242 research outputs found

    The CNGS Neutrino Beam

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    The CERN to Gran Sasso Neutrino beam (CNGS) was commissioned at CERN in early August 2006 and was first sent at low intensity to Gran Sasso on August 17, 2006. The Borexino, LVD and OPERA experiments continued the commissioning of their detectors and started taking data with practically no dead time. The CNGS collected several hundred events with clean time distributions.Comment: 11 pages, 14 EPS figures. Lecture given at the 2nd Latin American School on Cosmic Rays and Astrophysics, Puebla, Mexico, 30th August - 8th September 200

    Scintillator counters with WLS fiber/MPPC readout for the side muon range detector (SMRD)of the T2K experiment

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    The T2K neutrino experiment at J-PARC uses a set of near detectors to measure the properties of an unoscillated neutrino beam and neutrino interaction cross-sections. One of the sub-detectors of the near-detector complex, the side muon range detector (SMRD), is described in the paper. The detector is designed to help measure the neutrino energy spectrum, to identify background and to calibrate the other detectors. The active elements of the SMRD consist of 0.7 cm thick extruded scintillator slabs inserted into air gaps of the UA1 magnet yokes. The readout of each scintillator slab is provided through a single WLS fiber embedded into a serpentine shaped groove. Two Hamamatsu multi-pixel avalanche photodiodes (MPPC's) are coupled to both ends of the WLS fiber. This design allows us to achieve a high MIP detection efficiency of greater than 99%. A light yield of 25-50 p.e./MIP, a time resolution of about 1 ns and a spatial resolution along the slab better than 10 cm were obtained for the SMRD counters.Comment: 7 pages, 4 figures; talk at TIPP09, March 12-17, Tsukuba, Japan; to be published in the conference proceeding

    The angular distribution of the reaction νˉe+pe++n\bar{\nu}_e + p \to e^+ + n

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    The reaction νˉe+pe++n\bar{\nu}_e + p \to e^+ + n is very important for low-energy (Eν60E_\nu \lesssim 60 MeV) antineutrino experiments. In this paper we calculate the positron angular distribution, which at low energies is slightly backward. We show that weak magnetism and recoil corrections have a large effect on the angular distribution, making it isotropic at about 15 MeV and slightly forward at higher energies. We also show that the behavior of the cross section and the angular distribution can be well-understood analytically for Eν60E_\nu \lesssim 60 MeV by calculating to O(1/M){\cal O}(1/M), where MM is the nucleon mass. The correct angular distribution is useful for separating νˉe+pe++n\bar{\nu}_e + p \to e^+ + n events from other reactions and detector backgrounds, as well as for possible localization of the source (e.g., a supernova) direction. We comment on how similar corrections appear for the lepton angular distributions in the deuteron breakup reactions νˉe+de++n+n\bar{\nu}_e + d \to e^+ + n + n and νe+de+p+p\nu_e + d \to e^- + p + p. Finally, in the reaction νˉe+pe++n\bar{\nu}_e + p \to e^+ + n, the angular distribution of the outgoing neutrons is strongly forward-peaked, leading to a measurable separation in positron and neutron detection points, also potentially useful for rejecting backgrounds or locating the source direction.Comment: 10 pages, including 5 figure

    The ICARUS T600 Experiment in the Gran Sasso Underground Laboratory

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    With a mass of about 600 tons of Liquid Argon (LAr), the ICARUS T600 detector is the biggest, up to now, LAr Time Projection Chamber (TPC). Following its successful test run, on the Earth surface, in Pavia (Italy) in 2001, the detector is now very close to start data taking in the Gran Sasso underground laboratory. The main features of the LAr TPC technique, together with a short discussion of some of the ICARUS T600 test run results, are presented in this paper

    NA61/SHINE facility at the CERN SPS: beams and detector system

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    NA61/SHINE (SPS Heavy Ion and Neutrino Experiment) is a multi-purpose experimental facility to study hadron production in hadron-proton, hadron-nucleus and nucleus-nucleus collisions at the CERN Super Proton Synchrotron. It recorded the first physics data with hadron beams in 2009 and with ion beams (secondary 7Be beams) in 2011. NA61/SHINE has greatly profited from the long development of the CERN proton and ion sources and the accelerator chain as well as the H2 beamline of the CERN North Area. The latter has recently been modified to also serve as a fragment separator as needed to produce the Be beams for NA61/SHINE. Numerous components of the NA61/SHINE set-up were inherited from its predecessors, in particular, the last one, the NA49 experiment. Important new detectors and upgrades of the legacy equipment were introduced by the NA61/SHINE Collaboration. This paper describes the state of the NA61/SHINE facility - the beams and the detector system - before the CERN Long Shutdown I, which started in March 2013

    Measurement of the muon decay spectrum with the ICARUS liquid Argon TPC

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    Examples are given which prove the ICARUS detector quality through relevant physics measurements. We study the muon decay energy spectrum from a sample of stopping muon events acquired during the test run of the ICARUS T600 detector. This detector allows the spatial reconstruction of the events with fine granularity, hence, the precise measurement of the range and dE/dx of the muon with high sampling rate. This information is used to compute the calibration factors needed for the full calorimetric reconstruction of the events. The Michel rho parameter is then measured by comparison of the experimental and Monte Carlo simulated muon decay spectra, obtaining rho = 0.72 +/- 0.06(stat.) +/- 0.08(syst.). The energy resolution for electrons below ~50 MeV is finally extracted from the simulated sample, obtaining (Emeas-Emc)/Emc = 11%/sqrt(E[MeV]) + 2%.Comment: 16 pages, 8 figures, LaTex, A4. Some text and 1 figure added. Final version as accepted for publication in The European Physical Journal