12,972 research outputs found

    The education of Women in Graeco-Roman World: space, limits and tradition

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    RESUMEN Los enfoques tradicionales sobre la mujer en el mundo grecorromano se han centrado sobre todo en la situaci├│n jur├şdica, as├ş como tambi├ęn en la adquisici├│n de nuevos derechos y libertades por parte de las mujeres a partir del mundo helen├şstico y la expansi├│n romana. Sin embargo, apenas encontramos monograf├şas que aborden problemas como la educaci├│n, la filosof├şa y la cultura literaria donde ellas sean sujetos visibles, pues se trata de espacios de actuaci├│n donde generalmente se encontraban excluidas. El objetivo de este TFM es precisamente analizar el espacio intelectual, la cultura literaria y las v├şas formativas de las mujeres griegas y romanas en el Mundo Antiguo. Desde este punto de vista, no nos interesar├í tanto conocer cu├íles eran sus capacidades intelectuales cuanto averiguar de qu├ę modo estuvieron presentes en la vida intelectual de su ├ępoca, cu├íles fueron sus intereses literarios y el grado de aceptaci├│n entre sus contempor├íneos.ABSTRACT Traditional approaches to women in the classical Greco-Roman world have focused mainly on the legal situation, as well as the acquisition of new rights and freedoms by women from the Hellenistic world and Roman expansion. However, we hardly find monographs that address problems such as education, philosophy and literary culture where they are visible subjects, since they are spaces of action where they were generally excluded. The objective of this TFM is precisely to analyze the intellectual space, the literary culture and the formative paths of Greek and Roman women in the Ancient World. From this point of view, we would not be so interested in knowing what his intellectual capacities were, how much to find out how they were present in the intellectual life of his time, what were his literary interests and the degree of acceptance among his contemporariesM├íster Del Mediterr├íneo al Atl├íntico: La Construcci├│n de Europa entre el Mundo Antiguo y Medieva

    Politi┼íkumo kriz─Ś. Polis ir individas

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    The article discusses the crisis of the political, treating this phenomenon as an interactive constellation of political, over-political and apolitical factors. The aim is to reconstruct the assumptions of the crisis and highlight its main features in the context of ancient Greece. Under the influence of Dionysian religion, theater was established as a compelling and universally accessible authority to legitimize democracy. Therefore my analysis focuses on the social change after which democracy was no longer perceived as a form of governance but as a form of collective ownership. The article explains how the unbridled demonstration of power quickly erased the long-cherished principle of verbal argumentation and pushed Greeks to practice of power politics. It is shown how, with the establishment of autocracy, parallel interchange between political and anti-political institutions emerged in the Greek polis.Straipsnyje aptariama politi┼íkumo kriz─Ś, traktuojant ┼í─» fenomen─ů kaip ypating─ů politini┼│, antpolitini┼│ ir apolitini┼│ veiksni┼│ s─ůveik─ů. Siekiama rekonstruoti politi┼íkumo kriz─Śs prielaidas, i┼ískiriant antikin─Śs Graikijos kontekstui b┼źdingus ypatumus. D─Śl Dionyso religijos poveikio teatras buvo ─»tvirtintas kaip ─»taigus ir visiems prieinamas autoritetas demokratijai legitimuoti, tod─Śl straipsnyje analizuojami tie socialiniai poky─Źiai, po kuri┼│ demokratija buvo suvokiama jau ne kaip valdymo forma, bet kaip tam tikra kolektyvin─Śs nuosavyb─Śs forma. Ai┼íkinama, kaip ne┼żabotas galios demonstravimas spar─Źiai nutryn─Ś ilgai puosel─Śt─ů ┼żodin─Śs argumentacijos princip─ů ir nublo┼ík─Ś graikus prie j─Śgos politikos i┼ítak┼│. Parodoma, kaip, ─»sitvirtinus autokratijai, graik┼│ polyje pradeda formuotis paralelin─Ś s─ůveika tarp politini┼│ ir antpolitini┼│ institucij┼│

    Hegemony and Empire in Ancient Sicily, c. 410-70 BC

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    This is a study of how the three powers which dominated Sicily in the period 410-70 BC ÔÇô Carthage, the various rulers of Syracuse, and eventually, Rome ÔÇô exercised political power over the weaker Sicilian polities and peoples. The aim is to understand whether any of these ÔÇśsupremaciesÔÇÖ qualified as ÔÇśempiresÔÇÖ, as defined by interference with local autonomy; when powers respected local autonomy, we use the term ÔÇśhegemonyÔÇÖ instead. These categories frequently correspond to the Weberian ideal types of rational-legal and charismatic authority respectively, which are used as tools for explaining the basis of imperial and hegemonic power. Chapter 1 considers rational-legal authority, and demonstrates that while Carthage and Rome developed institutional frameworks to cement their positions over time, there is little evidence (with a few exceptions) that the Syracusan rulers did the same. The next three chapters turn to consider more hegemonic strategies. Chapter 2 looks at economic supremacy ÔÇô the control or appropriation of material resources at the expense of other powers ÔÇô which, it is argued, was primarily achieved through harbour dues and the issuing of coinage. Chapter 3 considers the charismatic authority of individual potentates: the Syracusan tyrants themselves, and the generals acting on behalf of Carthage and Rome. Chapter 4 looks at demographic strategies, including population movements and ideology. Chapter 5 takes a slightly different approach, using two Greek poleis, Akragas and Messana, as case studies to explore how hegemony and empire worked ÔÇśon the groundÔÇÖ. I conclude that while the rulers of Syracuse primarily used charismatic, hegemonic strategies, and the state powers of Carthage and Rome developed rational-legal frameworks over time, the latter two also used hegemonic methods alongside these imperial strategies. Informal, hegemonic strategies were thus fundamental to political supremacy in late Classical and Hellenistic Sicily

