1,307 research outputs found

    The Two Faces of Anomaly Mediation

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    Anomaly mediation is a ubiquitous source of supersymmetry (SUSY) breaking which appears in almost every theory of supergravity. In this paper, we show that anomaly mediation really consists of two physically distinct phenomena, which we dub "gravitino mediation" and "Kahler mediation". Gravitino mediation arises from minimally uplifting SUSY anti-de Sitter (AdS) space to Minkowski space, generating soft masses proportional to the gravitino mass. Kahler mediation arises when visible sector fields have linear couplings to SUSY breaking in the Kahler potential, generating soft masses proportional to beta function coefficients. In the literature, these two phenomena are lumped together under the name "anomaly mediation", but here we demonstrate that they can be physically disentangled by measuring associated couplings to the goldstino. In particular, we use the example of gaugino soft masses to show that gravitino mediation generates soft masses without corresponding goldstino couplings. This result naively violates the goldstino equivalence theorem but is in fact necessary for supercurrent conservation in AdS space. Since gravitino mediation persists even when the visible sector is sequestered from SUSY breaking, we can use the absence of goldstino couplings as an unambiguous definition of sequestering.Comment: 21 pages, 1 table; v2, references added, extended discussion in introduction and appendix; v3, JHEP versio

    Alterations in the blood glucose, serum lipids and renal oxidative stress in diabetic rats by supplementation of onion (Allium cepa. Linn)

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    This study examined the anti-diabetic effect of onion (Allium cepa. Linn) in the streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into normal rats fed control diet or supplemented with onion powder (7% w/w) and diabetic rats fed control diet or supplemented with onion powder. Diabetes was induced by a single injection of STZ (60 mg/kg, ip) in citrate buffer. The animals were fed each of the experimental diet for 5 weeks. Blood glucose levels of rats supplemented with onion were lower than those of rats fed control diet in the diabetic rats. Onion also decreased the total serum lipid, triglyceride, and atherogenic index and increased HDL-cholesterol/total cholesterol ratio in the diabetic rats. Glutathione peroxidase, glutathione reductase and glutathione S-transferase activities were high in the diabetic rats compared to normal rats and reverted to near-control values by onion. These results indicate that onion decreased blood glucose, serum lipid levels and reduced renal oxidative stress in STZ-induced diabetic rats and this effect might exert the anti-diabetic effect of onion

    Metallo-β-Lactamase-Producing Pseudomonas spp. in Korea: High Prevalence of Isolates with VIM-2 Type and Emergence of Isolates with IMP-1 Type

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    Purpose: Two Korean nationwide studies showed that metallo-beta-lactamases (MBLs)-producing-Pseudomonas spp. are not rare. The aim of this study was to assess the trends of MBL-producing isolates among imipenem-resistant isolates of Pseudomonas spp. Materials and Methods: Imipenem-resistant clinical isolates were collected from 23 hospitals and one commercial laboratory participating in the KONSAR program in 2005. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was used to detect MBL genes. Results: Alleles of MBL genes were detected in 10.8% of 415 Pseudomonas aeruginosa and 66.7% of 12 P. putida isolates from 18 of 24 hospitals/laboratory. Among the 14 IMP-1-like and 39 VIM-2-like MBLs, emergence of IMP-6 was detected for the first time. Conclusion: Prevalence of MBL-producing P. aeruginosa has not significantly increased, but IMP-6 emerged in P. aeruginosa

    Extent and structure of health insurance expenditures for complementary and alternative medicine in Swiss primary care

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    BACKGROUND: The study is part of a nationwide evaluation of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) in primary care in Switzerland. The goal was to evaluate the extent and structure of basic health insurance expenditures for complementary and alternative medicine in Swiss primary care. METHODS: The study was designed as a cross-sectional evaluation of Swiss primary care providers and included 262 certified CAM physicians, 151 noncertified CAM physicians and 172 conventional physicians. The study was based on data from a mailed questionnaire and on reimbursement information obtained from health insurers. It was therefore purely observational, without interference into diagnostic and therapeutic procedures applied or prescribed by physicians. Main outcome measures included average reimbursed costs per patient, structured into consultation- and medication-related costs, and referred costs. RESULTS: Total average reimbursed cost per patient did not differ between CAM physicians and conventional practitioners, but considerable differences were observed in cost structure. The proportions of reimbursed costs for consultation time were 56% for certified CAM, 41% for noncertified CAM physicians and 40% for conventional physicians; medication costs – including expenditures for prescriptions and directly dispensed drugs – respectively accounted for 35%, 18%, and 51% of costs. CONCLUSION: The results indicate no significant difference for overall treatment cost per patient between CAM and COM primary care in Switzerland. However, CAM physicians treat lower numbers of patients and a more cost-favourable patient population than conventional physicians. Differences in cost structure reflect more patient-centred and individualized treatment modalities of CAM physicians

