RISE – Research Institutes of Sweden
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    Large- and small-scale fire test of a building integrated photovoltaic (BIPV) facade system

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    The number of installed photovoltaic (PV) modules has increased significantly over the last years, and using available building surfaces to generate electricity by integrating PV modules in the construction is an attractive option. Building integrated photovoltaics (BIPV) or other vented claddings can spread fires rapidly to large parts of a building if the fire is allowed to propagate. To investigate this hazard, a large-scale SP FIRE 105 façade fire test was conducted. A façade measuring 4000 mm × 6000 mm covered with BIPV modules was exposed to flames that represent the fire plume from a window in a room at flashover. The results from the test show that critical failures, like falling objects and vertical flame propagation, can be expected in such constructions. These results highlight the importance of details in mounting of BIPV-façades and to require proper documentation from relevant fire tests of such systems. Small-scale cone calorimeter tests were conducted on the studied BIPV module to provide material properties of the combustible parts of the installation. These aspects should be considered when planning new or when retrofitting façades, to prevent escalation of fires. The results presented are, however, only valid for the configuration that was tested. Other BIPV-façades should also be investigated to study how these constructions can be built safely in the future with regard to critical details.This research is supported by the Fire Research and Innovation Centre (FRIC), funded by the Research Council of Norway (Project no. 294649) and project partners. The authors would also thank the C40 Urban Village project led by OBOS with support from Multiconsult, Hunton and Innovation Norway for initiating, planning and financing the test and sharing data. </p

    Bone healing, tissue effects and biomechanical fixation of ‘smooth’ ceramic-coated zirconia-based dental implants : An in vivo study in sheep

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    In this study, the effect of coating a zirconia-based ceramic oral implant with a material of the same composition to build a relatively smooth surface with three different porosity features was evaluated in vivo, at 4 and 8 weeks after implantation in sheep femoral condyles. The results showed that at 4 weeks, the three coated zirconia-based implants with smoother surface topographies behaved similarly and promoted faster bone healing compared to the results obtained in the same zirconia- or titanium-based implants, but with rougher sandblasted and acid-etched surfaces. In addition, higher pull-out strengths were estimated in the coated-ceramic sample compared to titanium sandblasted and etched one. The present work showed that zirconia coatings with smoother surfaces than those conventionally used in the market improved the early phase of bone healing, paving the way for shorter treatment times and improved patient outcomes. The research leading up to these results was undertaken in the framework of the SISCERA project ( http://siscera-project.eu ) funded by the European Community ( H2020-FTIPilot-2016 , grant agreement no. 737954 ).</p

    Independent assessment in trials with automated vehicles – Drive Sweden Policy Lab Case 6

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     The purpose of case 6 of the Drive Sweden Policy Lab 2023-25 is to examine the scope of an independent assessment in trials with automated road vehicles. The Swedish Transport Agency's regulations and general advice on permission to conduct trials with automated vehicles have recently been amended by adding a general advice that the applicant´s risk assessment should in certain cases be supplemented with a statement from an independent assessor regarding traffic safety (TSFS 2021:4, last amended by TSFS 2022:82). The regulation enables trials with automated vehicles in Sweden since 2017 and clarifies the circumstances under which it is reasonable safe to conduct trials with such vehicles. In the beginning of 2023, a policy lab was initiated with Swedish, Danish, Norwegian, and Austrian actors, which acts as a platform for collaborative policy development by relevant actors facing a common policy related challenge. Vehicle manufacturers, transport providers and operators, authorities, potential assessors, and applied research examine together the scope of independent assessments for trials with automated vehicles. The policy lab generates guidelines for independent assessments by clarifying and exemplifying the application and scope of such assessments in trials with automated vehicles. The policy lab considers knowledge and previous experiences from other transport sectors, from various countries with independent assessment already in place and from relevant EU and UNECE regulations, such as the requirements of independent assessment for the international market e.g., for a type-approval in the EU (ADS compliance assessment) or the proposed process for audits from the working group Validation Methods for Automated Driving as part of WP29. Drive Sweden Policy Lab case 6 is partly financed by Sweden´s innovation agency Vinnova, through its strategic innovation program Drive Sweden, and partly by the project parties.The SIPs are financed by Sweden's innovation agency Vinnova, Formas, a research council for sustainable development, and the Energy Agency. Lindholmen Science Park AB hosts Drive Sweden.This project is partly financed by Vinnova through Drive Sweden, partly by the parties within Drive Sweden Policy Lab case 6.</p

