FirstTech Institutional Repository

    The Study of Key Factors to Influence Organizational Procurement - Case of OEM/ODM Semiconductor Manufacturer

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    [[abstract]]摘要台灣半導體產業經歷勞工集中、資金密集、技術發展,到走向技術服務產業的模式,期待能創造專業半導體封裝測試技術服務,以發展我國的經濟。由於台灣半導體產業三十多年的技術研發,已建立良好的技術基礎,成為全球半導體產業重要的一環,尤其以半導體IC設計與封裝測試服務更是不斷技術創新領先全球。然對於全球半導體產業代工模式變遷快速、產業競爭快速且劇烈,為確立台灣的競爭力、除了強化現有的專業技術外,並應持續創造新的專業技術服務,朝向專業的半導體封裝測試服務發展,以創造更高的半導體專業服務地位,是台灣半導體產業結構必需的發展趨勢。由於台灣在半導體的技術服務在國際半導體產業的價值鏈中取得領先地位,未來應持續以半導體專業技術優勢推動台灣成為半導體高階專業技術研發中心及高階專業封裝測試製造服務中心。本研究以半導體測試業來研究國際大廠對台灣OEM/ODM半導體業下訂單之關鍵因素,經過訪談分析結果得以導得以下結論,可以做為該產業之企業參考。從研究發現,企業社會責任是重要考量因素之一,也是最近才被重視,探討其原因,發現是因為國際重視人權與環境因素所造成,如富士康跳樓事件與日月光汙染後勁溪事件,引起國際大客戶嚴重關切。然而研究發現價格、品質、與製造彈性還是國際大客戶最關切因素前三名,探討其原因發現,國際競爭激烈與客製化需求更高所致。在注重創新環境下,知識與創新也是重要考慮因素,其主要因素在於國際大客戶對新產品研發特別重視。員工素質也是重要因素,因為創新與製程改善主要是根源於員工素質好壞。[[abstract]]ThesemiconductorindustryinTaiwanischaracterizedbylaborconcentration,capital-intensiveness,andrapidtechnologicalinnovation,withthetrendtowardsofferingspecializedtechnologicalservicesthatdrivecontinuouseconomicdevelopment.Taiwansemiconductorindustryplayedanimportantroleasmanufacturingbaseforthepast30yearsthankstoitsadvancedtechnologyandservices.However,facingachangingenvironment,thesemiconductorindustrynowhastoupgradeitstechnologyandoffermoreinnovativeservicesinordertoremaincompetitiveandmaintainaleadingpositionintheglobalvaluechain.Thisstudyexploresthesemiconductorpackagingandtestingindustrywiththeaimtounderstandthekeyfactorsthatinfluenceorganizationalbuyingofinternationalclients.Depthinterviewswereconductedwithtopmanagers,andaquestionnairesurveywasconductedamongmiddleandlowermanagementexecutives.Thefindingsshowthatcorporatesocialresponsibility(CSR)istheoneofkeyinfluencefactors.Humanrightsissuesandenvironmentalstandardsareofconcerntointernationalcustomersaswell,asnegativepublicityeventsconcerningsemiconductorsuppliersraisetheirattention.Inaddition,price,quality,andflexibilityareimportantdecisionfactors,asarethecapabilitytodelivercustomizedandinnovativesolutions.Finally,aforementionedcapabilitiesarebasedonexcellenthumanresources,thereforeemployeescanbeconsideredakeyinfluencefactoraswell

    The optimal housing price modeling : Growing of house price and income

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    [[abstract]]本研究以CampbellandCocco(2015)模型為基礎,在效用極大化下,從期數、住宅消費對一般住宅消費偏好、貼現因子、風險規避係數、期末財富的重要程度、利率、通膨、名目利率、房價、成長率和物價水準等因素中,討論房屋價格成長與所得成長對於最適購屋價格的影響。結果顯示,房屋價格成長與最適購屋價格有正向的關係;當所得成長率低時,市場上傾向貸款年限低,所得成長率越高,市場上傾向貸款年限高;以及當第一期實質利率越高,市場上傾向將所得投資在非住房消費上。[[abstract]]ThisthesisisbasedonthemodeloftheCampbellandCocco(2015),underthemaximizationofutility,frommanyfactorslikenumberofperiods,residentialconsumptiontothegeneralresidentialconsumptionpreference,discountfactor,riskaversioncoefficient,theimportanceoftheendofwealth,interestrate,inflationinterestrates,houseprices,growthratesandpricelevels,todiscussthehousingpricegrowthandincomegrowthfortheoptimalpurchaseprice.Theresultsshowthatthegrowthofhousepriceandtheoptimalpurchasepricehasapositiverelationship.Onthemarket,peopletendtoshort-termsloanwhentheincomegrowthrateislowandtendtolong-termsloanwhentheincomegrowthrateishigh.Andalsowhenthefirstofrealinterestrateishigher,peopleonthemarkettendtoinvestinnon-housingconsumption

