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    Empirical modelling of the solar spectral influence on photovoltaic devices for improved performance forecasting

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    Photovoltaic performance modelling is essential for the successful development of PV systems. Accurate modelling can inform system design and financing prior to construction, help with fault detection during operation, and improve the grid penetration of PV energy. Whereas the models to account for the effects of broadband irradiance, temperature, and so forth on PV performance are well established, those for the influence of the solar spectrum, known as spectral correction functions (SCFs), suffer a range of limitations. Existing models are typically based on proxy variables used to represent the solar spectrum, which are restricted in the amount of information they contain on the prevailing spectral irradiance conditions. Furthermore, validation of these models is restricted to climates that are not representative of the UK, where a broader range of spectral irradiance conditions is experienced due to its high northern latitude and frequent overcast or partially overcast skies. Some studies have explored the possibility of characterising measured spectra with parameters such as the average photon energy to develop SCFs. However, these studies are limited in terms of their validation scope, such as duration of field data and types of PV module, and extension to a predictive model. In this project, two new SCFs are developed and validated in two distinct climate regions for multiple PV technologies. The first is based on the average photon energy alone (f(APE)), while the second is based on both the average photon energy and the depth of the 650--670nm water absorption band (f(APE,e)). Using data from Go (Golden, Colorado, USA), the former is shown to cut the prediction error for aSi modules by around 40% relative to a single-variable air mass SCF and a double-variable air mass and clearness index SCF. The latter, f(APE,e), addresses issues raised in the literature regarding the reliability of APE as a spectral characterisation index. Using the same data, f(APE,e) is shown to cut the prediction error by up to 60% with respect to a comparable multivariable proxy SCF based on the air mass and atmospheric precipitable water content. These results are also validated at a new test site built at the University of Nottingham as part of this project. Although the overall errors are greater due to site-specific system characteristics, the relative improvements achieved by the APE-based models with respect to the proxy-based models are maintained in both climate regions. The proposed spectral correction approaches can be integrated into wider PV performance models to improve their performance forecasting accuracy