    The Disputation: The Enduring Representations in William Holman Hunt's ÔÇťThe Finding of the Saviour in the Temple,ÔÇŁ 1860

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    This interdisciplinary thesis problematizes the Jewish presence in the painting The Finding of the Saviour in the Temple (1860) by William Holman Hunt. This ÔÇťJewish presenceÔÇŁ refers to characters within the painting, Jews who posed for the picture and the paintingÔÇÖs portrayal of Judaism. The thesis takes a phenomenological and hermeneutical approach to The Finding providing careful description and interpretation of what appears in the painting. It situates the painting within a newly configured genre of disputation paintings depicting the Temple scene from the Gospel of Luke (2:47 ÔÇô 52). It asks two questions. Why does The Finding look the way it does? And how did Holman Hunt know how to create the picture? Under the rubric of the first question, it explores and challenges customary accounts of the painting, explicitly challenging the over reliance upon F.G. StephensÔÇÖs pamphlet. Additionally, it examines Pre-Raphaelite and Victorian religious contexts and bringing hitherto unacknowledged artistic contexts to the fore. The second question examines less apparent influences through an analysis of the originary Lukan narrative in conjunction with the under-examined genre of Temple ÔÇťdisputationÔÇŁ paintings, and a legacy of scholarly and religious disputation. This demonstrates a discourse of disputation informing The Finding over and above the biblical narrative. In showing that this discourse strongly correlates with the paintingÔÇÖs objectifying and spectacular properties, this thesis provides a new way to understand The FindingÔÇÖs orientalism which is further revealed in its typological critical reworking of two Christian medieval and renaissance paintings. As a demonstration of the discourse, the thesis includes an examination of Jewish artists who addressed the theme of disputation overtly or obliquely thereby engaging with and challenging the assumptions upon which the disputation rests

    Pontus in Antiquity: aspects of identity

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    The purpose of this thesis is the presentation of the interaction between the successive inhabitants of Pontus in antiquity, indigenous Anatolians, Greeks, Persians and Romans. Limited archaeological evidence cannot determine the precise extent of interaction, although the available information substantiates the notion of a slow, but steady amalgamation. Initially, the intermingling was based on mutual trading links. Although the Hellenic cultural element tended to surface, Eastern factors remained visible. The Mithridatic dynasty was established around the vicinity of Pontus, creating the 'Kingdom of Pontus' which reached its height under Mithridates VI. His administrative and military policy appears to have placed the foundations for the later, Roman corresponding structures. His policies-propaganda reflected the GraecoEastern image of a king, which appealed to the Greek and Persian-Eastern inhabitants of his kingdom, Asia Minor and, to a lesser extent, mainland Greece. This GraecoEastern image might have nourished the concept of a shared history among the inhabitants of Pontus. Their interactions appear to have given rise to an unnamed, local culture, which was enriched with the relevant Roman practices. Around the third century A.D., the Roman administrative patterns might have established an externally defined appellation. During Roman times, Christianity started to be established in Pontus. Although it was not yet a socio-political factor, its non-racial nature prevailed in later centuries. The influence of the Roman-Christian elements can still be observed in the modern Ponti an identity. In antiquity, (lack of) evidence indicates that no group defined themselves as 'Pontics' or 'Pontians' and an internally defined Pontic identity is unlikely to have existed. However, people associated themselves with the geographical area of Pont us, cultural and religious concepts were frequently amalgamated, while the notion of a common descent and a shared history might have been unconsciously fostered. These factors can assist in the understanding of the 'Pontians' today

    Studies in the languages and language contact in Pre-Hellenistic Anatolia

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    This volume focuses on contacts between Anatolian languages within and outside Anatolia. The selected essays, written by members of ongoing research projects on Anatolian languages, present case studies from both the first and second millennia. These include etymological and morphophonological investigations within the framework of Graeco-Anatolian contacts, as well as a critical essay on the possible Anatolian-Etruscan contacts. Alongside strictly linguistic analysis, the essays cover different aspects of cultural contacts (the origin of the word for ÔÇśsaltÔÇÖ in Luwian), toponyms (in Lycia), and religion (the god called King of Kaunos), and are introduced with a detailed overview of the origins of the Anatolian linguistic landscape
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