    The Chimera Revisited: Wall- and Magnetically-Bounded Turbulent Flows

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    This review is a first attempt at bringing together various concepts from research on wall- and magnetically-bounded turbulent flows. Brief reviews of both fields are provided: The main similarities identified are coherent (turbulent) structures, flow generation, and transport barriers. Examples are provided and discussed.This research received no external funding.</p

    Feiing av ildsteder

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    Sweeping of fireplaces The aim of the study is to obtain a data and knowledge base to provide an overview of how sweeping of fireplaces should be regulated, as well as mapping how chimney and fire place sweeping is regulated in other European countries, above all the Nordic and Baltic countries. Furthermore, it is desirable to look at existing research and investigate to which extent sweeping of fireplace will have a fire preventive effect. A literature review was carried out, searching for existing research that could be used to determine what should be viewed as best practice. In the literature review it became clear that sweeping of fireplaces is a topic with limited attention, and the literature was therefore insufficient, and no conclusion could be drawn based on this. Through contact with professional networks, a project carried out by the local sweeping service in Trondheim was found, which shed light on how sweeping of fireplaces affects the energy efficiency of a stove. If soot builds up on the inside of the fireplace, this will insulate the fireplace which in turn yields a lower energy output to the room. Another possible result of the insulating property of the soot is that the combustion takes place at a higher temperature, which makes the combustion cleaner and more complete, which in turn reduces the number of combustible particles in the smoke ducts. Without further testing, it is difficult to say whether the sum of these effects is positive or negative for the overall fire safety of the system. Through contact with professional personnel experience-based issues have been discussed from a fire technical point of view. This involves issues such as: - Incorrect handling of the fire place and user habits - Sweeping and energy efficiency A literature review has been carried out on combustion products produced under different combustion conditions. Furthermore, it has been identified that the part of the combustion products that pose the greatest risk of starting chimney fires is the organic carbon particles. These are produced at a low combustion temperature or during low-oxygen combustion. For obtaining optimal combustion from a fire technical perspective, correct handling of the fire place and good user habits are important. Based on the limited existing research, it is difficult to provide a conclusion on whether sweeping of fireplaces will have a fire preventive effect. In order to determine this, it is necessary to perform research focusing on this topic.Dette prosjektet er finansiert av Direktoratet for samfunnssikkerhet og beredskap (DSB) og Direktoratet for byggkvalitet (DiBK) som en del av prosjektporteføljen under forskningsavtalen mellom DSB og RISE Fire Research.</p

    Biologisk metanisering av syngas från förgasning och pyrolys - lovande koncept mot implementering

