1,379,847 research outputs found

    Simulation of Energy Consumption in Multi Cluster Wireless Sensor Networks

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    Energy conserving protocols in wireless sensor networks (WSNs), such as S-MAC, introduce multi-cluster network. The border nodes in multi cluster WSNs have more active time than the other nodes in the network; hence have more energy depletion rate. Since battery replacement in most networks is considered difficult, one or more nodes running out of energy prematurely will affect the network connectivity and decrease the overall network performance severely. This paper aims to (1) analyze the energy consumption in a multi-cluster sensor network and compare it to the single cluster scenario (2) investigate the merging time in a single cluster network. The result shows that, in average the energy needed to deliver a packet in the multi cluster networks is about 150% more than the energy needed in the single cluster networks. Moreover, the merging time in the single cluster network using schedule offset as the merging criteria in average is slightly smaller than one in the network using schedule ID as the merging criteria

    Energy Consumption Reduction of a Chiller Plant by Adding Evaporative Pads to Decrease Condensation Temperature

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    ProducciĂłn CientĂ­ficaThe high energy consumption of cooling systems justifies the need for strategies to increase the efficiency of the facilities, in order to reduce the related CO2 emissions. This study aims to improve the performance and reduce the energy consumption of an 8.6 MW air cooled chiller. This installed capacity is biased due to the screw compressors, of 2.98 Energy Efficiency Ratio (EER) at full load (characteristics provided by the manufacturer). The chiller unit has been modified by placing evaporating cooling pads before the condensing coils. The chiller has been monitored for three months, recording over 544,322 measurements (5 min-step data), with and without the evaporative cooling pads, to assess the performance. Data comparison has been done by selecting two days (with and without evaporative panels) with the same health care load and temperatures. Implementing the proposed strategy yields an improvement in the European Seasonal Energy Efficiency Ratio (ESEER) from 3.69 to 4.83, while the Total Equivalent Warming Impact (TEWI) decreases about 1000 tCO2. Energy savings of up to 32.6 MWh result into a payback period lower than 2 years.Junta de Castilla y LeĂłn (project VA272P18

    Energy Consumption of Lactating Mothers: Current Situation and Problems

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    Recommendations on the adequacy of nutrient intake indicate that lactating mothers have higher nutritional needs than do pregnant mothers. High nutrient intake is necessary to help mothers recover after childbirth, produce milk, and maintain the quantity and quality of breast milk. It also prevents maternal malnutrition. Research has shown, however, that the dietary energy consumption of mothers during lactation was significantly lower than that during pregnancy. The current study explored the factors associated with decreased nutritional intake during maternal lactation. The study was conducted in March–April 2013, and the subjects were mothers with infants aged >6 months. Results revealed that the factors causing low dietary energy consumption among breastfeeding mothers were poor nutritional knowledge and attitude toward high energy intake requirements during lactation, lack of time to cook and eat because of infant care, reduced consumption of milk and supplements, dietary restrictions and prohibitions, and suboptimal advice from midwives/health personnel. Beginning from the antenatal care visit, health personnel should conduct effective counseling on the importance of nutrient intake during lactation. Advice should be provided not only to mothers, but also to their families to enable them to thoroughly support the mothers as they breastfeed their infants

    Global Energy Consumption

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    Energiekonsum; Primärenergieträger; Regulierung; Welt

    Exploring Energy Consumption Issues for video Streaming in Mobile Devices: a Review

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    The proliferation of high-end mobile devices, such as smart phones, tablets, together have gained the popularity of multimedia streaming among the user. It is found from various studies and survey that at end of 2020 mobile devices will increase drastically and Mobile video streaming will also grow rapidly than overall average mobile traffic. The streaming application in Smartphone heavily depends on the wireless network activities substantially amount of data transfer server to the client. Because of very high energy requirement of data transmitted in wireless interface for video streaming application considered as most energy consuming application. Therefore to optimize the battery USAge of mobile device during video streaming it is essential to understand the various video streaming techniques and there energy consumption issues in different environment. In this paper we explore energy consumption in mobile device while experiencing video streaming and examine the solution that has been discussed in various research to improve the energy consumption during video streaming in mobile devices . We classify the investigation on a different layer of internet protocol stack they utilize and also compare them and provide proof of fact that already exist in modern Smartphone as energy saving mechanism

