863 research outputs found

    Management of benign inverted sinonasal papilloma avoiding external approaches

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    Even though endoscopic removal of inverted papillomas has gained popularity, many studies advocate supplementary external approaches. The impact of including the current surgical staging system into the pre-operative clinical and radiological assessment has not been systematically evaluated. We present our experience with total endoscopic management of inverted papillomas and compare the accuracy of the pre-operative predicted extent of surgery, with the actually performed surgery. From 1997 to 2005 data from 51 patients with inverted papillomas were prospectively collected and subsequently reviewed. All have been operated on endoscopically without an external approach. The overall recurrence rate was 3.9 per cent. Pre-operative prediction of extent of surgery was accurate in 26 of 51 (51 per cent). The main reasons for the inaccurate pre-operative prediction were the variable sizes and locations of the inverted papilloma bases, particularly in the maxillary sinus and the frontal recess. Our results encourage us to recommend endoscopic management as the standard treatment of benign inverted papillomas

    Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs decrease the quality of pleurodesis after mechanical pleural abrasion

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    Objective: Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are often applied for pain management after thoracic surgery. Since these drugs diminish collagen deposition through inhibition of the prostaglandin synthesis, we investigated their effects on adhesion formation after endoscopic mechanical pleural abrasion, which is often applied in the therapy of pneumothorax. Methods: Mechanical pleural abrasion was performed unilaterally by the use of video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery technique in an established pig model. Ten animals (41.3±3.4 kg) were divided into a treatment group and a control group. In the treatment group, animals received 100 mg diclofenac (2 mg/kg body weight) orally daily for 3 weeks after surgery. At 3 weeks, all animals were sacrificed and efficacy of pleurodesis was macroscopically assessed by three independent reviewers blinded to the treatment of animals using a five-point severity pleurodesis score (from 0, no adhesions to 4, complete symphisis) and obliteration grade rating the distribution of adhesions (from 0, no adhesions to 4, adhesions in the whole chest). Microscopic evaluation was performed by two pathologists blinded to the study groups as well. A four-point score assessed the amount of collagen deposition (from 1, a few collagen fibers to 4, scar). Results: Gross observation showed more dense adhesions in control animals with a median pleurodesis score of 3.67±1.0 in comparison to 2±2.2 in the treatment group (P=0.01*, Mann-Whitney non-parametric test). Distribution of adhesions was comparable in both groups with a median obliteration score of 3.67±1.3. Histopathologic examination showed a higher amount of collagen deposition in the control group, suggesting more dense adhesions, whereas in the treatment group there was loose granulation tissue (score of 4.0±0.8 vs. 2.3±1.0 in the treatment group, P=0.06). The degree of inflammatory reaction was comparable in the two groups. Conclusions: Our results demonstrate that perioperative use of NSAIDs highly affects the quality of pleural adhesions obtained after mechanical abrasion in this pig model, which further suggests that these drugs should be avoided for pain management when a pleurodesis is performe

    11 beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 regulates glucocorticoid-induced insulin resistance in skeletal muscle

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    OBJECTIVE: Glucocorticoid excess is characterized by increased adiposity, skeletal myopathy, and insulin resistance, but the precise molecular mechanisms are unknown. Within skeletal muscle, 11beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 (11beta-HSD1) converts cortisone (11-dehydrocorticosterone in rodents) to active cortisol (corticosterone in rodents). We aimed to determine the mechanisms underpinning glucocorticoid-induced insulin resistance in skeletal muscle and indentify how 11beta-HSD1 inhibitors improve insulin sensitivity. \ud RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: Rodent and human cell cultures, whole-tissue explants, and animal models were used to determine the impact of glucocorticoids and selective 11beta-HSD1 inhibition upon insulin signaling and action. \ud RESULTS: Dexamethasone decreased insulin-stimulated glucose uptake, decreased IRS1 mRNA and protein expression, and increased inactivating pSer307^{307} insulin receptor substrate (IRS)-1. 11beta-HSD1 activity and expression were observed in human and rodent myotubes and muscle explants. Activity was predominantly oxo-reductase, generating active glucocorticoid. A1 (selective 11beta-HSD1 inhibitor) abolished enzyme activity and blocked the increase in pSer307^{307} IRS1 and reduction in total IRS1 protein after treatment with 11DHC but not corticosterone. In C57Bl6/J mice, the selective 11beta-HSD1 inhibitor, A2, decreased fasting blood glucose levels and improved insulin sensitivity. In KK mice treated with A2, skeletal muscle pSer307^{307} IRS1 decreased and pThr308^{308} Akt/PKB increased. In addition, A2 decreased both lipogenic and lipolytic gene expression.\ud CONCLUSIONS: Prereceptor facilitation of glucocorticoid action via 11beta-HSD1 increases pSer307^{307} IRS1 and may be crucial in mediating insulin resistance in skeletal muscle. Selective 11beta-HSD1 inhibition decreases pSer307^{307} IRS1, increases pThr308^{308} Akt/PKB, and decreases lipogenic and lipolytic gene expression that may represent an important mechanism underpinning their insulin-sensitizing action

