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    The Declination of Traditional Chinese Library and the Birth of Modern Library

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    Chinese intellectuals, who had received modern education in the late 19th century and the early 20th century, focused their attention on the Enlightenment movement through social education, paying attention to the general public. The birth of a modern library was also inspired by the idea that intellectuals wanted to save the country through education. In the Quadramother-centric education, they argued for a new educational framework based on western scientific technologies. The establishment of a new modern library was necessary as traditional books could not play a part in putting these claims into practice. Western missionaries played an important role in the birth of modern libraries in China. They actively participated in publishing, translation, and building libraries in China for missionary work, and also introduced new Western theories and current state of libraries. After the martial arts reform period, a society led by Chinese intellectuals was established, and they put a lot of effort into the establishment of libraries in addition to academic activities. Especially, the measure on the legislation of the library helped the new system of modern libraries to quickly be established itself in China. Therefore, the modern Chinese library and the traditional Chinese library are not entirely separate things, but rather have undergone a different historical development processes as identical objects so modern libraries today are a series of inevitable historical processes in which ancient Chinese libraries are changing and developing.이 논문은 한양대학교 교내연구지원사업으로 연구되었음(HY-2015년도

    Search for gamma (1S,2S) -˃ Z(c)(+)Z(c)((')-) and e(+)e(-) -˃ Z(c)(+)Z(c)((')-) at root s=10.52, 10.58, and 10.867 Gev

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    The first search for double charged charmoniumlike state production in gamma (IS) and gamma (2S) decays and in e(+) e(-) annihilation at root s = 10.52, 10.58, and 10.867 GcV is conducted using data collected with the Belle detector at the KEKB asymmetric energy electron-positron collider. No significant signals are observed in any of the studied modes, and the 90% credibility level upper limits on their product branching fractions in gamma(1S) and gamma(2S) decays [B(gamma(1S, 2S) -> Z(c)(+)Z(c)((')-)) x B(Z(c)(+) -> pi(+) + c (c) over bar ) (c (c) over bar = J / psi, chi(c1) (1P), psi(2S))] and the product of Born cross section and branching fraction for e(+)e(-) -> Z(c)(+)Z(c)((')-)) (sigma(e(+)e(-) -> Z(c)(+)Z(c)((')-)) x B(Z(c)(+) -> pi(+) + c (c) over bar )) at root s = 10.52, 10.58, and 10.867 GeV are determined. Here, Z(c) refers to the Z(c) (3900) and Z(c) (4200) observed in the pi J/psi final state, the Z(c1)(4050) and Z(c2)(4250) in the pi chi(c1)(1P) final state, and the Z(c)(4050) and Z(c)(4430) in the pi psi(2S) final state.We thank the KEKB group for the excellent operation of the accelerator; the KEK cryogenics group for the efficient operation of the solenoid; and the High Energy Accelerator Research Organisation (KEK) computer group, the National Institute of Informatics, and the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Environmental Molecular Sciences Laboratory computing group for valuable computing and Science Information NETwork 5 network support. We acknowledge support from the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science, and Technology of Japan, the Japan Society for the Promotion of Science, and the Tau-Lepton Physics Research Center of Nagoya University; the Australian Research Council; Austrian Science Fund under Grant No. P 26794-N20; the National Natural Science Foundation of China under Contracts No. 11435013, No. 11475187, No. 11521505, No. 11575017, No. 11675166, No. 11705209, and No. 11761141009; Key Research Program of Frontier Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Grant No. QYZDJ-SSW-SLH011; the CAS Center for Excellence in Particle Physics; Fudan University Grants No. JIH5913023, No. IDH5913011/003, No. JIH5913024, and No. IDH5913011/002; the Ministry of Education, Youth and Sports of the Czech Republic under Contract No. LTT17020; the Carl Zeiss Foundation, the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft, the Excellence Cluster Universe, and the VolkswagenStiftung; the Department of Science and Technology of India; the Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare of Italy; National Research Foundation of Korea Grants No. 2014R1A2A2A01005286, No. 2015R1A2A2A01003280, No. 2015H1A2A1033649, No. 2016R1D1A1B01010135, No. 2016K1A3A7A09005603, and No. 2016R1D1A1B02012900; Radiation Science Research Institute, Foreign Large-size Research Facility Application Supporting project, and the Global Science Experimental Data Hub Center of the Korea Institute of Science and Technology Information; the Polish Ministry of Science and Higher Education and the National Science Center; the Ministry of Education and Science of the Russian Federation and the Russian Foundation for Basic Research; the Slovenian Research Agency; Ikerbasque, Basque Foundation for Science, Basque Government (Grant No. IT956-16) and Ministry of Economy and Competitiveness (Juan de la Cierva), Spain; the Swiss National Science Foundation; the Ministry of Education and the Ministry of Science and Technology of Taiwan; and the United States Department of Energy and the National Science Foundation