    Uncovering the sports livestreaming platform value co-creation process

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    Sport Livestreaming Platforms (SLSPs) have emerged as a new paradigm, offering a synchronised, interactive experience to sports enthusiasts. Despite their popularity, little is known about the processes through which viewers co-create value with service providers during their engagement on these platforms. More specifically, there are several research gaps: 1) empirical research using mixed methods on the value co-creation process at SLSPs is scarce; 2) the typology of SLSP viewer engagement behaviour is vaguely described in previous studies; 3) there is a lack of a comprehensive value co-creation model that explains how value is co-created by viewers with other actors on SLSPs; 4) a validated measurement scale, specifically tailored for evaluating the value co-creation process within the context of SLSPs, is notably absent. These research gaps lie in the understanding of how diverse viewers interact with various actors to derive value through their engagement experiences on SLSPs. The gaps are significant as the insights derived from studies could greatly assist firms running SLSPs to tailor their services more effectively, further enhancing user experience and engagement. This research addresses these research gaps by using a mixed-method design and single case studies to investigate four key areas: (1) classifying sport viewers based on their engagement behaviours on SLSPs; (2) proposing a Value-in-Engagement Experience Process (VEEP) model; (3) developing a valid measurement scale for VEEP on SLSPs, and (4) testing the model and identifying the value co-creation process across various viewer groups on SLSPs. This research adopts a two-phase design. Phase one is for viewer classification. It applies a feedforward neural network (FFNN) to predict viewing duration and uses a two-step clustering analysis to analyse viewer behavioural data. This results in the classification of viewers into four categories: content consumers, super co-creators, co-creators, and tourists. In the second phase, a comprehensive VEEP model, developed through topic modelling analysis and semi-structured interviews, is proposed. VEEP is conceptualised as a multidimensional component model to reflect that viewers' evaluation of the viewing experience is based on how they are directly and indirectly engaging with the value propositions of multiple service providers in the SLSPs. VEEP represents four actors’ value proposition dimensions (streamer endorsement, player performance, platform information quality, and viewer passion), one experience dimension (viewing experience), and seven perceived value dimensions (sense of community, flow, enjoyment, self-identity, player identification, streamer proximity, and knowledge acquisition). The measurement scales of VEEP were developed and validated based on two quantitative research studies and through an exploratory principal factor analysis and a confirmatory maximum likelihood factor analysis. The validated model was tested for each of the four types of viewers based on structural equation modelling. Findings include identifying four distinct viewer groups and proposing the multidimensional VEEP model. Furthermore, a reliable measure of VEEP is developed, unique experiences and perceived values by different viewer types are uncovered, and the meso-level value co-creation within the SLSPs context is explored. This research provides theoretical contributions in four ways: 1) This study is the first attempt to empirically use mixed methods to examine the value co-creation process of viewing service experience in the context of SLSPs by considering multiple actors’ value propositions; 2) This study reveals that there are four distinct segments within the SLSPs that can be differentiated based on their transactional and non-transactional engagement behaviour. Thus, this study makes contributions to the existing literature on engagement behaviour; 3) The current study proposed a multidimensional model and measurements of the viewers’ value co-creation process, which help extend the existing value co-creation studies into the context of SLSPs; 4) This differentiation underscores the variability in viewers’ real-time interactions, indicating that viewers’ engagement behaviours can serve as filters for the service experience and value outcomes. The practical contribution of this study points towards an evolved operational strategy that incorporates advanced analytics, refined audience segmentation, and a deep understanding of the diverse ways viewers engage with SLSPs. It underscores the importance of understanding the variability of viewer typologies and their distinct engagement behaviours, and perceived value derived from interacting with multiple actors during the co-creation process. Meanwhile, for SLSP firms, understanding the unique value propositions from the internal and external actors involved in co-creating the viewing experience can enable better strategizing and decision-making in providing customised services to viewers

    Evaluation of underutilised plants and agro-industrial by-products as potential substrates for rearing black soldier fly larvae, Hermetia illucens (Diptera: Stratiomyidae) for inclusion in Asian seabass (Lates calcarifer) diets