    The Impact of Corporate Social Responsibility on Operating Performance

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    [[abstract]]自1980年代開始,企業社會責任(corporatesocialresponsibility,CSR)逐漸受到社會與企業的重視,有些企業仍將企業社會責任視為公司的負擔,有些企業不知道該如何從事企業社會責任,而台灣在1997年成立社團法人中華民國企業永續發展協會(BCSD),近年來更因發生食安、勞工及環境問題,讓企業社會責任議題在台灣更備受重視,成為大多數企業與人民所認同的價值觀。本研究最主要的目的為以陳振遠和洪世偉(2013)所建?的企業社會責任指?為研究樣本,探討台灣上市公司執行企業社會責任對其公司獲利能力、企業價值及成長力之影響,本研究採用總資產報酬率、淨值報酬率、每股盈餘、營業利益率、稅後淨利率作為獲利能力衡量指標;總資產報酬成長率、淨值成長率、營業利益成長率為成長力衡量指標;Tobin’sQ作為企業價值之衡量指標,將樣本以前後27%(Kelley,1939;Cureton,1957)區分為高低兩組企業社會責任績效,並以平均數檢定針對2010年至2014?台灣上市公司之非金融產業為對象進?分析,探討台灣上市公司高度或低度投入企業社會責任對公司財務績效、成長力與企業價值之影響。實證結果發現,企業社會責任績效前27%的公司的確較後27%的公司有較高的財務績效及企業價值,而在成長率分析方面,則是高投入企業社會責任的公司有較低成長力。總而言之,從本研究中可以發現,企業從事企業社會責任時,起初並沒有立即增加其財務績效,因為推動的初期邊際成本很高,且聲譽基礎低,但隨著投入時間與貢獻越多,邊際成本開始下降,邊際利益開始上升,投入企業社會責任的確能夠增加公司經營績效,不僅為企業帶來良好形象,形成保護傘與企業社會盾的效果(CSRShield;ChenandLee,2017),更提升企業競爭力與企業價值,故本研究支持企業從事企業社會責任。[[abstract]]Theconceptofcorporatesocialresponsibility(CSR)hasgrowninpopularitysincethe1980s,SomecompaniesstillregardCSRasanunpleasanttask,whileothersdonothowtoexecuteCSRwell.In1997,theBusinessCouncilforSustainableDevelopment(BCSD)wasfoundedinTaiwan.Numerousincidentsrelatedtofoodsafety,laborrightsandenvironmentalprotectioninrecentyearshaveledtoarisingawarenessofCSRacrosssociety,whichhassettleditfirmlyinthemainstream.ThisstudyemployedtheTaiwanCSRIndexdevelopedbyChenandHung(2013),thetopandbottom27%ofthesample(Kelley,1939;Cureton,1957)werecategorizedintotwogroups:companieswithhighlevelsofCSR(high-CSRfirms)andcompanieswithlowlevelsofCSR(low-CSRfirms).Subsequentlyat-testwasconductedtoanalyzethefinancialperformance,growth,andfirmvalueofnon-financiallistedcompaniesinTaiwanfrom2010to2014.Empiricalresultsindicatethatthetop27%ofthesampleperformedsignificantlybetterthanthebottom27%infinancialperformanceandcorporatevalue.While,fromtheperspectiveofgrowthanalysis,thetop27%ofthesampleexhibitlowergrowthforce.ResearchresultsshowthatacompanywillnotreapfinancialrewardsattheinitialphaseofengagementinCSR.ThispointstotheconsiderablemarginalcostacompanyhastopaywhenitstartstoengageinCSR.Withthepassageoftime,however,engagementinCSRhasbeenproventoincreaseafirm’scorporateperformanceandenhanceitscorporateimage(CSRShield;ChenandLee,2017),whileincreasingitscompetitivenessandfirmvalueatthesametime.HencethisstudysupportsbusinessestopursueCSR

