrimental to the safety of a cooling system. Moreover,the seasonal upward growth of hydroids and bryozoans can also significantly reduce the efficiency of cooling water intake. We suggest that targeted prevention and control should be carried out according to the larval attachment period of different dominant groups of fouling organisms during June-October, which can greatly improve the prevention and control efficiency. Strengthening the research on the biological cycle phenomenon of the main species and their main environmental impact factors, and establishing a scientific and effective early-warning model are the governance direction of formulating and implementing scientific pollution prevention and control in the future
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