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    The current model, which uses fish meal (FM) as the primary source of protein for fish, cannot be maintained indefinitely. As a result, there is a need for further research into alternative sources that are both high in protein and fat. The larvae of the black soldier fly (BSFL, Hermetia illucens) have attracted research attention due to their nutritional values and ability to be reared on a wide variety of organic waste. This study aims to assess the potential of BSFL meal (BSFLM) as a substitute for FM in the diet of Asian seabass (Lates calcarifer). Two underutilised plant species, Moringa oleifera (MO) and Sesbania grandiflora (SG), and four agro-industrial by-products (AIBPs), including soybean waste (SBW), wheat pollard (WP), rice bran (RB), and milk-extracted coconut meat (MECM), either single or in combination (MECM:SG), were evaluated as feed substrates for rearing BSFL. Different substrates significantly affected (p < 0.05) the final weight, size, larval development time, and nutrient composition of BSFL. Larvae fed with RB had the highest weight gain, with high concentrations of protein and fat (50.8 and 31.8 g/100g DM, respectively). The highest wet weights of larval biomass (659 – 682 g) were achieved on high protein substrates (MO, SG, and SBW). Larvae reared on AIBP had higher levels of essential amino acids (around 27 g/100g DM) than those reared on leaf-meals (around 23.5 g/100g DM), particularly WP- and RB-fed larvae. Meanwhile, larvae had a high content of saturated fatty acids (SFA), ranging from 54 to 93% of total FA. Larvae fed WP and RB had the highest levels of polyunsaturated fatty acids of about 26% of total FA. In the present study, based on the optimal nutrient composition and growth performance of the larvae, day 17 was selected as the best time for harvesting BSFL for all single feed substrates. On the mixed feed substrates (MECM:SG), the crude protein (CP) and fat of larvae increased with the increase of SG and MECM, respectively, ranging from 33.5 – 54.3 g/100g DM and 12.9 – 33.8 g/100g DM. The optimum day to harvest the mixed substrate-fed larvae was on day 19, due to the larval wet weight, higher larval CP content, and the best conversion of feed substrate into larval biomass (23%), particularly for the BSFL fed on the 1:1 ratio of MECM:SG substrate. The BSFL on this mixed substrate was further evaluated for its potential to replace FM in the diet of Asian seabass. The Asian seabass was fed diets containing 70% FM in the reference diet (RD) and 30% BSFLM and 50.4% FM in the test diet (TD). Each diet contained 0.5% chromium oxide as a digestible marker to determine the apparent digestibility coefficient (ADC) of BSFL. The ADC of protein and fat of the BSFL in juvenile Asian seabass were 71% and 88.7%, respectively. Three test diets with varying levels of BSFL inclusion (20, 40, and 60% of the FM replacement) were prepared to evaluate the growth performance of the Asian seabass, which equated to 74, 148, and 222 g BSFL per kg of diet, respectively. A total of 280 juvenile (46.77 ± 0.08 g/fish) Asian seabass were randomly assigned to 20 tanks (300-L), with five replicated groups for each treatment. Fish were fed for 90 days, and the bulk weight of the fish was recorded every fifteen days. There was no significant difference (p > 0.0839) in weight gain of fish across treatments, but a decreasing trend of weight gain was observed as BSFL levels increased in the diets. Fish fed with BSFL20 showed the best weight of 113.53 ± 5.68 g, followed by those fed on a control diet (111.22 ± 2.89 g), and the lowest was in fish fed BSFL60 (98.77 ± 4.52 g). Likewise, there were no significant effects of BSFLM inclusion on the survival rate, final weight (FW), average daily gain (ADG), serum biochemical parameters, nutrient composition, or sensory test of the flesh. The only exception was the feed conversion ratio, which increased with the increase of BSFLM in diets (p = 0.0257). The study revealed that the optimal FM replacement in the diet of Asian seabass was greater than 20% but less than 30% without affecting fish performance. The findings of this study show the production of BSFL with high nutritional value using underutilised local plants and agro-industrial by-products has the potential to be used in the diet of Asian seabass. Similar research on other cultured species could be conducted to develop a novel and sustainable source of nutrients for future aquafeed formulations

