111 research outputs found

    Impact Of Informal Communication On Corporate Creative Performance

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    Creativity is crucial to the performance of R&D teams. Since the creative work, the team needs to connect and integrate the opinions of multiple employees the team’s relation is a crucial determinant of creative performance. The purpose of this study is to identify the effects of informal communication on organizational creativity. In this study, informal communication is divided into mentoring or coaching system and learning organization. An empirical analysis of this study found that team creativity requires informal communication. In addition, research has shown that positive effect of mentoring or coaching on creative performance was clearer when firm size was large. Finally, mentoring or coaching has a positive impact on creative performance as the employee ability is higher. The results of this study provide implications for strategies to enhance organizational creativity by demonstrating that informal communication has a significant relationship with organizational creativity

    The minimal spectral radius with given independence number

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    In this paper, we determine the graphs which have the minimal spectral radius among all the connected graphs of order nn and the independence number n21.\lceil\frac{n}{2}\rceil-1.Comment: 14 page

    An Analysis of the Difference between Direct and Automated Anthropometric Measurement Using a 3-D Tool for the Age Group of 70-85 Elderly

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    In this study, the suitability of an automated anthropometry method was evaluated by comparing the data of direct measurement and automated measurement, and considered is the potential modification of automated methods based the results of the study

    Abdominal fat ratio estimation equation by abdominal type in elderly women

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    This study was conducted to define the abdomen types of Korean elderly women and to develop an abdominal fat ratio (AFR) estimation equation using key body measurements and indexes that well represented the body type characteristics of elderly women. An analysis was performed of the correlations between the individual obesity-related measurements and index items to explain the body shape characteristics and obesity trends in elderly women. To derive the equation for estimating the AFR of elderly women, the abdominal types of elderly women were classified, and then, the distribution of each type was investigated. Then, a simple regression analysis was performed in which the dependent variable is predicted by using a single predictor. The AFR and WHtR (Waist-Height Ratio) showed a higher correlation with the obesity-related measurement items and indexes; thus, an equation was derived that enables the estimation of the AFR using simple body measurements. Additionally, the morphological differences of the various abdomen types were analyzed to provide the trends of the abdomen types depending on the AFR in the elderly. This new model for estimating abdominal fat percentage developed in the present study is significant in that it uses relatively easy-to-obtain anthropometric measures like height and waist circumference. The results of the present study demonstrated the relationship between WHtR, which not only well reflects elderly obesity but is also closely related to the prevalence of obesity in the elderly. This finding suggests that the shape of the abdomen will serve as a potential health indicator in the future.This research was supported by the Support Program for Women in Science, Engineering, and Technology through the National Research Foundation of Korea (NRF) funded by the Ministry of Science and ICT (No. 2019H1C3A1032224)

    Effects of biofeedback-based sleep improvement program on urinary symptoms and sleep patterns of elderly Korean women with overactive bladder syndrome

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    Background The prevalence of overactive bladder syndrome (OAB) increases with age. Sleep disturbances in elderly individuals with OAB is a common problem. The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of a biofeedback-based sleep improvement (BBSI) program on urinary symptoms and sleep patterns in elderly Korean women with OAB. Methods A non-equivalent control group pre−/post-test design was used. Elderly women with OAB were assigned to an intervention group (n = 20) or a control group (n = 18). The BBSI program was implemented in the intervention group for 12 weeks, while two educational sessions of general sleep hygiene and lifestyle modification were provided to the control group. Using SPSS 23.0, the data were analyzed by descriptive analysis using the chi-square test, Fishers exact test, Mann-Whitney test, and Wilcoxon test. Results After the 12-week BBSI program, significant improvements were found in the intervention groups the square root of the mean squared differences of successive R-R intervals (p = 0.025), low frequency/high frequency ratio (p = 0.006), and epinephrine (p = 0.039). We also observed a significant difference in urinary symptoms, sleep efficiency, wake after sleep onset, number of awakenings, and number of awakenings within 3 h after sleep onset (p < 0.001, p = 0.004, p = 0.001, p = 0.001, and p = 0.048, respectively). However, no significant changes were found in these variables in the control group. Conclusions The BBSI program effectively improved urinary symptoms and sleep patterns of elderly Korean women with OAB. Further longitudinal research is required to investigate the sustainability and effects of the BBSI program. Trial registration KCT0003882. Date of registration: 02/05/2019. Retrospectively registered.This research was supported by the Bisa Research Grant of Keimyung University in 2017. This funder had no role in the study design; data collection, analysis, or interpretation; writing the manuscript; or the decision to submit the paper for publication