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    Biological methanation of syngas from pyrolysis and gasification – promising concepts for implementation The need for increased biogas production is significant, and in the EU, there are plans for a substantial expansion in the coming years through the RePowerEU initiative. Part of the increase will come from the expansion of conventional digestion technology, where organic materials such as food waste, manure, and crop residues are used for biogas production. However, to meet the future increased demand, it is also necessary to utilize more difficult-to-digest substrates, such as biomass rich in lignocellulose, for biogas production. This could be forest residues such as branches and tops, sawdust, or bark. This type of substrates cannot be used in a conventional digestion process, and other technology chains are therefore required to convert such biomass into biomethane. This can be done by first converting the biomass into syngas through a thermochemical process such as gasification or pyrolysis. This is followed by a methanation process where the syngas is converted into biogas, and finally, the gas is upgraded to reach biomethane quality. These types of technology chains are not currently available on a commercial scale, but they have been demonstrated, for example, through the Gobigas project, where gasification was followed by catalytic methanation for biomethane production. As full-scale implementation of catalytic methanation of bio-syngas has not yet been achieved, thereis a need to develop alternative conversion technologies that can more cost-effectively achieve the methanation of woody biomass. One possible opportunity for to this is to apply biological methanation instead of a catalytic process. A biological process comes with several advantages, including a greater ability to handle contaminants, higher selectivity in the conversion of syngas, and operation at relatively low temperature and pressure, which simplifies material selection and reactor design. RISE, together with its partners, are developing a concept based on biological methanation of syngas. This project has examined the biological process's ability to handle contaminants in syngas through continuous experiments in carrier-filled trickle bed reactors with an active volume of 5 liters. The process's ability to handle and break down contaminants is an important parameter that can affect and simplify the design of the gas cleaning that occurs after gasification or pyrolysis. Another aspect of the project has been to put the experimental results into context at the concept and system level. Different production techniques for syngas have been mapped out, which could be combined with biological methanation. Based on the mapping, three types of plants have been selected for more detailed analyses of techno-economics, carbon footprint, and opportunities for increased carbon efficiency. The methanation experiments lasted for 552 days, and overall, it was a stable process with high turnover of syngas and high methane production over a long time. There have been some operational disturbances, mainly related to the supply of gas to the process (i.e. delivery of gas cylinders). However, biochemical inhibition or disturbances have been rare, demonstrating a high robustness for biological methanation of syngas. The breakdown of contaminants has been excellent in the process, with levels decreasing below the detection limit. At the same time, as contaminants have been continuously added to the process, microbiology has been able to maintain high turnover of hydrogen and carbon monoxide to methane. The specific methane production was high both during the reference period without contaminants and during the experimental periods with added contaminants. During long periods, the specific methane production has been around 4 L CH4/Lbed volume /day, which is about 4 times higher than our previously achieved results. The transition to thermophilic temperature and using carriers with higher effective surface area has contributed to this increase. During the project, three types of plants have been selected for more detailed analysis: 1) Gasification with Cortus process, which generates a relatively clean syngas with minimal purification needs before biological methanation. There is no need for co-location with a heating plant, but it is an advantage if there is access to the district heating network to sell waste heat. 2) Gasification with Bioshares' concept, where the gasifier is integrated into a larger cogeneration plant and where the produced syngas is purified with an RME-scrubber before biological methanation. Co-location with a larger cogeneration plant provides interesting synergies and integration opportunities, but also sets the boundaries for where the plants can be located. 3) Slow pyrolysis according to Envigas' concept, where the primary product is biochar and where the produced syngas is seen as a by-product. The syngas contains some impurities but generally requires no other purification than cooling to the right temperature (condensing out tars) before being added to biological methanation. This type of plant differs from plant types 1-2 in that the syngas formed is not the primary product, and the syngas has a relatively low energy value compared to the others. Syngas from plant types 2 and 3 contains some hydrocarbons (C1-C3) that are considered inert over the methanation step and therefore do not negatively affect the process. This means that heavier hydrocarbons do not need to be removed upstream, which would likely have been required with catalytic methanation. This leads to a higher system efficiency, and the need for reactor capacity for biological methanation decreases since there is less gas to be processed (more of the end-product consists of hydrocarbons already formed during the thermochemical conversion upstream). For all plant types, downstream of the methanation step, there is a need for further gas purification and upgrading. During the upgrading step carbon dioxide is separated to reach the product specification required by the end user. If long distance distribution is required a final process step consisting of a liquefaction plant for the production of liquid biogas (LBG) can be added to the concept. As another option, the systems can be supplemented with treatment of the carbon dioxide flow out of the upgrading plant, where the flow is processed by drying, compression, and cooling to produce liquid carbon dioxide. For plant type 2, where benzene is present in the syngas, this gas is expected to be separated with relatively high precision in the system and thereby generate a small flow of liquid benzene as a side product. The carbon dioxide emissions for the final product LBG are in the range of 1.6 to 2.6 gCO2-eq/MJLBG, which compares favorably to other types of second-generation biofuels. Compared to fossil gas, the reduction in greenhouse gas emissions is 96-97%. The carbon efficiency of the systems can be significantly increased if excess carbon dioxide is utilized either through BECCS or BECCU. If the carbon dioxide stream from the upgrading plant is processed into liquid carbon dioxide, the production cost is estimated to be 187-204 SEK/ton. If the product is to be sent to permanent storage the cost for transportation and storage would need to be added to estimate total cost of BECCS, but this is out of scope for the current project.. Assuming that BECCS is applied and that the entire carbon sink is allocated to the final product LBG, this will result in negative emissions in the range of -35 to -104 gCO2-eq/MJLBG. An alternative is to utilize excess carbon dioxide directly in the methanation process by boosting incoming gas with extra hydrogen. Hydrogen and carbon dioxide are then converted by methanogens, which generates extra methane. Since the addition of extra hydrogen is assumed to come from electrolysis, the additional methane production can likely be classified as electrofuel, so-called e-methane. The techno-economic evaluation results in a production cost ranging from 740 to 1300 SEK/MWhLBG, including all sensitivity scenarios. The lower price scenarios include a lower investment cost, which can be assumed to represent cases with public investment support. Overall, a large part of the scenarios are considered to be within the range of what can be considered market relevant production costs. This leads to the conclusion that there is techno-economic potential at this stage to justify continued development of concepts based on biological methanation of syngas. With scaling up and continued development in the right direction, the concepts may eventually lead to cost-effective utilization of forest residues for the production of biomethane at a commercially relevant scale. The next step in the development is scaling up to pilot scale, which will take place during 2023-2025 through an EU-funded project and will be carried out by RISE, Wärtsilä, Cortus and Swedish Gas Association. A pilot plant for biological methanation will then be operated with syngas from Cortus' gasifier in Höganäs.Projektet har finansierats av deltagande partners och Energimyndigheten (projektnummer 51438-1).</p