    Bacterial biofilm interactions with human immune cells

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    The human immune system is vast, and ranges from physical barriers to cellular mediators which coordinate to protect the host from the environment and pathogens. Bacterial cells have been shown to interact with various immune receptors which contribute to pathogen recognition, clearance and memory. Importantly, C-type lectin receptors (CLRs) interact with polysaccharides and are involved in the innate stages of immune recognition and decision-making during infection. Specifically, the CLRs MR, Dectin-2 and DC-SIGN all interact with high-mannose structures, which are abundant in multiple pathogens. Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a ubiquitous, Gram-negative bacterium that causes opportunistic infection in immunocompromised hosts, and is particularly associated with both diabetes and cystic fibrosis patients. Additionally, Staphylococcus aureus is a commensal organism and a common resident of the skin microbiome. P. aeruginosa and S. aureus pose a burden to the global healthcare system as ESKAPE organisms, and possess the ability to switch between a planktonic, free-swimming growth mode to biofilm, characterised by development of bacterial communities within an extracellular matrix (ECM). Our lab has previously demonstrated that both P. aeruginosa biofilms and purified biofilm carbohydrates from PAO1 biofilm-overproducing mutants, are able to interact with CLRs DC-SIGN, MR and Dectin-2, which all play a role in early immune decision making and modulation. During this study, we were able to optimise assays to confirm binding of these lectins to ECM polysaccharides from P. aeruginosa, namely Pel and Psl, as well as introduce a new species, S. aureus (SH1000), into our in vitro biofilm model which displayed potential GalNAc ligands. Due to binding artifacts identified in the culture medium, P. aeruginosa biofilm growth was optimised in DMEM-BSA. Binding of all three CLRs was maintained for whole biofilms in this new medium, but to purified product, only DC-SIGN binding was observed. Optimisation of this work is ongoing. To investigate cellular interactions during infection, a 3D co-culture model using a skin-like collagen matrix was designed and optimised to investigate interaction of human immune cells (monocyte-derived dendritic cells, moDCs) with P. aeruginosa (PAO1) biofilms in the context of cytotoxicity, cytokine production and surface marker expression. In this model, moDCs maintained high viability up to 24 h when cultured with live bacteria, although cytokine profiles were altered in the presence of bacteria. Specifically, chemoattractant protein MCP-1 was specifically downregulated in the presence of bacteria compared to other inflammatory cytokines (TNF-α, IL-1β) which were upregulated in the same conditions. Neither cytotoxicity nor cytokine profile was altered in the absence of DC-SIGN, indicating a certain level of redundancy in this context, contrary to earlier binding data. Additionally, surface markers (HLA-DR, CD11b, DC-SIGN, MR) were downregulated in the presence of PAO1 compared to uninfected cells when analysed by flow cytometry. After further investigation, this reduction was shown to be independent of secreted bacterial proteases, LPS stimulation or the general interaction of collagen with the immune cells. The findings displayed during this study have provided novel contributions to our understanding of the immune response to bacterial biofilms, in context of polysaccharide interaction with CLRs and whole biofilms with immune cells in a wound-like setting, and have given us some exciting insight into how bacteria modulate immune responses during chronic infection. Although not without limitations, the work conducted here provides some interesting routes for future investigation, potentially highlighting new avenues for therapeutic research and disease control

    Deciphering the role of BMP4 signalling and gene regulation in the specification of human liver progenitor cells

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    Early hepatic specification and organogenesis can be modelled in vitro using human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs). These models apply differentiation protocols to direct hiPSCs through all the key developmental stages to accurately reflect in vivo development. Bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) and fibroblast growth factor (FGF) signalling are crucial for the specification of hepatic progenitors during early liver development. While the signalling cascades of these two morphogens are well characterized, the mechanisms by which they promote hepatic cell fate choice and hepatic gene expression in anterior foregut endoderm (FE) cells is not very well understood. In this project, we characterize hiPSCs-based model of early liver development and apply it to understand the role of BMP signalling in hepatic specification. We confirm that BMP4 signalling is also necessary for liver progenitor cells (LPCs) specification from FE during hiPSCs differentiation. Using RNA sequencing (RNA seq.) we examine transcriptome changes induced by BMP4 during the transition from FE to LPC stage. Overrepresentation analysis (ORA) and gene set enrichment analysis (GSEA) analysis revealed early activation of hepatocyte-specific functions such as lipid and protein homeostasis, haem metabolism or coagulation, while at the same time, cell adhesion and locomotion related genes are downregulated indicating preparation for cell migration out of the forming liver bud. We also notice upregulation of all four FGF receptors upon BMP signalling indicating at possible cross talk between the two pathways. The RNA seq. also detected a number of BMP4 upregulated transcription factors (TFs), several of these TFs are known for their roles in multiple developmental processes. Among them TBX3, previously reported to have a role in hepatic specification in mice, and two other TBX family members: TBX2 and TBX20. As a preliminary screen, we used a published, optimized protocol for creating inducible knockdown hiPSC lines to assess the importance of TBX and other TFs for the process of LPC specification. Double knockdown of TBX3 and TBX20 TFs significantly disrupted the hepatic induction process as shown by decreased expression of early hepatic genes such as TTR, AFP, AAT and ALB. Further studies are necessary to confirm and further characterize the role of TBX TFs for hepatic specification. Our study demonstrates that application of hiPSCs derived models for the study of development can aid the understanding of molecular mechanisms driving early liver specification and improve our understanding of human embryology and organogenesis. This knowledge can also be used to created more efficient differentiation platforms that can yield more mature, functional and clinically relevant populations of hiPSC-derived hepatocytes