    ProBiS: a web server for detection of structurally similar protein binding sites

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    A web server, ProBiS, freely available at http://probis.cmm.ki.si, is presented. This provides access to the program ProBiS (Protein Binding Sites), which detects protein binding sites based on local structural alignments. Detailed instructions and user guidelines for use of ProBiS are available at the server under ‘HELP’ and selected examples are provided under ‘EXAMPLES’

    Needs and difficulties of food businesses in the substantiation of health and nutrition claims

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    The food industry has been struggling with existing guidance on how to prepare health claim dossiers. Hence the EU-funded project PATHWAY-27 seeks to provide a more tailored guidance.Within this project, robust guidelines for the food industry will be developed. The guidelines will be applicable to bioactives and bioactive enriched foods in general, to facilitate health claim documentation and dossiers.Based on a questionnaire, information on the needs and difficulties of the food industry in reaching the requirements established by the national and EU authorities (EFSA) was gathered. Particular emphasis was placed on scientific, economic, technical and technological barriers

    Spatial vegetation patterns and neighborhood competition among woody plants in an East African savanna

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    The majority of research on savanna vegetation dynamics has focused on the coexistence of woody and herbaceous vegetation. Interactions among woody plants in savannas are relatively poorly understood. We present data from a 10-year longitudinal study of spatially explicit growth patterns of woody vegetation in an East African savanna following exclusion of large herbivores and in the absence of fire. We examined plant spatial patterns and quantified the degree of competition among woody individuals. Woody plants in this semi-arid savanna exhibit strongly clumped spatial distributions at scales of 1 - 5 m. However, analysis of woody plant growth rates relative to their conspecific and heterospecific neighbors revealed evidence for strong competitive interactions at neighborhood scales of up to 5 m for most woody plant species. Thus, woody plants were aggregated in clumps despite significantly decreased growth rates in close proximity to neighbors, indicating that the spatial distribution of woody plants in this region depends on dispersal and establishment processes rather than on competitive, density-dependent mortality. However, our documentation of suppressive effects of woody plants on neighbors also suggests a potentially important role for tree-tree competition in controlling vegetation structure and indicates that the balanced-competition hypothesis may contribute to well-known patterns in maximum tree cover across rainfall gradients in Africa

    Gauge Singlet Scalars as Cold Dark Matter

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    In light of recent interest in minimal extensions of the Standard Model and gauge singlet scalar cold dark matter, we provide an arXiv preprint of the paper, published as Phys.Rev. D50 (1994) 3637, which presented the first detailed analysis of gauge singlet scalar cold dark matter.Comment: 37 pages, 11 figures, LaTe

    Extension of thermonuclear functions through the pathway model including Maxwell-Boltzmann and Tsallis distributions

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    The Maxwell-Boltzmannian approach to nuclear reaction rate theory is extended to cover Tsallis statistics (Tsallis, 1988) and more general cases of distribution functions. An analytical study of respective thermonuclear functions is being conducted with the help of statistical techniques. The pathway model, recently introduced by Mathai (2005), is utilized for thermonuclear functions and closed-form representations are obtained in terms of H-functions and G-functions. Maxwell-Boltzmannian thermonuclear functions become particular cases of the extended thermonuclear functions. A brief review on the development of the theory of analytic representations of nuclear reaction rates is given.Comment: 16 pages, LaTe
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