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    Ergonomic Intervention of Houses Type 36/120 Saves Electricity and Increases Comfort of Occupants in Nuansa Kori Housing Sading Mengwi Badung

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    Development of the housing sector has now spread to the suburban areas ofDenpasar; even some rural areas in Bali have become targets of housingdevelopers. Designing and arranging of houses through ergonomic interventioncomprises one of several efforts for improving the houses' quality in terms oftheir natural comfort. The ergonomic intervention should meet such criteria as tobe technically applicable, less costly, energy saving especially that of electricity,socio-culturally convenience, and environment friendly. This experimental studybeing reported applied a treatment by subject design, in which eight houses wereselected as sample, located in the housing complex of Perumahan Nuansa KoriSading Mengwi Badung. Of the eight sampled houses, each two houses facednorth, south, east and west, respectively. Twenty six occupants of the eightsampled houses were interviewed using a questionnaire. All samples wereselected by stratified random sampling. The ergonomic intervention comprisedremodeling of ventilation and windows of all the sampled houses. Data collectingof objective comfort was carried out before and after intervention i.e. at 8 am, 10am, 12 pm, 2 pm, 4 pm and 8 pm, by measuring temperature, humidity, lightintensity, and airflow. Data of subjective comfort were collected by questionnaire,which had been tested earlier for its validity and reliability. The results showedthat (1) before intervention the average of wet temperature was 23.66 ± 1.36 ºC,after intervention was 23.09 ± 1.20 ºC; (2) before intervention the average of drytemperature was 28.76 ± 1.07 ºC, after intervention was 27.88 ± 0.73 ºC; (3)relative humidity before intervention was 73.44 ± 4.37 %, after intervention was72.63 ± 2.73 %; (4) natural light intensity before intervention was 134.94 ± 71.69lux, after intervention was 229.69 ± 114.53 lux; (5) the average of airflow beforeintervention was 0.10 ± 0.04 m/sc, after intervention was 0.31 ± 0.08 m/sc; and(6) electricity saving resulted in 11% as evidenced by decrease of electricity billby 8%. The conclusions could be arawn are (1) that ergonomic intervention byremodeling ventilation and windows of houses type 36/120 could improveobjective comfort by 12.4% (p<0.05), along with increase of subjective comfort ofthe occupants of the houses facing all directions; dan (2) moreover, electricitysaving resulted in 11% (p<0.05) as evidenced by decrease of electricity bill by 8%(p<0.05). This study suggests that ergonomic intervention should be applied sinceearly in the construction of houses in order to make them cheaper, healthier, andmore comfortable

    Of Hearths and Houses

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    During the 1993 East Texas Archeological Field School conducted at the Tyson site (41SY92) in western Shelby County, the junior author had an opportunity to participate in the excavation of a Caddoan hearth. The work was directed by Linda Lindsay, a graduate student in Anthropology at Southern Methodist University. This paper describes our findings and a few features of hearths and houses. One goal of the 1993 Field School was to explore the area around Feature 3 looking for evidence of a house. This was accomplished by opening a 6 meter by 6 meter unit referred to as Block 1. Feature 3 had been excavated in 1992 and found to be a 1.2 meter in diameter, round, basin shaped pit containing a large amount of daub, bone, and Caddoan pottery sherds. Near the bottom of the pit was a zone of ash. Charcoal and mussel shell from Feature 3 yielded three calibrated radiocarbon dates of about 1425 AD. When Block I was completely exposed, a number of other pits and postholes were seen in plan view. Our activity focused on Feature 9 on the western edge of Block 1. This 1.1 5 meter by O. 9 meter oval hearth was first revealed at 20 cm depth when ash was encountered. The feature contained large amounts of ash from in situ burning, nuggets of fired clay, a small amount of bone, and several burned sherds with ash adhering to their surfaces. The hearth was slightly basin-shaped and approximately 15 cm thick. A discontinuous thin layer of bright orange clay near its bottom was observed. The hearth had been prepared for use by digging a very shallow pit but no intentional clay lining was seen. Two large postholes were found in the area of Feature 9. Feature 17 was discovered beneath the eastern end of the hearth. It was 30 cm in diameter and had a smoothly rounded bottom at 75 cm below ground surface. Feature 12 was a very distinct posthole of similar proportions just west of the hearth. The diameter of F 12 was 27 cm and the depth was 65 cm below surface. How do we understand this feature? Specifically, does Feature 9 represent the central hearth of a Caddoan house? This question is currently difficult to answer because the outside wall of a putative house has not been identified. Possibly, Block l lies entirely inside a large house. The question may be easier to answer after reviewing accounts written by early Europeans visiting the area and reviewing the archeological findings at other East Texas Caddoan sites