    A Study on the Relationship between Luxury Tax and Operating Performance of Building Material and Construction Industry

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    [[abstract]]本研究運用成對t檢定以及無母數Wilcoxon符號等級檢定以檢視奢侈稅實施與停徵對於本國建材營造業之經營績效是否具顯著影響。衡量經營績效的指標則包括財務結構、償債能力、經營能力、獲利能力與現金流量分析。實證結果指出奢侈稅實施後,建材營造業之舉債程度有顯著增加,而建材營造業整體經營能力以及獲利能力有顯著降低情況。奢侈稅停徵對於建材營造業之舉債程度、償債能力、經營能力具負向影響,但影響並不顯著。而停徵奢侈稅對於建材業獲利能力則有顯著負面的影響。[[abstract]]Thisthesisusesthepairedsamplet-testandnonparametricWilcoxonsigned-ranktesttoexaminetheeffectofluxurytaximplementationandsuspensionontheoperatingperformanceofbuildingmaterialandconstructionindustry.Indicatorsofmeasuringtheoperatingperformanceincludefinancialstructure,solvency,operatingcapacity,profitabilityandcashflowanalysis.Empiricalresultsshowthatthedegreeofdebtissignificantlyincreased,andbothoperatingcapacityandprofitabilityaresignificantlydecreasedforthebuildingmaterialandconstructionindustryaftertheluxurytaximplementation.Furthermore,luxurytaxsuspensionhasanegativeeffectonthedebtlevel,solvency,operatingcapacityforthebuildingmaterialandconstructionindustry,buttheeffectisnotsignificant.Meanwhile,luxurytaxsuspensionhasasignificantlynegativeimpactonprofitability

    The Study on the Long-Term Care Insurance in Taiwan

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    [[abstract]]因應21世紀全世界都在面臨高齡的問題,相對應關係著人口老化會面臨的長期照顧議題,本研究就政府的長期照顧十年計畫2.0、長期照顧保險法與長期照顧保險制度來探討我國的長期看護商業保險商品。就目前政府實行的政策與財源的不足,各家保險公司也因應這個市場需求,推出關於長期照護三類商品(長期看護險、類長期看護險、殘廢照護險)。也越來越多人都有防患於未然的事前規劃。加上商業保險能否補足社會保險的不足,也發現長期照護三類商品最大的差異,依其理賠的認定在年輕時先投資購買好降低未來發生長期照護時的不確定風險。無論購買哪一險種,最大差異是與我們投保的終身壽險、醫療險不同於長期照護險遇理賠時是每月或每年給付給保戶。補足稅收制的政府其社會保險之不足,確保當我們退休後的生活基本保障。[[abstract]]Inresponsetotheagingproblemconfrontingtheworldinthe21stcenturyandpopulationagingthatleadstolong-termcareissues,thisstudyexploresTaiwan’slong-termcareinsurancecommoditieswithregardtothegovernment’s10-yearlong-termcareprogram2.0,Long-termCareInsuranceAct,andlong-termcareinsurancesystem.Inviewofthegovernment’scurrentimplementationpolicyandlackoffinancialresources,majorinsurancecompanieshavelaunchedthreetypesoflongtermcarecommoditiesinresponsetothemarketneeds(long-termcareinsurance,quasi-long-termcareinsurance,disabilitycareinsurance).Moreandmorepeoplehavealsooptedtoengagedinpreventiveplanninginadvance.Inaddition,asforwhetherornotcommercialinsurancescanmakeupfortheinsufficienciesofsocialinsurance,ithasalsobeenfoundthatthegreatestdifferenceamongthethreetypesoflong-termcarecommoditiesliesininvestinginpurchasesthatreducetheriskofuncertaintyinfuturelong-termcareaccordingtothedeterminationofclaims.Regardlessofwhichinsurancetypeispurchased,thegreatestdifferenceisthatcomparedtolifeinsuranceandmedicalinsurancethroughwhichweareinsured,long-termcarecompensationsaremonthlyoryearlypaymentstotheinsured.Bymakingupfortheinsufficienciesofthetaxation-basedgovernment’ssocialinsurance,ourbasicprotectionoflifeafterretirementcanbeensured