    Transformation of deprived urban areas and social sustainability: A comparative study of urban regeneration and urban redevelopment in Barcelona and Seoul

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    The transformation of deprived urban areas is important for strengthening social sustainability in particular localities, and it is also instrumental in attracting new investments to cities. Speculative urban development, however, often ignores the social importance of localities and considers them mere economic assets that can be stripped of historical, social, and symbolic meaning and turned into easily marketed commodities. This article examines the somewhat contradictory role of the transformation of deprived urban areas in cities. It compares Barcelona and Seoul, two cities with different historical, cultural, and institutional contexts. The 22@ Activity District in Poblenou and Wangsimni New Town are explored as case studies to understand how urban regeneration and urban redevelopment are embedded in a particular locality and what consequences they have on social sustainability. Although the two cases differ in terms of planning approach, stakeholders, and institutional contexts, the findings suggest that the consequences for social sustainability were similar in both. The article argues that declining social cohesion and a lack of citizen participation were a consequence of speculative urban development, in which urban regeneration and urban redevelopment were instrumentalized to attract investments, strengthen economic competitiveness, and improve the city's global appeal rather than address diverse local challenges.This work was supported by the research fund of Hanyang University (HY-2017). The research was also supported by the Seed Program for Korean Studies through the Ministry of Education of the Republic of Korea and the Korean Studies Promotion Service of the Academy of Korean Studies (AKS-2015-INC-2230013)

    Synthesis of solution processed f-CNT@Bi2S3 hybrid film coated linen fabric as a free-standing textile structured photo catalyst

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    A unique metallic carbon hybrid film, synthesized with synchronized distribution of bismuth sulfide (Bi2S3) and exfoliated multiwall carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs), has been proposed for use as freestanding textile electrodes in photo catalysts. The defect-rich morphology of Bi2S3 nanowire decorated MWCNT hybrid enhances the photocatalytic activity, electronic properties, cyclic stability, and electron pathways. The proposed f-CNT@Bi2S3-hybrid linen fabric electrode demonstrated a defect-rich morphology synchronized with high electrical conductivity. These properties greatly enhanced the photocatalytic activity and electron transfer. The high photocatalytic activity is attributed to the synergistic effect of the high electron affinity of MWCNTs and the structural distortion caused by Bi2S3 nanowires. Degradation of methylene blue dye was accelerated owing to the elevated activity of Bi2S3 nanowires, which provides fast absorption of contaminants and reduction of oxidative species. Our proposed system of metallic carbon freestanding textile electrode opens the broad applications of textile-based photochemical devices.This work was supported by the Korea Research Fellowship Program through the National Research Foundation of Korea (NRF) funded by the Ministry of Science and ICT (2017H1D3A1A01055133)

    Isolation of primitive mouse extraembryonic endoderm (pXEN) stem cell lines

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    Mouse blastocysts contain the committed precursors of the extraembryonic endoderm (ExEn), which express the key transcription factor Oct4, depend on LIF/LIF-like factor-driven Jak/Stat signaling, and initially exhibit lineage plasticity. Previously described rat blastocyst-derived ExEn precursor-like cell lines (XENP cells/HypoSCs) also show these features, but equivalent mouse blastocyst-derived cell lines are lacking. We now present mouse blastocyst-derived cell lines, named primitive XEN (pXEN) cells, which share these and additional characteristics with the XENP cells/HypoSCs, but not with previously known mouse blastocyst-derived XEN cell lines. Otherwise, pXEN cells are highly similar to XEN cells by morphology, lineage-intrinsic differentiation potential, and multi-gene expression profile, although the pXEN cell profile correlates better with the blastocyst stage. Finally, we show that pXEN cells easily convert into XEN-like cells but not vice versa. The findings indicate that (i) pXEN cells are more representative than XEN cells of the blastocyst stage; (ii) mouse pXEN, rather than XEN, cells are homologs of rat XENP cells/HypoSCs, which we propose to call rat pXEN cells.This work was supported by the National Research Foundation of Korea (2017R1D1A1B03030942 & 2011-0030049)

    Mitigation of wind-induced vibration of a tall residential building using liquid column vibration absorber