    Lactobacillus sakei suppresses collagen-induced arthritis and modulates the differentiation of T helper 17 cells and regulatory B cells

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    Abstract Background To evaluate the immunomodulatory effect of Lactobacillus sakei in a mouse model of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and in human immune cells. Methods We evaluated whether L. sakei reduced the severity of collagen-induced arthritis (CIA) and modulated interleukin (IL)-17 and IL-10 levels, as well as whether it affected the differentiation of CD4+ T cells and regulatory B cells. We evaluated osteoclastogenesis after culturing bone marrow-derived mononuclear cells with L. sakei. Results The differentiation of T helper 17 cells and the serum level of IL-17 were suppressed by L. sakei in both human peripheral blood mononuclear cells and mouse splenocytes. The serum level of IL-10 was significantly increased in the L. sakei-treated group, whereas the regulatory T cell population was unchanged. The population of regulatory B cells significantly increased the in L. sakei-treated group. Oral administration of L. sakei reduced the arthritis incidence and score in mice with CIA. Finally, osteoclastogenesis and the mRNA levels of osteoclast-related genes were suppressed in the L. sakei-treated group. Conclusion L. sakei exerted an anti-inflammatory effect in an animal model of RA, regulated Th17 and regulatory B cell differentiation, and suppressed osteoclastogenesis. Our findings suggest that L. sakei has therapeutic potential for RA

    Identification of gut dysbiosis in axial spondyloarthritis patients and improvement of experimental ankylosing spondyloarthritis by microbiome-derived butyrate with immune-modulating function

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    IntroductionDysbiosis is an environmental factor that affects the induction of axial spondyloarthritis (axSpA) pathogenesis. In the present study, we investigated differences in the gut microbiota of patients with axSpA and revealed an association between specific gut microbiota and their metabolites, and SpA pathogenesis.MethodUsing 16S rRNA sequencing data derived from feces samples of 33 axSpA patients and 20 healthy controls (HCs), we examined the compositions of their gut microbiomes.ResultsAs a result, axSpA patients were found to have decreased α-diversity compared to HCs, indicating that axSpA patients have less diverse microbiomes. In particular, at the species level, Bacteroides and Streptococcus were more abundant in axSpA patients than in HCs, whereas Faecalibacterium (F). prausnitzii, a butyrate-producing bacteria, was more abundant in HCs. Thus, we decided to investigate whether F. prausnitzii was associated with health conditions by inoculating F. prausnitzii (0.1, 1, and 10 μg/mL) or by administrating butyrate (0.5 mM) into CD4+ T cells derived from axSpA patients. The levels of IL-17A and IL-10 in the CD4+ T cell culture media were then measured. We also assessed osteoclast formation by administrating butyrate to the axSpA-derived peripheral blood mononuclear cells. The CD4+ IL-17A+ T cell differentiation, IL-17A levels were decreased, whereas IL-10 was increased by F. prausnitzii inoculation. Butyrate reduced CD4+ IL-17A+ T cell differentiation and osteoclastogenesis.DiscussionWe found that CD4+ IL-17A+ T cell polarization was reduced, when F. prausnitzii or butyrate were introduced into curdlan-induced SpA mice or CD4+ T cells of axSpA patient. Consistently, butyrate treatment was associated with the reduction of arthritis scores and inflammation levels in SpA mice. Taken together, we concluded that the reduced abundance of butyrate-producing microbes, particularly F. prausnitzii, may be associated with axSpA pathogenesis

    The Therapeutic Effect of STAT3 Signaling-Suppressed MSC on Pain and Articular Cartilage Damage in a Rat Model of Monosodium Iodoacetate-Induced Osteoarthritis

