2,421 research outputs found

    An adaptive non-raster scanning method in atomic force microscopy for simple sample shapes

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    It is a significant challenge to reduce the scanning time in atomic force microscopy while retaining imaging quality. In this paper, a novel non-raster scanning method for high-speed imaging is presented. The method proposed here is developed for a specimen with the simple shape of a cell. The image is obtained by scanning the boundary of the specimen at successively increasing heights, creating a set of contours. The scanning speed is increased by employing a combined prediction algorithm, using a weighted prediction from the contours scanned earlier, and from the currently scanned contour. In addition, an adaptive change in the height step after each contour scan is suggested. A rigorous simulation test bed recreates the x-y specimen stage dynamics and the cantilever height control dynamics, so that a detailed parametric comparison of the scanning algorithms is possible. The data from different scanning algorithms are compared after the application of an image interpolation algorithm (the Delaunay interpolation algorithm), which can also run on-line.We would like to acknowledge the support of the Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council (EPSRC) (grant nos. EP/I034882/1 & EP/I034831/1)

    Dengue epidemic in southern Vietnam, 1998.

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    A widespread epidemic of dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF) occurred in southern Vietnam in 1998, with 438.98 cases/100,000 population and 342 deaths. The number of DHF cases and deaths per 100,000 population increased 152.4% and 151.8%, respectively, over a 1997 epidemic. Dengue viruses were isolated from 143 patient blood samples; DEN-3 virus was identified as the predominant serotype, although a resurgence of DEN-4 was noted

    Discrete Model of Ideological Struggle Accounting for Migration

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    A discrete in time model of ideological competition is formulated taking into account population migration. The model is based on interactions between global populations of non-believers and followers of different ideologies. The complex dynamics of the attracting manifolds is investigated. Conversion from one ideology to another by means of (i) mass media influence and (ii) interpersonal relations is considered. Moreover a different birth rate is assumed for different ideologies, the rate being assumed to be positive for the reference population, made of initially non-believers. Ideological competition can happen in one or several regions in space. In the latter case, migration of non-believers and adepts is allowed; this leads to an enrichment of the ideological dynamics. Finally, the current ideological situation in the Arab countries and China is commented upon from the point of view of the presently developed mathematical model. The massive forced conversion by Ottoman Turks in the Balkans is briefly discussed.Comment: 24 pages, with 5 figures and 52 refs.; prepared for a Special issue of Advances in Complex System

    Charge-ordered ferromagnetic phase in manganites

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    A mechanism for charge-ordered ferromagnetic phase in manganites is proposed. The mechanism is based on the double exchange in the presence of diagonal disorder. It is modeled by a combination of the Ising double-exchange and the Falicov-Kimball model. Within the dynamical mean-field theory the charge and spin correlation function are explicitely calculated. It is shown that the system exhibits two successive phase transitions. The first one is the ferromagnetic phase transition, and the second one is a charge ordering. As a result a charge-ordered ferromagnetic phase is stabilized at low temperature.Comment: To appear in Phys. Rev.

    A numerical study of compact approximations based on flat integrated radial basis functions for second-order differential equations

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    In this paper, we propose a simple but effective preconditioning technique to improve the numerical stability of Integrated Radial Basis Function (IRBF) methods. The proposed preconditioner is simply the inverse of a well-conditioned matrix that is constructed using non-flat IRBFs. Much larger values of the free shape parameter of IRBFs can thus be employed and better accuracy for smooth solution problems can be achieved. Furthermore, to improve the accuracy of local IRBF methods, we propose a new stencil, namely Combined Compact IRBF (CCIRBF), in which (i) the starting point is the fourth-order derivative; and (ii) nodal values of first- and second-order derivatives at side nodes of the stencil are included in the computation of first- and second-order derivatives at the middle node in a natural way. The proposed stencil can be employed in uniform/nonuniform Cartesian grids. The preconditioning technique in combination with the CCIRBF scheme employed with large values of the shape parameter are tested with elliptic equations and then applied to simulate several fluid flow problems governed by Poisson, Burgers, convection-diffusion, and Navier-Stokes equations. Highly accurate and stable solutions are obtained. In some cases, the preconditioned schemes are shown to be several orders of magnitude more accurate than those without preconditioning