    Using a microbiome for the dechlorination of 2,4-Dichlorophenol

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    [[abstract]]本研究以微生物菌群(Microbiome)對2,4-二氯酚(2,4-DCP)進行脫氯,將Microbiome分為對數成長期(LM)與穩定期(SM)。對數成長期Microbiome對2,4-DCP無脫氯成效,穩定期180天Microbiome(SM180)降解對2,4-DCP有顯著脫氯成效,尤為50ppm最為顯著,氯離子釋出量為7ppm,氯離子釋出率為33%。Microbiome醱酵期間硫氮動態變化會促進對2,4-DCP脫氯,在SM60氯離子釋出不佳,SM90后開始氯離子釋出量提升。其中SM60~SM90氯離子釋放量有顯著提升,SM150有最佳氯離子釋出量為7ppm。LM與SM180氣體分析發現O2的減少與N2增加,這顯示在Microbiome混合液醱酵期間有脫氮功能微生物菌群的生成,導致有N2增加。從Gompertz方程式開發的簡單模型被應用於在10ppm~200ppm的2,4-DCP濃度與氯離子釋出速率的定量測量。2,4-DCP的濃度會影響Microbiome的微生物活性。回歸結果表明,在2,4-DCP濃度小於50ppm時,其氯離子釋出率、遲滯期相當。當大於50ppm濃度時氯離子釋出率與遲滯期隨著濃度的增加而降低,其中氯離子釋出率當2,4-DCP濃度為25ppm時,降低10%;2,4-DCP為75ppm時,降低50%。2,4-DCP濃度為300ppm時,微生物失去活性。在2,4-DCP濃度高於50ppm時,觀察到顯著的抑制。關鍵字:生物菌群、2,4-二氯酚、脫氯[[abstract]]Inthisstudy,2,4-dichlorophenol(2,4-DCP)wasdechlorinatedwithMicrobiome,andMicrobiomewasdividedintoLogarithmicphase(LM)andStationaryphase(SM).LogarithmicphaseofMicrobiomeon2,4-dichlorophenolwithoutdechlorinationeffect,Stationaryphaseto180daysMicrobiome(SM180)degradationof2,4-DCPsignificantdechlorinationeffect,andtheconcentrationof2,4-dichlorophenolwas50ppm,thereleaseofchlorideionwas7ppm,andreleaseratewas33%.ThedynamicchangeofsulfurandnitrogenduringthefermentationofMicrobiomewillpromotethedechlorinationof2,4-DCP.IntheSM60Chlorideionsreleaseispoor,butSM90begantoincreasethereleaseofchlorideions.WhenSM60~SM90Chlorideionsreleasesignificantlyincreased,SM150hasthebestchlorideionreleaseof7ppm.LMandSM180gasanalysisrevealedanincreaseinN2,whichshowedthatduringthemicrobiomefermentationtherewasadenitrificationofthemicrobialflorathatresultedinanincreaseinN2.AsimplemodeldevelopedfromtheGompertzequationwasappliedtoquantitativemeasurementsoftheconcentrationof2,4-DCPat10ppmto200ppmwithchloridereleaserate.Theconcentrationof2,4-DCPaffectsmicrobiologicalactivityofMicrobiome.Theresultsindicatethatwhentheconcentrationof2,4-DCPislessthan50ppm,thechloridereleaserateandlagphaseareequivalent.Whentheconcentrationisgreaterthan50ppm,thechloridereleaserateandthelagphasedecreasewiththeincreaseoftheconcentration,andthechlorideionreleaserateis10%whenthe2,4-DCPconcentrationis25ppm;whenthe2,4-DCPis75ppm,Adecreaseof50%.2,4-DCPconcentrationof300ppm,themicrobiallossofactivity.Significantinhibitionwasobservedwhenthe2,4-DCPconcentrationwashigherthan50ppm.Keyword:Microbiome,2,4-dichlorophenol,dechlorination

