872 research outputs found

    Physical processes behind the alignment effect

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    The radio/optical alignment effect for small powerful radio galaxies has been shown to be produced by shock waves formed by the interaction of the head of the jet and/or cocoon with clouds embedded in the interstellar/intergalactic medium. We present here preliminary results of analytical and numerical solutions that have been made to account for the production of implosive shock waves induced by embedding cold clouds in the radio lobe of expanding powerful radio sources.Comment: 4 pages. To be published in Multiwavelength AGN Surveys", Cozumel, Dec 8 - 12, 200

    Galaxy number counts at second order: an independent approach

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    Next generation surveys will be capable of determining cosmological parameters beyond percent level. To match this precision, theoretical descriptions should look beyond the linear perturbations to approximate the observables in large scale structure. A quantity of interest is the Number density of galaxies detected by our instruments. This has been focus of interest recently, and several efforts have been made to explain relativistic effects theoretically, thereby testing the full theory. However, the results at nonlinear level from previous works are in disagreement. We present a new and independent approach to computing the relativistic galaxy number counts to second order in cosmological perturbation theory. We derive analytical expressions for the full second order relativistic observed redshift, for the angular diameter distance and for the volume spanned by a survey. Finally, we compare our results with previous works which compute the general distance-redshift relation, finding that our result is in agreement at linear order

    New mechanism for primordial black hole formation during reheating

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    In the scalar field dark matter model virialized halos present condensed central cores called boson stars. Considering the equivalent process during reheating, we look at the formation of primordial black holes (PBHs) through the gravitational collapse of structures virialized in this era. We present the criteria necessary for collapse of either the whole structure, or that of the central core, in terms of the threshold amplitude for the primordial density contrast. This is computed for both the free and the self-interacting scalar fields. We discuss the relevance of our results for the abundance of PBHs

    Cdk9 and H2Bub1 signal to Clr6-CII/Rpd3S to suppress aberrant antisense transcription

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    Mono-ubiquitylation of histone H2B (H2Bub1) and phosphorylation of elongation factor Spt5 by cyclin-dependent kinase 9 (Cdk9) occur during transcription by RNA polymerase II (RNAPII), and are mutually dependent in fission yeast. It remained unclear whether Cdk9 and H2Bub1 cooperate to regulate the expression of individual genes. Here, we show that Cdk9 inhibition or H2Bub1 loss induces intragenic antisense transcription of ∼10% of fission yeast genes, with each perturbation affecting largely distinct subsets; ablation of both pathways de-represses antisense transcription of over half the genome. H2Bub1 and phospho-Spt5 have similar genome-wide distributions; both modifications are enriched, and directly proportional to each other, in coding regions, and decrease abruptly around the cleavage and polyadenylation signal (CPS). Cdk9-dependence of antisense suppression at specific genes correlates with high H2Bub1 occupancy, and with promoter-proximal RNAPII pausing. Genetic interactions link Cdk9, H2Bub1 and the histone deacetylase Clr6-CII, while combined Cdk9 inhibition and H2Bub1 loss impair Clr6-CII recruitment to chromatin and lead to decreased occupancy and increased acetylation of histones within gene coding regions. These results uncover novel interactions between co-transcriptional histone modification pathways, which link regulation of RNAPII transcription elongation to suppression of aberrant initiation

    Taenia solium Infections in a Rural Area of Eastern Zambia-A Community Based Study

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    Taenia solium taeniosis/cysticercosis is a zoonotic infection endemic in many developing countries, with humans as the definitive host (taeniosis) and pigs and humans as the intermediate hosts (cysticercosis). When humans act as the intermediate host, the result can be neurocysticercosis, which is associated with acquired epilepsy, considerable morbidity and even mortality. In Africa, most studies have been carried out in pigs with little or no data in humans available. In this human study, conducted in a rural community in Eastern Zambia, prevalences for taeniosis and cysticercosis were determined at 6.3% and 5.8% respectively, indicating the hyperendemicity of the area. Cysticercosis infection was strongly related with age, with a significant increase in prevalence occurring in individuals from the age of 30 onward. A collected tapeworm was confirmed to be T. solium. Risk factors associated with the transmission and maintenance of the parasite such as free roaming pigs, households without latrines, backyard slaughter of pigs without inspection and consumption of undercooked pork were also present. The findings of this work have identified the need for further research in the transmission dynamics and the burden that this infection has on the resources of poor local people

    Ultrasound-guided thrombin injection for the treatment of an iatrogenic hepatic artery pseudoaneurysm: a case report