    Nonlinear Response of a Kondo system: Direct and Alternating Tunneling Currents

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    Non - equilibrium tunneling current of an Anderson impurity system subject to both constant and alternating electric fields is studied. A time - dependent Schrieffer - Wolff transformation maps the time - dependent Anderson Hamiltonian onto a Kondo one. Perturbation expansion in powers of the Kondo coupling strength is carried out up to third order, yielding a remarkably simple analytical expression for the tunneling current. It is found that the zero - bias anomaly is suppressed by an ac - field. Both dc and the first harmonic are equally enhanced by the Kondo effect, while the higher harmonics are relatively small. These results are shown to be valid also below the Kondo temperature.Comment: 7 pages, RevTeX, 3 PS figures attached, the article has been significantly developed: time - dependent Schrieffer - Wolff transformation is presented in the full form, the results are applied to the change in the direct current induced by an alternating field (2 figures are new

    High-order fluid solver based on a combined compact integrated RBF approximation and its fluid structure interaction applications

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    In this study, we present a high-order numerical method based on a combined compact integrated RBF (IRBF) approximation for viscous flow and fluid structure interaction (FSI) problems. In the method, the fluid variables are locally approximated by using the combined compact IRBF, and the incompressible Navier-Stokes equations are solved by using the velocity-pressure formulation in a direct fully coupled approach. The fluid solver is verified through various problems including heat, Burgers, convection-diffusion equations, Taylor-Green vortex and lid driven cavity flows. It is then applied to simulate some FSI prob- lems in which an elastic structure is immersed in a viscous incompressible fluid. For FSI simulations, we employ the immersed boundary framework using a regular Eulerian computational grid for the fluid mechanics together with a Lagrangian representation of the immersed boundary. For the immersed fibre/membrane FSI problems, although the order of accuracy of the present scheme is generally similar to FDM approaches reported in the literature, the present approach is nonetheless more accurate than FDM approaches at comparable grid spacings. The numerical results obtained by the present scheme are highly accurate or in good agreement with those reported in earlier studies of the same problems

    Compact approximation stencils based on integrated flat radial basis functions

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    This paper presents improved ways of constructing compact integrated radial basis function (CIRBF) stencils, based on extended precision, definite integrals, higher-order IRBFs and minimum number of derivative equations, to enhance their performance over large values of the RBF width. The proposed approaches are numerically verified through second-order linear differential equations in one and two variables. Significant improvements in the matrix condition number, solution accuracy and convergence rate with grid refinement over the usual approaches are achieved

    Scattering Theory of Photon-Assisted Electron Transport

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    The scattering matrix approach to phase-coherent transport is generalized to nonlinear ac-transport. In photon-assisted electron transport it is often only the dc-component of the current that is of experimental interest. But ac-currents at all frequencies exist independently of whether they are measured or not. We present a theory of photon-assisted electron transport which is charge and current conserving for all Fourier components of the current. We find that the photo-current can be considered as an up- and down-conversion of the harmonic potentials associated with the displacement currents. As an example explicit calculations are presented for a resonant double barrier coupled to two reservoirs and capacitively coupled to a gate. Two experimental situations are considered: in the first case the ac-field is applied via a gate, and in the second case one of the contact potentials is modulated. For the first case we show that the relative weight of the conduction sidebands varies with the screening properties of the system. In contrast to the non-interacting case the relative weights are not determined by Bessel functions. Moreover, interactions can give rise to an asymmetry between absorption and emission peaks. In the contact driven case, the theory predicts a zero-bias current proportional to the asymmetry of the double barrier. This is in contrast to the discussion of Tien and Gordon which, in violation of basic symmetry principles, predicts a zero-bias current also for a symmetric double barrier.Comment: 15 pages, 6 figures, REVTE

    Electron transport through double quantum dots

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    Electron transport experiments on two lateral quantum dots coupled in series are reviewed. An introduction to the charge stability diagram is given in terms of the electrochemical potentials of both dots. Resonant tunneling experiments show that the double dot geometry allows for an accurate determination of the intrinsic lifetime of discrete energy states in quantum dots. The evolution of discrete energy levels in magnetic field is studied. The resolution allows to resolve avoided crossings in the spectrum of a quantum dot. With microwave spectroscopy it is possible to probe the transition from ionic bonding (for weak inter-dot tunnel coupling) to covalent bonding (for strong inter-dot tunnel coupling) in a double dot artificial molecule. This review on the present experimental status of double quantum dot studies is motivated by their relevance for realizing solid state quantum bits.Comment: 32 pages, 31 figure
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