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    The most important thing in applying mass type dampers including Liquid Column Vibration Absorber (LCVA) is tuning its natural frequency to an optimum value which is a function of the natural frequency of the building and the mass ratio of damper to the building. However, exact prediction of the natural frequency of the building at design stage is very difficult especially for concrete buildings. Thus, continuous updating of the target frequency and correction of the design of the damper based on field measurement is necessary. In this paper, application of LCVAs to mitigate the wind-induced vibration of 64-story residential buildings is presented. The LCVA were designed to have adjustable dimension for vertical column to take the advantage of ease tuning and wide frequency range. For updating of initial design, the tuning and performance assessment of LCVA several tests and measurement were carried out. The ambient vibration measurement of a partially completed building and a completed building without water in LCVA was performed and final values of the width of vertical column and the height of water were determined from the system identification results based on the collected acceleration data. In addition, ambient vibration measurement of buildings with LCVA water was performed and the system identification results indicated that the apparent damping ratio due to LCVA was increased about 3.13 to 3.89 times.This work was supported by the National Research Foundation of Korea (NRF) Grant funded by the Korean Government (MSIP) (NRF-2010-0023976)

    A methodical study on the Improvement of Child Welfare Facilities of Low-income Rental Housing through Restructuring Architectural Planning Concepts

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    Low-income rental housing and its residents require increased welfare services and facility. Welfare facilities are not easily programmed in accord living conditions and demands of low-income families. Due to women's expanded social activities, demand for child welfare facility is rapidly increasing. This study observes current situation of welfare facilities in rental housing projects, and aims to elaborate architectural ways of improving the quality of residential environment by restructuring public-use facilities and child-care spaces

    Prognosis of patients excluded by the definition of septic shock based on their lactate levels after initial fluid resuscitation: a prospective multi-center observational study

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    Background: Septic shock can be defined both by the presence of hyperlactatemia and need of vasopressors. Lactate levels should be measured after volume resuscitation (as per the Sepsis-3 definition). However, currently, no studies have evaluated patients who have been excluded by the new criteria for septic shock. The aim of this study was to determine the clinical characteristics and prognosis of these patients, based on their lactate levels after initial fluid resuscitation. Methods: This observational study was performed using a prospective, multi-center registry of septic shock, with the participation of 10 hospitals in the Korean Shock Society, between October 2015 and February 2017. We compared the 28-day mortality between patients who were excluded from the new definition (defined as lactate level <2 mmol/L after volume resuscitation) and those who were not (>= 2 mmol/L after volume resuscitation), from among a cohort of patients with refractory hypotension, and requiring the use of vasopressors. Other outcome variables such as in-hospital mortality, intensive care unit (ICU) stay (days), Sequential Organ Failure Assessment (SOFA) scores and Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation (APACHE) II scores were also analyzed. Results: Of 567 patients with refractory hypotension, requiring the use of vasopressors, 435 had elevated lactate levels, while 83 did not have elevated lactate levels (either initially or after volume resuscitation), and 49 (8.2%) had elevated lactate levels initially, which normalized after fluid resuscitation. Thus, these 49 patients were excluded by the new definition of septic shock. These patients, in whom perfusion was restored, demonstrated significantly lower age, platelet count, and initial and subsequent lactate levels (all p < 0.01). Similarly, significantly lower 28-day mortality was observed in these patients than in those who had not been excluded (8.2% vs 25.5%, p = 0.02). In-hospital mortality and the maximum SOFA score were also significantly lower in the excluded patients group (p = 0.03, both). Conclusions: It seems reasonable for septic shock to be defined by the lactate levels after volume resuscitation. However, owing to the small number of patients in whom lactate levels were improved, further study is warranted

    The professional identity, career commitment and subjective well-being of art therapy students

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    This article explores the professional identity, career commitment, and subjective well-being of art therapy students compared with those of counseling psychology students. Art therapy graduate students (N = 112) and counseling psychology graduate students (N = 91) completed the My Vocational Situation (MVS), Career Commitment Measurement (CCM), and Concise Measure of Subjective Well-Being (COMOSWB) measures. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics, correlation analysis, regression analysis, t-tests, and x(2)-tests. The results of this study are as follows: First, correlation analysis results showed that professional identity is interrelated with career commitment and subjective well-being. Second, the results of regression analysis indicated that career commitment and subjective well-being were significant predictors of professional identity. Third, comparing art therapy students with counseling psychology students revealed that there were no significant differences in professional identity and career commitment between the two groups. However, art therapy students needed much more vocational information than counseling psychology students, and they were also more likely to complain of the economic difficulties they faced in pursuing their career. In addition, the two groups showed no difference on the overall subjective well-being scale, but the counseling psychology graduate students showed higher life satisfaction and reported more positive emotions than art therapy students. Finally, this study's implications and limitations are presented
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