    Exploring the relationship among stress, psychological wellbeing, and performance in healthcare professionals and healthcare students

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    Background: The prevalence of high stress in healthcare professionals (HCPs) and healthcare students has gained immense attention over the past decade; and more so since the onset of the COVID-19 pandemic. High levels of stress have been shown to have adverse consequences on the psychological wellbeing, and aspects related to performance, in both HCPs and healthcare students, and particularly in the nursing sector. While prior quantitative research has demonstrated a significant relationship among stress, psychological wellbeing and work performance in HCPs worldwide, there is a need to better understand the factors entailed in this dynamic relationship, and gain more in-depth insight from a qualitative perspective too, particularly in nurses working for the National Health Service (NHS). Likewise, such factors warrant further exploration in nursing students too as they comprise a highly stressed population as compared to students in other fields due to the prevalence of complex and challenging issues that start to arise early in their education and training. Besides exploring the various stressors and factors associated with stress and other aspects of psychological wellbeing and performance, it is also important to look into the various coping strategies and resources that are employed in nursing staff and students within the context of stressful situations, including their uptake and views of available wellbeing courses or other sources of support offered within the healthcare settings. Aim: Following an Introduction (Chapter 1) to the key constructs and background pertinent to the current PhD project, the thesis presents a scoping review (Chapter 2) intended to look into psychological wellbeing intervention studies in NHS employees in terms of outcomes associated with improved psychological wellbeing and aspects related to work performance. The next chapter (Chapter 3) presents the core theoretical and practical aspects of the Methodology employed in the three studies which follow: Study 1 (Chapter 4) was intended to cast light into the relationship among stress, psychological wellbeing, aspects of work performance, and coping in nurses working for the NHS. Study 2 (Chapter 5) evaluated the effectiveness and acceptability of an eight-week mindfulness-based cognitive therapy programme (MBCT) delivered to NHS employees. Study 3 (Chapter 6) explored the relationship among perceived stress, coping strategies, emotional intelligence, and self-efficacy in UK nursing students. Finally, the findings across all studies and their implications are integrated in the General Discussion (Chapter 7) wherein an account of the project strengths and limitations is offered along with future directions for research and practice. Method: A mixed-method design was adopted across all three studies for data collection and analysis; quantitative data has been derived through validated self-report questionnaires via an online survey platform. Qualitative data has been collected through semi-structured interviews conducted via Microsoft Teams, including also a series of focus-groups in Study 3. Study 2 adopted a pre-/post- intervention, mixed-methods design, with quantitative assessments obtained at baseline (pre-intervention) and post-intervention and qualitative data obtained through interviews post intervention. Results: In study 1, regression analysis demonstrated a significant positive relationship between stress and impaired work performance; a significant negative relationship between stress and work satisfaction; a significant negative relationship between stress and overall work activity impairment; including a partially mediating role of emotional intelligence between stress and impaired work performance. Thematic analysis revealed the presence of various stressors pre and during the global pandemic, with workload being a major factor; impact of stress on several aspects of psychological wellbeing (in terms of low mood or depression, feelings of frustration, difficulty switching off, anxiety, lifestyle changes, and negative work-life balance); impact of stress on work performance (in terms of inefficient delivery of tasks, poor decision making skills, concentration difficulties, limited attention span, increased errors, forgetting important information, and feelings of frustration towards other colleagues); seeking social support as a major coping mechanism adopted by majority of nurses (from peers, seniors, professionals, and loved ones); receiving support from the organisation (including line managers) although some staff reported lack of adequate support. Uptake of certain wellbeing interventions was reported, but some staff reported lack of awareness and other barriers associated with engagement such as long waiting lists, lack of time, or simply not feeling the need to participate). With regard to study 2, Wilcoxon Signed Rank test findings revealed at post-intervention stage significant reductions in depression and stress, and a significant increase in levels of mindfulness and overall quality of life. Emerged themes reflected beneficial perceived changes in stress and other aspects of psychological wellbeing or state and perceived acceptability of the MBCT programme, while offering recommendations for improvement in future implementation. In study 3, a weak negative correlation was revealed between problem-focused coping and stress; a strong positive correlation between stress and avoidance coping; and no association was found between stress and emotion-focused coping. Emotional intelligence and self-efficacy had a positive significant correlation; a negative association was found between stress and emotional intelligence; and a strong negative correlation between stress and self-efficacy. Finally, a weak positive correlation was found between problem-focused coping and emotional intelligence; and between problem-focused coping and self-efficacy. Further, emotional intelligence did not moderate or mediate the relationship between self-efficacy and stress. Emerged themes highlighted various stressors experienced by nursing students, with balancing between academic and clinical placements being the major source of stress; the impact of stress on psychological wellbeing (in terms of low mood, feelings of demotivation, feelings of frustration with oneself and others around them, feeling overwhelmed difficulties switching off and experiencing low self-esteem); seeking social support as the most common coping strategy (from peers, teachers, university welfare services, professionals, and loved ones); and high perceived self-efficacy. Findings from focus-groups revealed a mixture of problem-focused and emotion-focused coping strategies when placed under stressful academic and placement situations. Conclusions: The combined pattern of quantitative and qualitative findings across all three studies has demonstrated high stress levels among HCPs and students, along with associated negative effects on psychological wellbeing and work or academic performance. However, it also placed emphasis on the significance of personal resources (EI, coping strategies, and self-efficacy) as well as job resources for improving one’s psychological wellbeing and aspects related to one’s work or academic performance. While stress is an inevitable aspect in healthcare settings, the NHS organisations and educational institutions should consider providing enhanced support for improving personal and organisational resources in healthcare staff and students in order to promote or improve their psychological wellbeing and performance