    On the performance of massive and woodframe passivehouses in Belgium : a field study

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    In this paper we present the results of a field study in which the indoor climate and the energy use for space heating in 6 passive houses in Belgium were monitored. The test group consisted of 4 houses with a massive shell construction and 2 timber frame houses. 2 houses were inhabited and 4 were used for promotional activities by the builders. The results are compared to the performance predicted by the PHPP method. We can conclude that the results are in good agreement with the predictions and that no significant difference in performance is found between the massive and timber frame constructions

    Sect and House in Syria: History, Architecture, and Bayt Amongst the Druze in Jaramana

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    This paper explores the connections between the architecture and materiality of houses and the social idiom of bayt (house, family). The ethnographic exploration is located in the Druze village of Jaramana, on the outskirts of the Syrian capital Damascus. It traces the histories, genealogies, and politics of two families, bayt Abud-Haddad and bayt Ouward, through their houses. By exploring the two families and the architecture of their houses, this paper provides a detailed ethnographic account of historical change in modern Syria, internal diversity, and stratification within the intimate social fabric of the Druze neighbourhood at a time of war, and contributes a relational approach to the anthropological understanding of houses

    Carbon Dioxide Production in Animal Houses: A literature review

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    This article deals with carbon dioxide production from farm animals; more specifically, it addresses the possibilities of using the measured carbon dioxide concentration in animal houses as basis for estimation of ventilation flow (as the ventilation flow is a key parameter of aerial emissions from animal houses). The investigations include measurements in respiration chambers and in animal houses, mainly for growing pigs and broilers. Over the last decade a fixed carbon dioxide production of 185 litres per hour per heat production unit, hpu (i.e. 1000 W of the total animal heat production at 20 oC) has often been used. The article shows that the carbon dioxide production per hpu increases with increasing respiration quotient. As the respiration quotient increases with body mass for growing animals, the carbon dioxide production per heat production unit also increases with increased body mass. The carbon dioxide production is e.g. less than 185 litres per hour per hpu for weaners and broilers and higher for growing finishing pigs and cows. The analyses show that the measured carbon dioxide production is higher in full scale animal houses than measured in respiration chambers, due to differences in manure handling. In respiration chambers there is none or very limited carbon dioxide contribution from manure; unlike in animal houses, where a certain carbon dioxide contribution from manure handling may be foreseen. Therefore, it is necessary to make a correction of data from respiration chambers, when used in full scale animal buildings as basis for estimation of ventilation flow. Based on the data reviewed in this study, we recommend adding 10% carbon dioxide production to the laboratory based carbon dioxide production for animal houses with slatted or solid floors, provided that indoor manure cellars are emptied regularly in a four weeks interval. Due to a high and variable carbon dioxide production in deep straw litter houses and houses with indoor storage of manure longer than four weeks, we do not recommend to calculate the ventilation flow based on the carbon dioxide concentration for these houses

    Airtightness assessment of single family houses in Belgium

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    Airtight construction lies at the heart of achieving high energy performance in dwellings. But how well does it apply in new construction? This paper presents results from airtightness measurements on 44 randomly selected, standard new built single family houses in Belgium and from 4 case studies including 78 additional measurements. The houses were randomly selected after completion, to assure that standard workmanship was used during construction. Where applicable, the effect of incorporating the attic and garage in the building volume was measured by performing a series of tests in different configurations. The results are compared with those from a previous study in the early 1990's, with a database that was compiled with results from 161 air tightness reports executed on newly built dwellings by private party consultants and with the governmental EPBD-database (1884 measurements). The results show that the mean leakage rate is about 6 ACH(50) for the randomly selected houses and 3 ACH(50) for the houses in the databases. The houses in the databases are measured upon the initiative of the owner. Therefore, the attention to airtight workmanship is substantially higher for these cases than in the randomly selected houses. This clearly demonstrates the difference between 'mainstream' workmanship and results obtained by the 'engaged' market

    Connecting Neighbors: The Role of Settlement Houses in Building Social Bonds With Communities

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    Provides lessons learned from the model of service delivery provided by community settlement houses. Examines how the atmosphere, programs, and activities at settlement houses create, foster, and support relationships among participants

    Competing Auction Houses

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    We consider a model where sellers make repeated attempts to sell an object via two competing auction houses. An auction house that attracts a seller runs a Vickrey auction among a random sample of buyers and collects two fees: a listing fee and, if the object is sold, a closing fee. We characterize equilibria and show that two equilibrium outcomes are possible: a (contestable) monopoly, and a market segmentation between the two competitors.Competing auctions, mediator, listing fee, closing fee
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