1,457 research outputs found

    Core Competencies for Undergraduate Community-Engaged Researchers

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    Undergraduate community-engaged research (UCEnR) is a growing trend which VCU has proactively pursued by providing grants for UCEnR projects and assimilating UCEnR into interdisciplinary curricula. However, a definitive sense of core competencies for undergraduate community-engaged researchers has not yet been established. To that end, this literature review answers the question, What skills should UCEnR students have

    Criterion-referenced mCAFT cut-points to identify metabolically healthy cardiorespiratory fitness among adults aged 18–69 years: An analysis of the Canadian Health Measures Survey

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    Objective: This study aimed to develop and validate health-related criterion-referenced cutpoints for the modified Canadian Aerobic Fitness Test (mCAFT), a field-based measure to predict cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) among adults (18–69 years). Methods: Criterionreferenced mCAFT cut-points were developed using nationally representative data from cycles 1 (2007–09) and 2 (2009–11) of the Canadian Health Measures Survey (CHMS). Receiver operating characteristic curves were used to identify age- and sex-specific cut-points for measured waist circumference, blood pressure, and high-density lipoprotein. Cut-points were validated against metabolic syndrome using a fasted sub-sample (n=1,093) from cycle 5 (2016– 17). Results: 4,967 participants (50% women) were retained for the main analyses. The mCAFT cut-points ranged from 28 to 43 mL•kg–1•min–1 (AUC: 0.60-0.87) among men, and 23 to 37 mL•kg–1•min–1 (AUC: 0.61-0.86) among women. The likelihood of meeting the new mCAFT cut-points decreased with an increase in the presence of metabolic risk factors. In total, 54% (95%CI: 42 to 67%) of Canadian adults met the new mCAFT cut-points in 2016–17. Conclusion: This study developed and validated the first health-related criterion-referenced mCAFT cutpoints for metabolic health among Canadian adults aged 18–69 years. These mCAFT cut-points may be useful in health surveillance, clinical, and public health settings. Novelty bullets We developed and validated new criterion-referenced cut-points for the modified Canadian Aerobic Fitness Test to help identify adults at potential risk of poor metabolic health. These new cut-points could help support national health surveillance efforts

    Masked Bobwhite Recovery: The Need for a Multifaceted Approach

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    Masked bobwhite (Colinus virginianus ridgwayi) is a critically endangered quail historically found in the Sonoran grasslands of southern Arizona, USA and Sonora, Mexico. Native populations of masked bobwhite may already be extinct in the wild, but captive populations exist in the United States at G. M. Sutton Avian Research Center (Oklahoma, USA), Buenos Aires National Wildlife Refuge (Arizona, USA), and various zoos. The 47,000-hectare Buenos Aires National Wildlife Refuge, located in south-central Arizona, was established primarily for reintroduction of this bird. Recovery efforts within the refuge boundary in the 1980s and 1990s were initially successful but suffered debilitating setbacks that ultimately resulted in failure. Substantial releases were suspended in 2005. Improved habitat restoration efforts and promising conditioning and release techniques led to the belief that reintroductions could again be attempted and successful. In 2016–2017 plans were developed to increase captive propagation and reinitiate release efforts. Releases began in 2018. Over-winter survival of birds released in 2018–2019 was encouraging, and reproduction of wild birds was documented in 2019. An existing base of wild birds established from these releases could help masked bobwhite populations recover in the state. Habitat restoration, better methods of rearing, release, and conditioning, and improved production from captive facilities also inspire hope that a full recovery of the species in Arizona is possible

    The contribution of visual information to the perception of speech in noise with and without informative temporal fine structure

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    Understanding what is said in demanding listening situations is assisted greatly by looking at the face of a talker. Previous studies have observed that normal-hearing listeners can benefit from this visual information when a talker’s voice is presented in background noise. These benefits have also been observed in quiet listening conditions in cochlear-implant users, whose device does not convey the informative temporal fine structure cues in speech, and when normal-hearing individuals listen to speech processed to remove these informative temporal fine structure cues. The current study (1) characterised the benefits of visual information when listening in background noise; and (2) used sine-wave vocoding to compare the size of the visual benefit when speech is presented with or without informative temporal fine structure. The accuracy with which normal-hearing individuals reported words in spoken sentences was assessed across three experiments. The availability of visual information and informative temporal fine structure cues was varied within and across the experiments. The results showed that visual benefit was observed using open- and closed-set tests of speech perception. The size of the benefit increased when informative temporal fine structure cues were removed. This finding suggests that visual information may play an important role in the ability of cochlear-implant users to understand speech in many everyday situations. Models of audio-visual integration were able to account for the additional benefit of visual information when speech was degraded and suggested that auditory and visual information was being integrated in a similar way in all conditions. The modelling results were consistent with the notion that audio-visual benefit is derived from the optimal combination of auditory and visual sensory cues

    Extending the M_(bh)-sigma diagram with dense nuclear star clusters

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    Abridged: Four new nuclear star cluster masses, M_nc, plus seven upper limits, are provided for galaxies with previously determined black hole masses, M_bh. Together with a sample of 64 galaxies with direct M_bh measurements, 13 of which additionally now have M_nc measurements rather than only upper limits, plus an additional 29 dwarf galaxies with available M_nc measurements and velocity dispersions sigma, an (M_bh + M_nc)-sigma diagram is constructed. Given that major dry galaxy merger events preserve the M_bh/L ratio, and given that L ~ sigma^5 for luminous galaxies, it is first noted that the observation M_bh ~ sigma^5 is consistent with expectations. For the fainter elliptical galaxies it is known that L ~ sigma^2, and assuming a constant M_nc/L ratio (Ferrarese et al.), the expectation that M_nc ~ sigma^2 is in broad agreement with our new observational result that M_nc ~ sigma^{1.57\pm0.24}. This exponent is however in contrast to the value of ~4 which has been reported previously and interpreted in terms of a regulating feedback mechanism from stellar winds.Comment: 6 pages, 2 figures. Submitted 08/08/2011 to MNRAS, first referee report received 19/01/2012, accepted 10/02/201
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