    Developing planning tools to overcome barriers to environmental behaviour

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    Responding to climate change has been challenging for everyone. While people express concerned about the environmental issue, yet they often fail to act on these concerns Research on pro-environmental behaviours and climate change has identified public perceptions and intentions as relevant determinants of behaviour, yet people do not always act on their intentions. This thesis aims to address the intention-behaviour gap between pro-environmental intentions and behaviour by examining the barriers to pro-environmental behaviours and using these to inform behavioural strategies using implementation intentions (Imps) to reduce the gap. The first study of this thesis explored the perceived barriers to pro-environmental behaviours, at the individual and collective level. Based on a classification of barriers by Gollwitzer and Sheeran (2006) a conceptual framework of barriers to goal completion was proposed. Findings indicated that, problems with remembering to act, and changing habits were highly prevalent within the barriers for individual pro-environmental behaviours. Whereas barriers related to differences of opinion and transferring guilt to others (e.g., others unwilling to change habits, favouring convenience) were the most common barriers to collective pro-environmental behaviours. Additionally, the classification of barriers indicated that for both individual and collective action, the main problems were related to the first engagement stage: getting started. The findings indicated that collective and individual behaviours face different barriers. The implications of the first study was the need for behavioural strategies to help people remember to engage with pro-environmental behaviours, one way to achieve this can be using planning tools such as implementation intentions (Imps). Thus, within this thesis three studies were developed (study two, three, and four) exploring the use of (Imps) to promote pro-environmental behaviours. Study two assess the use of visual imagery cues to make Imps memorable. Findings indicated that Imps had no impact on behaviour, but the presentation of images did make people reflect on whether pro-environmental behaviours could be part of their habitual life. Study three and four assessed the use of a new form of collective Imps, different from the one standardly assessed in the literature, to promote pro-environmental behaviours. In the experiments the Imps groups had if-then plans to help them engage with the goal-directed behaviours (e.g., If I encounter X, then I will do Y). Study three assessed the use of collective Imps (e.g., “If we notice our laptops are fully charged, then we will unplug them, and we will remind others to do the same”) to promote energy saving behaviours and study four used Imps formatted with shielding if-then action plans (e.g., “If I have leftovers, then I will try to eat them within the next two days and I will discuss my efforts with others”) to promote the reduction of food waste in households. Results indicated no effect of Imps on behaviour but showed behaviour changes over time in all experimental groups. For the literature on Imps, this implies that Imps may not effectively promote certain behaviours. Findings also indicate that the mere information about what behaviours can lead to the desired pro-environmental goal can impact behaviour change. For policymaking, results suggest that understanding people’s perceptions of barriers to sustainable behaviours are relevant for developing optimal policies. While Imps are not effective, just having people reflect on pro-environmental behaviour is effective in occasioning positive behaviour over time. Furthermore, encouraging habit-formation strategies that aim not only to start but also maintain engagement with pro-environmental behaviours could contribute to the battle against environmental issues