    Impact of functional integration and electrification on aluminium scrap in the automotive sector : A review

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    The shift towards vehicle electrification must progress while simultaneously addressing sustainability challenges related to lightweighting, which is the intensifying need for high-quality primary aluminium, which demand cannot be met with recycled material with traditional compositional limits. To understand and predict the characteristics of future scrap mixtures, it is crucial to comprehend the evolving composition of new components and associated trends. This insight helps alloy design that accommodates higher impurities and, thus, a more thoughtful strategy for materials process development research. This review delves into the impact of electric motors, batteries, and functional integration. Notably, the analysis herein indicates a rise in magnesium (Mg) and a decrease in copper (Cu) and silicon (Si) contents in the future scrap mixtures due to more Al–Mg alloys such as those found in the 5xxx (Al–Mg) and 6xxx (Al–Mg–Si) series and an outflux of high Al–Si–Cu engine alloys. Gigacastings might counteract this trend based on their Si content and adoption and promote circularity principles by reducing alloy varieties. Reduced Si content in future scrap mixtures is also expected to boost sustainability since significant CO2 emissions from recycled alloys come from melting, controlled by the latent heat of fusion of the scrap mix. © 2024 The AuthorsVinnova funded the current work under the project ClimAl contract number 2022-02602. The project's industrial partners are acknowledged: Gränges Finspång AB, Polestar Performance AB, Stena Recycling AB, RISE Research Institute of Sweden AB and AP&amp;T Sweden AB.</p