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    <p>Abstract</p> <p>Introduction</p> <p>Percutaneous transhepatic portal embolization is often performed to expand the indications for hepatic resection. Various etiologies of hepatic artery pseudoaneurysm have been reported, but regardless of the etiology, hepatic artery pseudoaneurysm is usually managed with an endovascular approach or open surgery, depending on the location and clinical symptomatology. However, it is difficult to manage hepatic artery pseudoaneurysm after percutaneous transhepatic portal embolization, since embolization of the hepatic artery may cause hepatic infarction</p> <p>Case presentation</p> <p>A 58-year-old Japanese man with hilar bile duct cancer underwent percutaneous transhepatic portal embolization to expand the indication for hepatic resection. Two days after percutaneous transhepatic portal embolization, our patient suddenly complained of abdominal pain. Contrast-enhanced computed tomography confirmed a pseudoaneurysm arising from a segmental branch of his right hepatic artery. Since embolization of the hepatic arterial branches may cause hepatic infarction, ultrasound-guided thrombin injection therapy was successfully performed for the pseudoaneurysm.</p> <p>Conclusion</p> <p>We performed a thrombin injection instead of arterial embolization to avoid hepatic infarction. The rationale of this choice may be insufficient. However, ultrasound-guided percutaneous thrombin injection therapy may be considered as an alternative to percutaneous transarterial embolization or surgical intervention for an iatrogenic hepatic artery pseudoaneurysm.</p

    Surviving Sepsis Campaign: International Guidelines for Management of Sepsis and Septic Shock: 2016.

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    OBJECTIVE: To provide an update to "Surviving Sepsis Campaign Guidelines for Management of Sepsis and Septic Shock: 2012." DESIGN: A consensus committee of 55 international experts representing 25 international organizations was convened. Nominal groups were assembled at key international meetings (for those committee members attending the conference). A formal conflict-of-interest (COI) policy was developed at the onset of the process and enforced throughout. A stand-alone meeting was held for all panel members in December 2015. Teleconferences and electronic-based discussion among subgroups and among the entire committee served as an integral part of the development. METHODS: The panel consisted of five sections: hemodynamics, infection, adjunctive therapies, metabolic, and ventilation. Population, intervention, comparison, and outcomes (PICO) questions were reviewed and updated as needed, and evidence profiles were generated. Each subgroup generated a list of questions, searched for best available evidence, and then followed the principles of the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development, and Evaluation (GRADE) system to assess the quality of evidence from high to very low, and to formulate recommendations as strong or weak, or best practice statement when applicable. RESULTS: The Surviving Sepsis Guideline panel provided 93 statements on early management and resuscitation of patients with sepsis or septic shock. Overall, 32 were strong recommendations, 39 were weak recommendations, and 18 were best-practice statements. No recommendation was provided for four questions. CONCLUSIONS: Substantial agreement exists among a large cohort of international experts regarding many strong recommendations for the best care of patients with sepsis. Although a significant number of aspects of care have relatively weak support, evidence-based recommendations regarding the acute management of sepsis and septic shock are the foundation of improved outcomes for these critically ill patients with high mortality

    Gene expression and splicing alterations analyzed by high throughput RNA sequencing of chronic lymphocytic leukemia specimens.

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    BackgroundTo determine differentially expressed and spliced RNA transcripts in chronic lymphocytic leukemia specimens a high throughput RNA-sequencing (HTS RNA-seq) analysis was performed.MethodsTen CLL specimens and five normal peripheral blood CD19+ B cells were analyzed by HTS RNA-seq. The library preparation was performed with Illumina TrueSeq RNA kit and analyzed by Illumina HiSeq 2000 sequencing system.ResultsAn average of 48.5 million reads for B cells, and 50.6 million reads for CLL specimens were obtained with 10396 and 10448 assembled transcripts for normal B cells and primary CLL specimens respectively. With the Cuffdiff analysis, 2091 differentially expressed genes (DEG) between B cells and CLL specimens based on FPKM (fragments per kilobase of transcript per million reads and false discovery rate, FDR q &lt; 0.05, fold change &gt;2) were identified. Expression of selected DEGs (n = 32) with up regulated and down regulated expression in CLL from RNA-seq data were also analyzed by qRT-PCR in a test cohort of CLL specimens. Even though there was a variation in fold expression of DEG genes between RNA-seq and qRT-PCR; more than 90 % of analyzed genes were validated by qRT-PCR analysis. Analysis of RNA-seq data for splicing alterations in CLL and B cells was performed by Multivariate Analysis of Transcript Splicing (MATS analysis). Skipped exon was the most frequent splicing alteration in CLL specimens with 128 significant events (P-value &lt;0.05, minimum inclusion level difference &gt;0.1).ConclusionThe RNA-seq analysis of CLL specimens identifies novel DEG and alternatively spliced genes that are potential prognostic markers and therapeutic targets. High level of validation by qRT-PCR for a number of DEG genes supports the accuracy of this analysis. Global comparison of transcriptomes of B cells, IGVH non-mutated CLL (U-CLL) and mutated CLL specimens (M-CLL) with multidimensional scaling analysis was able to segregate CLL and B cell transcriptomes but the M-CLL and U-CLL transcriptomes were indistinguishable. The analysis of HTS RNA-seq data to identify alternative splicing events and other genetic abnormalities specific to CLL is an added advantage of RNA-seq that is not feasible with other genome wide analysis