    Quercetin Inhibits IL-1β-Induced Inflammation, Hyaluronan Production and Adipogenesis in Orbital Fibroblasts from Graves' Orbitopathy

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    Management of Graves' orbitopathy (GO) is challenging, as no reliable, specific, and safe medical therapeutic agents have yet been developed. We investigated the effect of quercetin in primary cultured orbital fibroblasts from GO, targeting pathways of inflammation, aberrant accumulation of extracellular matrix macromolecules, and adipose tissue expansion. Quercetin significantly attenuated intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1), interleukin (IL) -6, IL-8, and cyclooxygenase (COX) -2 mRNA expression, and inhibited IL-1β-induced increases in ICAM-1, IL-6, and IL-8 mRNA. Increased hyaluronan production induced by IL-1β or tumor necrosis factor-α was suppressed by quercetin in a dose- and time-dependent manner. Treatment with noncytotoxic doses of quercetin inhibited accumulation of intracytoplasmic lipid droplets and resulted in a dose-dependent decrease in expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ, CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein (C/EBP) α, and C/EBPβ proteins. In conclusion, inhibition of inflammation, hyaluronan production, and adipogenesis by the natural plant product quercetin in vitro provides the basis for further study of its potential use in the treatment of GO

    Predator-induced changes of female mating preferences: innate and experiential effects

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    Background: In many species males face a higher predation risk than females because males display elaborate traits that evolved under sexual selection, which may attract not only females but also predators. Females are, therefore, predicted to avoid such conspicuous males under predation risk. The present study was designed to investigate predator-induced changes of female mating preferences in Atlantic mollies (Poecilia mexicana). Males of this species show a pronounced polymorphism in body size and coloration, and females prefer large, colorful males in the absence of predators. Results: In dichotomous choice tests predator-naïve (lab-reared) females altered their initial preference for larger males in the presence of the cichlid Cichlasoma salvini, a natural predator of P. mexicana, and preferred small males instead. This effect was considerably weaker when females were confronted visually with the non-piscivorous cichlid Vieja bifasciata or the introduced non-piscivorous Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus). In contrast, predator experienced (wild-caught) females did not respond to the same extent to the presence of a predator, most likely due to a learned ability to evaluate their predators' motivation to prey. Conclusions: Our study highlights that (a) predatory fish can have a profound influence on the expression of mating preferences of their prey (thus potentially affecting the strength of sexual selection), and females may alter their mate choice behavior strategically to reduce their own exposure to predators. (b) Prey species can evolve visual predator recognition mechanisms and alter their mate choice only when a natural predator is present. (c) Finally, experiential effects can play an important role, and prey species may learn to evaluate the motivational state of their predators. Keywords: Sexual selection; female choice; non-independent mate choice; predator recognition; Poecilia mexican

    Acupuncture for dry eye: a randomised controlled trial protocol

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    <p>Abstract</p> <p>Background</p> <p>Dry eye is usually managed by conventional medical interventions such as artificial tears, anti-inflammatory drugs and surgical treatment. However, since dry eye is one of the most frequent ophthalmologic disorders, safer and more effective methods for its treatment are necessary, especially for vulnerable patients. Acupuncture has been widely used to treat patients with dry eye. Our aim is to evaluate the effectiveness and safety of acupuncture for this condition.</p> <p>Methods/Design</p> <p>A randomised, patient-assessor blinded, sham (non-acupuncture point, shallow acupuncture) controlled study was established. Participants allocated to verum acupuncture and sham acupuncture groups will be treated three times weekly for three weeks for a total of nine sessions per participant. Seventeen points (GV23; bilateral BL2, GB4, TE23, Ex1 (Taiyang), ST1 and GB20; and left SP3, LU9, LU10 and HT8 for men, right for women) have been selected for the verum acupuncture; for the sham acupuncture, points have been selected that do not coincide with a classical acupuncture point and that are located close to the verum points, except in the case of the rim of the eye. Ocular surface disease index, tear film breakup time, the Schirmer I test, medication quantification scale and general assessment of improvement will be used as outcome variables for evaluating the effectiveness of acupuncture. Safety will also be assessed at every visit. Primary and secondary outcomes will be assessed four weeks after screening. All statistical analyses will be performed using analysis of covariance.</p> <p>Discussion</p> <p>The results of this trial will be used as a basis for clarifying the efficacy of acupuncture for dry eye.</p> <p>Trial registration</p> <p>ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00969280.</p
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