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    Osteoarthritis (OA) is a degenerative disease that induces pain, cartilage deformation, and joint inflammation. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are potential therapeutic agents for treatment of OA. However, MSC therapy can cause excessive inflammation. Signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) modulates secretion of many proinflammatory cytokines. Experimental OA was induced by intra-articular (IA) injection of monosodium iodoacetate (MIA) to the right knee of rats. MSCs from OA patients (OA-MSCs) were treated with STA21, a small molecule that blocks STAT3 signaling, by IA or intravenous (IV) injection after MIA injection. Pain severity was quantified by assessment of secondary tactile allodynia using the von Frey assessment test. Cartilage degradation was measured by microcomputed tomography image analysis, histological analysis, and the Mankin score. Protein and gene expression was evaluated by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, immunohistochemistry, and real-time polymerase chain reaction. MSCs increased production of proinflammatory cytokines under inflammatory conditions. STA21 significantly decreased expression of these proinflammatory molecules via inhibition of STAT3 activity but increased gene expression of molecules related to migration potential and immunomodulation in OA-MSCs. STAT3-inhibited OA-MSCs administrated by IV or IA injection decreased pain severity and cartilage damage in rats with MIA-induced OA rats by decreasing proinflammatory cytokines in the joints. Combined IA and IV-injected STAT3-inhibited OA-MSCs had an additive effect of pain relief in MIA-induced OA rats. STAT3 inhibition may optimize the therapeutic activities of MSCs for treating OA by attenuating pain and progression of MIA by inhibiting inflammation and cartilage damage

    Regulation of synaptic Rac1 activity, long-term potentiation maintenance, and learning and memory by BCR and ABR Rac GTPase-activating proteins

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    Rho family small GTPases are important regulators of neuronal development. Defective Rho regulation causes nervous system dysfunctions including mental retardation and Alzheimer's disease. Rac1, a member of the Rho family, regulates dendritic spines and excitatory synapses, but relatively little is known about how synaptic Rac1 is negatively regulated. Breakpoint cluster region (BCR) is a Rac GTPase-activating protein known to form a fusion protein with the c-Abl tyrosine kinase in Philadelphia chromosome-positive chronic myelogenous leukemia. Despite the fact that BCR mRNAs are abundantly expressed in the brain, the neural functions of BCR protein have remained obscure. We report here that BCR and its close relative active BCR-related (ABR) localize at excitatory synapses and directly interact with PSD-95, an abundant postsynaptic scaffolding protein. Mice deficient for BCR or ABR show enhanced basal Rac1 activity but only a small increase in spine density. Importantly, mice lacking BCR or ABR exhibit a marked decrease in the maintenance, but not induction, of long-term potentiation, and show impaired spatial and object recognition memory. These results suggest that BCR and ABR have novel roles in the regulation of synaptic Rac1 signaling, synaptic plasticity, and learning and memory, and that excessive Rac1 activity negatively affects synaptic and cognitive functions.This work was supported by the National Creative Research Initiative Program of the Korean Ministry of Education, Science and Technology (E.K.), Neuroscience Program Grant 2009-0081468 (S.-Y.C.), 21st Century Frontier R&D Program in Neuroscience Grant 2009K001284 (H.K.), Basic Science Research Program Grant R13-2008-009-01001-0 (Y.C.B.), and United States Public Health Service Grants HL071945 (J.G.) and HL060231 (J.G., N.H.)

    Genetic and environmental variation in educational attainment : an individual-based analysis of 28 twin cohorts

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    We investigated the heritability of educational attainment and how it differed between birth cohorts and cultural-geographic regions. A classical twin design was applied to pooled data from 28 cohorts representing 16 countries and including 193,518 twins with information on educational attainment at 25 years of age or older. Genetic factors explained the major part of individual differences in educational attainment (heritability: a(2)=0.43; 0.41-0.44), but also environmental variation shared by co-twins was substantial (c(2)=0.31; 0.30-0.33). The proportions of educational variation explained by genetic and shared environmental factors did not differ between Europe, North America and Australia, and East Asia. When restricted to twins 30 years or older to confirm finalized education, the heritability was higher in the older cohorts born in 1900-1949 (a(2)=0.44; 0.41-0.46) than in the later cohorts born in 1950-1989 (a(2)=0.38; 0.36-0.40), with a corresponding lower influence of common environmental factors (c(2)=0.31; 0.29-0.33 and c(2)=0.34; 0.32-0.36, respectively). In conclusion, both genetic and environmental factors shared by co-twins have an important influence on individual differences in educational attainment. The effect of genetic factors on educational attainment has decreased from the cohorts born before to those born after the 1950s.Peer reviewe