    The Research of Coffee Shop Culture between Taiwan And Japan

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    [[abstract]]本研究主要探究咖啡店於民眾生活模式中,如何崛起、發展與轉化進而衍生至現階段的文化樣貌,並以台灣與日本為主要研究對象,在不同的時間點與社會脈絡之下,探討消費者為何前往咖啡店消費,以及在咖啡店飲用一杯咖啡的同時又具有哪些價值性的涵義。然而,從一般角度的思維下來看,咖啡的品質與金錢花費的親民性往往是形成消費者前往咖啡店的主要動機,但是深入研究後發現,消費者聚集、休憩以及聊天的場所等等利用價值的多樣性也是影響群眾消費的主因。也因此咖啡店不單僅是飲用一杯咖啡之設施場所,而是在廣泛的社會族群當中,扮演著一種另類式的生活替代空間。另外,依據本研究的歸納與整理,發現日本咖啡店起源於明治時代,主要是受到西化思潮的影響;而日據時期台灣也在日本殖民的統治下首度出現咖啡店,主要是受到日據時期裡同化政策的影響。兩國的咖啡店發展文化,皆由初期的奢侈消費階段轉換成為廣泛使用的平價階段,之後因美式咖啡店的引進,帶動了兩國之間另一股文化風潮,加上兩國之間各自知名度頗高的連鎖咖啡店持續拓點之下,產生更多不同的消費族群,群眾生活方式也因此改變,而使兩國之間產生更多元化的咖啡店文化樣貌。[[abstract]]ThisresearchisacoffeeshopcultureconcerninglifestylebetweenTaiwanandJapan,includingtheprocessoftheorigin,development,andtransformation.Indifferentsocialcontexts,whydopeopleliketogotocoffeeshopandwhatisthemeaningofdrinkingcoffeeinthispublicarea.However,fromthenormalviewpoint,“cost”and“coffeequality”arethemostcommonreasonswhypeopleconsumecoffeeinthecoffeeshop.Butaftergoingthroughadetailedstudying,Thispublicplaceisusedfor“gathertogether”“relaxation”“communication”“studyforatest”“waitforaappointment”andtheothervalueofdiversitiesarealsotheprimaryreasons.Therefore,coffeeshopisnotonlycoffeedrinkingplaces,butalsoseveralmeasuredvaluesinthecommunitylifeofaheterogeneoussociety.Ontheotherhand,accordingtotheconclusionsoftheresearchresults,theoriginofJapan’scoffeeshopculturewhichisinfluencedbywesterncultureisfromMeijiperiod.AndtheoriginofTaiwan’scoffeeshopculturewhichiscontrolledbygovernmentpolicyisfromcolonyPeriods.Bothoftwoculturaldevelopareconsumptionwithcivilianpricefromtheluxuryperiod.Afterthat,duetotheopeningofAmericanshopinTaiwanandJapan,twocountriesincoffeeshopculturestatedtobecomepreferredbythegeneralpublic.Furthermore,eachoftwocountrieshasitsfamouscoffeeshop,thatiscreatedmorediversityvalueofthepublicplaceinourlifestyle