    Malmbanan 2025 - Slutrapport

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    För att kunna genomföra optimeringarna krävdes viss utveckling av M2. Indata tillhandahölls dels av Trafikverket, dels av LKAB. För att hitta en bra lösning tillräckligt snabbt byggdes först en tidtabell upp genom att fler och fler tåg lades in iterativ, och sedan optimerades den giltiga tidtabellen utifrån flera olika målfunktioner. Denna metod beskrivs i ”Metod”.Resultaten var att flödena som lagts in kunde genomföras samtidigt som banarbetena fick den tid som krävdes. När LKAB utvärderade tidtabellen visade det sig dock att malmtågen flyttat på sig på ett sätt som innebär att det skulle krävas fler lok än dagens trafik. För att stoppa optimeringen från att göra sådana omflyttningar krävs nya villkor, vilka beskrivs i ”Framtida arbete”. Även villkor för att modellera hastighetsnedsättningar vore bra. Den sista men kanske viktigaste insikten från projektet är att ett närmare iterativt samarbete, där LKAB och Trafikverket i större utsträckning är med och analyserar olika optimerade tidtabeller och bestämmer hur optimeringsparametrarna ska justeras, nog hade resulterat i ett bättre slutresultat.Projektets budget vad 200 000 kr, varav 100 000 kr finansierades av Trafikverket och 100 000 kr av LKAB.</p

    Ecological risk assessment of invertebrates caught in Swedish west-coast fisheries

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    Ecological risk assessments are important as scientific support for the implementation of ecosystem-based fisheries management. Marine invertebrates are important to ecosystem structure and function and may be sensitive to fishing pressure. Some are also of increasing commercial value – but have hitherto not been paid much attention to in ecological risk assessments. Here, catches of invertebrates in Swedish west-coast fisheries with demersal trawls and creels are examined from an ecological risk assessment perspective. It is found that few non-commercial invertebrate species have been regularly recorded in onboard observer programs. Furthermore, for being a comparatively well-studied area, it is striking to find that out of the 93 species included, 56% could be classified as data deficient in terms of known attributes needed to perform basic ecological risk assessments. This implies that there is little or no available information on the basic life history traits important for estimating productivity. Additionally, onboard observer data for invertebrates are inadequate beyond targeted commercial species for robust statistical analysis on volumes generated over time and between fisheries. However, over 18% of the studied species are categorized as red-listed on the Swedish IUCN Red List. Combined with the few records available in observer data programs, the study illustrates the need to pay more attention to marine invertebrates in fisheries monitoring programs and research, especially bycaught and non-commercial invertebrate species

    IEA/HPT Annex 53 Advanced Cooling/Refrigeration Technologies Development– Final Report

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    This report documents work done under the International Energy Agency (IEA) Heat Pumping Technologies collaborative project IEA Annex 53, Advanced Cooling/Refrigeration Technologies Development. Research and development institutes in five Heat Pumping Technologies member countries—Germany, Italy, the People’s Republic of China, South Korea, and the United States of America—shared information on a range of advanced, lower-carbon heat pump/air-conditioning (AC) technologies. This annex was launched in response to the anticipated heavy growth in worldwide demand for AC and refrigeration by 2050. The technical scope of Annex 53 was very broad by design. It is unlikely that there will be only one or even a few so-called right solutions to the challenge. Therefore, the participants were free to investigate a wide range of possible technology solutions. Research, development, and demonstration efforts focused on advanced, higher-efficiency technology solutions for future AC and refrigeration systems. Technologies included those based on enhancements of the time-proven vapor compression cycle, electrochemical compression, absorption and adsorption (including compressor-assisted) systems, and others based on nontraditional cycles (including magnetocaloric, elastocaloric, electrocaloric, heat pipe–assisted caloric cycles, and more). Technology readiness levels for the investigated technology options ranged from approximately 2 to about 8 by the end of the annex

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