    Walkability index and ridership of the Bus Rapid Transit (BRT) line stations in Malaysia

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    This project aims to investigate the existing conditions of walking environment around the Bus Rapid Transit (BRT) Sunway Line stations in Malaysia by establishing Walkability Index specifically to evaluate walking environment around the stations and identifying mitigation measures by producing a travel mode shift model based on the perspective of potential BRT commuters around the stations. However, the walking environment in the BRT catchment area were barely assessed. Hence, this study develops a visual assessment to assess the walking environment around BRT and it is then computed to develop the Walkability Index for the BRT stations to understand the current performance where a set of parameters were created and a Visual Assessment Form which is intended to assess the walkways, junctions and BRT stations. The commuter’s perception and expectation were also considered as an additional weight in computing the Walkability Index. This research also provides an in-depth consideration on travel mode shift from using private transport to using public transport, especially advocating for the active transportation as the mode of choice, where a forecasting model to predict the likelihood of an individual of using BRT by investigating the commuters’ travel mode choice behaviors

    Factors affecting the perception and intention of Singaporeans to adopt mHealth application: An Empirical study

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    This research provides empirical evidence on the relationship among various factors which affect the intention of mobile health application(mHealth) adoption among Singaporean users. Mobile Health applications have become ubiquitous in the healthcare industry, covering a wide range of disease and clinical use cases. Therefore, this paper aims to examine the factors that influence mHealth adoption among users in Singapore using a modified conceptual model. The constructs of the conceptual model are extracted from various technology acceptance models, including Unified Theory of Acceptance & Usage of Technology(UTAUT), Technology Acceptance Model(TAM), Theory of Reason Action (TRA), Theory of Planned Behaviour(TPB), Innovation Diffusion Theory (IDT). Research has shown that mHealth has enormous potential to grow. Despite the mHealth usage record being low, most users held a positive attitude toward mHealth adoption. This study will provide insight for health system & mHealth Industry players to understand users’ perceptions towards mHealth adoption and beneficial in strategizing marketing plans and improving the adoption rate. Secondly, it aims to identify users’ concerns which can be the barrier for innovation health institutions & mHealth industry players to achieve a competitive advantage in the health care industry. This study is conducted using Qualtric online survey platform, to comprehend users' perceptions toward intention to adopt mHealth. The regression model is employed to test the hypothesis on the influence of selected constructs Perceived Usefulness (PU), Perceived Ease of Use (PEU), Social Influence (SI), Facilitating Condition (FC), Trust, and Price Value (PV) on local users mHealth adoption decision. The study result shows that Perceived Ease of Use (PEU) and Price Value (PV) has a significant influence on Singaporean users’ intention to adopt mHealth, whereby Price Value (PV) is the strongest predictor among them. The study recommended that mHealth industry player formulate strategies that focus on two constructs that tested significantly affect mHealth adoption decision to improve profitability. On the other hand, regulators are advised to reference other countries that have developed matured mHealth system adoption to improve healthcare delivery


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