    Study of cold Ironing Aluminum Hollow tubes by Finite Element Analysis

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    [[abstract]]摘要:本研究採用鋁合金AA7050引縮成形的滑動桿作為研究標的,先以Deform軟體針對中空管引縮成形模具的眼模半角、面積縮減率作模擬成形分析,確認製程範圍與可行性,配合使用的胚料管來決定成形道次同時進行模具設計、製作與驗證,再參考載具「登山車避震前叉」的檢驗規範EN14766進行動態疲勞測試。模擬結果顯示單一道次的面積縮減率超過45%將會有成形斷裂以及變形不均的潛在風險,由於使用的胚料管均已超過該面積縮減率為前提下,所以採取二道次引縮成形,眼模半角則分析出低於5?角的製程穩定範圍,再結合眼模高度的限制條件下設計確定眼模半角固定為3?角進行模具製作與成形加工,經過動態疲勞測試後發現:第一道次面積縮減率41.7%配合第二道次面積縮減率13.64%的滑動桿經過動態疲勞壽命平均可達到25.5萬次,優於第一道次面積縮減率20.9%配合第二道次面積縮減率13.64%(疲勞壽命平均僅為8.6萬次)及21.8%(疲勞壽命平均為15.7萬次),順利達成穩定量產平均超過20萬次的目標。關鍵詞:登山車避震前叉、冷間引縮成形、眼模半角、面積縮減率[[abstract]]ABSTRACTThearticlewasinvestigatedofthealuminumalloy7050slidertubemadebycoldIroning,andfirsttothehollowtubeIroningmoldwithsemi-angleandreductionratemakesthesimulationforminganalysisbytheDEFORM,confirmedthesystemregulationscopeandthefeasibility.Followingtheunformedtubedecidedtheformedwhilegoingalongsimultaneouslycarriesonthemolddesign,themanufactureandtheconfirmation,thenreferstothevehicle“MountainBicyclessuspensionfork“examinationstandardEN14766tocarryonthedynamicfatiguetest.TheanalogueresultwillshowthesingletimeIroningofreductionrateover45%willbebreaktheformingprocessandthedeformationofthepotentialrisks,Associatedwiththeuseoftheunformedtubearealreadyoverthereductionrate,thereforewilladopttwotimesIroningtopushthesystemforming;Thesemi-angleanalyzesislowerthan5?anglesthesystemregulationstablescopes,plusthemoldhighlimitingfactorthatdetermineeyemoldsemi-angleisfixedat3?andcarriesonthemoldmanufactureandtheformedprocessing.Afterpassesthroughthedynamicfatiguetesttodiscover:firstmeetingreductionratewith41.7%ofthesecondmeetingofthe13.64%slidertubeisdynamicfatiguelifeaverageof255thousandtimes,betterthanthefirsttimereductionrate20.9%inconjunctionwiththesecondmeetingreductionrate13.64%(fatiguelifeaverageofonly86thousand)and21.8%(fatiguelifeaverageof157thousand),achievestabilityinvolumeproductionaveragedover200thousandtarget.Keywords:MountainBicyclessuspensionfork、coldIroning、eyemoldsemi-angle、reductionrat

    How the country image & store environment affect brand loyalty: The case of Starbucks

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    [[abstract]]在全球競爭激烈與快速變遷的市場裡,龍頭企業要如何在各個國家中穩居第一,並保有消費者的忠誠度一直以來為許多企業必須所思考的問題,也就是說,企業要在全球化的腳步中成功,勢必要先找出自己的核心競爭力,掌握企業本身的優勢,配合當地環境存在的機會。而過去行銷研究者對於消費者看待全球連鎖咖啡品牌及本土咖啡品牌上的認知並未特別研究,基於此缺口,本研究旨在調查影響品牌忠誠之因素,其包括國家形象、店內環境,導致如何影響品牌形象的中介變數(全球品牌&當地品牌),以及結果變數(品牌忠誠),並以實證方式檢驗此架構的有效性。此研究採發送問卷並調查一般消費者,且實證部分以問卷方式作為調查。受測對象有326位,完成有效問卷321份。統計分析結果顯示:(1)「國家形象」及「品牌形象」均顯著影響「品牌忠誠」。(2)美國國家形象的認知,歐洲樣本與台灣樣本並無顯著差異。(3)比起星巴克的店內環境,歐洲樣本較偏向自己的傳統咖啡廳。(4)品牌形象被證明為部分中介效果。本研究的結果能釐清形成品牌忠誠的重要因素及其相對重要性,應有助於企業或店家在運用「品牌忠誠」作為其行銷手段時能依據本研究的結果將行銷資源做適當的配置,以擬訂有效的「品牌忠誠」行為,以避免不切實際的浪費。本研究除了探討行銷意涵及研究限制,並對學術界及企業界提供若干建議與未來研究方向。[[abstract]]Inthehighlycompetitivemarket,howtomaintainbrandloyaltyhasbeenanissueformanyenterprises.Thatis,inordertosucceedinglobalmarkets,itisnecessaryfortheenterprisetofirstlyfindouttheircorecompetitivenessandtograsptheadvantagesofthelocalenvironmentopportunities.Inthepast,marketresearchershavenotstudiedtheperceptionofglobalcoffeebrandsandlocalcoffeebrands.Basedonthisresearchgap,theaimofthisstudyistoinvestigatethefactorsthatinfluencebrandloyalty,includingcountryimage,storeenvironment,andthebrandimageTheempiricalstudyisbasedonaquestionnairesurveydistributedtothegeneralpublic.326questionnaireswerecollected,321validquestionnaireswereretrieved.Theresultsshowthat:(1)Countryimageandbrandimagehaveasignificantimpactonbrandloyalty.(2)There’snosignificantdifferencebetweentheEuropeanandTaiwaneseconsumersontheperceptionofbrandimage.(3)ComparedtothestoreenvironmentofStarbucks,theEuropeanconsumersmorestronglyprefertheirowntraditionalcoffeeshopthanTaiwaneseconsumers.(4)Brandimageturnedouttobeapartialmediator.Theresultsofthisstudycanclarifytheimportantfactorsoftheformationofbrandloyalty,anditsrelativeimportancemayhelpenterprisesuse"brandloyalty"asitsmarketingmeansbasedontheresultsofthisstudy;forexample,howtoappropriatelyallocatemarketingresources,andformulateeffective"brandloyalty"inordertoavoidunrealisticwaste.Inadditiontoexploringthemarketingimplicationsandresearchlimitations,thisstudyprovidesanumberofsuggestionsandfutureresearchdirectionsforacademiaandthepracticefield