    Visualizing Energy Consumption of Radiators

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    Heating is a significant expenditure of many households today but the actual power consumption of the heating devices are seldom recognized. To help people understand and reflect upon their domestic energy consumption, we have designed an electrical radiator that emits heat entirely from light bulbs. This appliance responds to temperature changes in the room via sensors. The idea was to combine the product semantics of lamps and radiators and direct focus on the latter neglected product category. We argue that by re-designing domestic appliances adding means to visualize energy consumption in engaging and interesting ways it is possible to make energy utilization less abstract and easier to comprehend

    Power Consumption and Energy Estimation in Smartphones

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    A developer needs to evaluate software performance metrics such as power consumption at an early stage of design phase to make a device or a software efficient especially in real-time embedded systems. Constructing performance models and evaluation techniques of a given system requires a significant effort. This paper presents a framework to bridge between a Functional Modeling Approach such as FSM, UML etc. and an Analytical (Mathematical) Modeling Approach such as Hierarchical Performance Modeling (HPM) as a technique to find the expected average power consumption for different layers of abstractions. A Hierarchical Generic FSM “HGFSM” is developed to be used in order to estimate the expected average power. A case study is presented to illustrate the concepts of how the framework is used to estimate the average power and energy produced

    The relationships between total, electricity and biofuels residential energy consumption and income in Latin America and the Caribbean Countries

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    Controlling residential energy consumption in Latino America and the Caribbean countries is crucial to reduce CO2 emissions, as it has an important energy-saving potential, and its environmental controls are difficult to displace offshore. The aim of this study is to analyze the relationships between residential energy consumption and income for 22 Latin America and the Caribbean countries in the period 1990-2013. For this purpose, residential energy environmental Kuznets curves (EKC) are estimated by taking into account the heterogeneity among the countries by including two control variables: one representing the possible effect of urbanization on residential energy use and the second representing the possible effect of petrol production. The EKC are estimated for total residential energy consumption, for residential electricity consumption and for biofuels and waste energy consumption. The elasticities of total, electricity and biofuels residential energy consumption with respect to income are calculated for each year and country, analyzing the different behavior between countries. Obtained results show that the EKC hypothesis is confirmed for the residential sector when the biofuels energy consumption is considered. Moreover, the results also show that the turning point has been reached in some countries. Nevertheless, the EKC is not confirmed when electricity or total residential energy consumption is considered. Thus, for total residential energy consumption, the elasticity is always positive, growing also as the income does. For electricity energy consumption, the elasticity is also always positive, since although the elasticity decreases until a threshold, from an per capita income value it begins to grow

    Gelişmekte olan piyasalarda enerji tüketimi ve büyüme ilişkisinin panel kantil regresyon ile incelenmesi: VISTA ülkeleri örneği

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    Energy consumption and economic growth relationship is an important topic for global economy. Most of researchers investigated this relationship with different methods on different macro-economic data. These methods are including not only time-series econometrics but also panel data analysis. Moreover, they analyzed different countries or country groups classified by OECD, World Bank or any other economic organizations. The aim of study is the relationship between energy consumption and economic growth with panel quantile regression method on VISTA countries (Vietnam, Indonesia, South Africa, Turkey and Argentina). Estimations are made annually for 1985 – 2013 period. Dependent variable is GDP per capita growth and independent variables are logarithmic energy consumption indicators which are Oil Consumption, Coal Consumption, Hydroelectricity Consumption and Primary Energy Consumption. Results show that the effects of logarithmic energy consumption variables are changing on economic growth for different quantiles (τ = 0.25; 0.50; 0.75; 0.90). In conclusion, effect of oil consumption on economic growth is falling at high quantiles of GDP growth. In contrast, effect of hydroelectricity consumption and primary energy consumption on economic growth is rising at high quantiles. But, there is not a statistical significant effect of coal consumption on economic growth at any quantile
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