    Analysis and Optimization of Traffic on Highway with Greenshield Model

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    [[abstract]]台灣運輸網絡發達。然而高峰時段高速公路的交通通常由於缺乏足夠的設施來引導司機或提供交通信息,導致交通堵塞。為了提供更好的服務質量,需要更多的先進設備和傳感器來收集更多的資料,如速度,交通流量和進一步分析和處理能力,作為智能交通系統的信息。本論文通過收集高速公路各個部分的交通數據提供旅行時間和交通量估算,來研究使用Greenshield的模型。傳感器設備包括環路感應線圈、車輛檢測卡、微處理器、Ethernet光電轉換器等,可以收集建立不同Greenshield型號的即時數據。我們可以在各種條件下獲得所需的參數,從而可以通過Greenshield的模型的速度-密度關係和流量達到最佳的吞吐量。本論文提出一種旅行時間估計演算法。利用每個路段環路車輛偵測器收集每分鐘車流、車速數據作為旅行時間估算依據。我們透過傳輸系統將這些數據傳送到交通管理中心數據庫進一步應用在Greenshield’s模型建立速度、密度與自由速度之間的關係。最後將這些現場數據和Greenshield’s模型取得一個適當權重因數進行旅行時間估算。並透過模擬結果顯示基於即時演算法所得到的Greenshield’s模型是有效的,可提供在快速公路(Expressway)上進行準確的旅行時間估算外,還能連動智慧型運輸系統(IntelligentTransportationSystem),提供即時(Real-Time)資訊增進運輸系統的安全、效率及舒適性,減少交通對環境的衝擊。[[abstract]]TransportnetworkinTaiwaniswelldeveloped.Howeverthetrafficinhighwayduringrushhoursoftenresultincongestionduetothelackofenoughfacilitiestoguidedriversorprovidetrafficinformationinadvanced.Forprovidingbetterqualityofservicemoreadvanceddevicesandsensorsarerequiredtocollectmoredatesuchasspeed,trafficflow,andcapacityforfurtheranalysisandprocessastheinformationinintelligenttransportationsystem.ThisthesisinvestigatestheuseofGreenshield'smodelbycollectingtrafficdatainvarioussectionsoftheExpresswayforprovidingthetraveltimeandtrafficestimation.Sensordevicesincludeloopcoil,vehicledetectioncard,microprocessorandEthernetphotoelectricconverter,whichcancollectrealtimedataforestablishingdifferentGreenshield'smodels.WecanobtaintherequiredparametersinvariousconditionssuchthattheoptimumthroughputcanbereachedthroughtheGreenshield'smodel'svelocity-densityrelationshipandflow.Inthisthesis,areal-timealgorithmfortraveltimeestimationisproposed.Webuildaloopvehicledetectoroneachsectiontocollectdatasuchastrafficflow,speedandsoonastraveltimeestimates.WetransferthesedatathroughthetransportsystemtotheTrafficManagementCenterdatabaseforfurtherapplicationintheGreenshield'smodeltoestablishtherelationshipbetweenspeed,densityandfreespeed.Finally,thesefielddataandGreenshield'smodelareobtainedwithanappropriateweightingfactorfortraveltimeestimates.AndthroughthesimulationresultsshowthattheGreenshield'smodelbasedonthereal-timealgorithmiseffective,canprovideaccuratetraveltimeestimatesonExpressway,butalsolinkedtotheIntelligentTransportationSystem,providingReal-TimeinformationtoenhancethesafetyefficiencyofthetransportsystemandComfort,reducetheimpactoftrafficontheenvironment
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