Versants. Revista suiza de literaturas románicas
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    Ordres et désordres des jardins de George Sand

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    In gardens, appearances are deceptive, and order and disorder are not always where you think they are. If the well “arranged” gardens represented in George Sand’s works invariably arouse at first the amazed surprise of the author or her characters, they end up disappointing them, because of their lack of a certain order. In contrast, the gardens that Sand defines as “natural”, where the vegetation is left to itself and free to grow wildly, reveal to whom may see it an unfailing order. How to explain this paradox? Consideration of the scientific debates that took place at the time of Sand will partly resolve it.  Keywords: native flora, exotic flora, natural garden, arranged garden, order, relationality, Cuvier-Geoffroy Saint-Hilaire debate, geography of plants. Dans les jardins, les apparences sont trompeuses, et l’ordre et le désordre ne sont pas toujours là où l’on pense. Si dans un premier temps, les jardins bien « arrangés » représentés dans les oeuvres de George Sand suscitent invariablement la surprise émerveillée de l’autrice ou de ses personnages, ils finissent cependant par décevoir, car un certain ordre leur fait défaut. Par opposition, les jardins que Sand définit comme « naturels », où la végétation est abandonnée à elle-même et libre de pousser à tort et à travers, révèlent à qui sait le voir un ordre indéfectible. Comment expliquer ce paradoxe ? La prise en considération des débats scientifiques ayant eu lieu à l’époque de Sand permettra en partie de le résoudre.  Mots-clés : flore indigène, flore exotique, jardin naturel, jardin arrangé, ordre, relationalité, débat Cuvier-Geoffroy Saint-Hilaire, géographie des plantes.&nbsp

    Un’autodefinizione a due. Montale e la storia di una fotografia

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    The essay interprets a photograph of Irma Brandeis dated 1934, reconstructing its story and clarifying the complicated relationship between Montale and his beloved woman. The photo does not only “self-define” the poet, but also sheds light on his conflicting relationship. Even in the middle of a dramatic romantic crisis, one can recognize the ironic, mutual understanding between the two lovers, depicted through the literary and musical references in the photograph which reveal the hope of the two protagonists that not everything was lost.  Keywords: Montale, Irma Brandeis, Mozart, irony, mutual understanding. Questo saggio, che interpreta una fotografia di Irma Brandeis del 1934 e ne ricostruisce la storia, chiarifica anche i complessi rapporti che intercorsero tra Montale e la donna amata. La foto infatti non si limita ad “autodefinire” il poeta ma getta anche luce sulla sua contraddittoria situazione sentimentale. Pur nel dramma di una crisi amorosa, emerge così tra i due un’ironica complicità che si rivela nei riferimenti letterari e musicali lasciando trasparire la speranza che tutto non fosse ancora perduto.  Parole chiave: Montale, Irma Brandeis, Mozart, ironia, complicità.&nbsp

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    « Quand les espèces se rencontrent » dans l’oeuvre de Victor Hugo

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    This article focuses on how Victor Hugo questions the relationship between humans and animals, considered as relational beings, in the fictional, theatrical and poetic work published during his lifetime. From a predominantly zoopoetic and stylistic perspective, and in a largely diachronic approach, it evaluates the place and the modalities of the denunciation of violence against animals, which it recaptures in the perspective of an incentive to rethink ethnozoological relationships by underlying the importance of a compassionate gaze. It also examines the possibility for animals to have the power to act in interspecific relationships.  Keywords: zoopoetics, animal, ecology, relationship, vulnerability. Cet article interroge les formes que prend, dans l’oeuvre de Victor Hugo, la réflexion sur les êtres vivants en tant qu’êtres de relation, à partir de l’analyse du traitement littéraire réservé – dans le cadre de l’œuvre romanesque, théâtrale et poétique publiée de son vivant –, aux relations entre les humains et les animaux. Dans une perspective à dominante zoopoétique et stylistique, et selon une démarche voulue largement diachronique, il évalue la place et les modalités de la dénonciation des violences faites aux bêtes, qu’il ressaisit dans la perspective d’une incitation à repenser les relations anthropozoologiques en les fondant sur le regard compassionnel. Il questionne enfin la place laissée à la puissance d’agir des bêtes dans la relation interspécifique.  Mots-clés : zoopoétique, animal, écologie, relation, vulnérabilité.

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    Galaxias y archipiélagos de la modernidad. Octavio Paz, Haroldo de Campos y la literatura española contemporánea

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    This article traces the importance of two Latin American authors -Mexican Octavio Paz (Mexico DF, 1914-1998) and Brazilian Haroldo de Campos (São Paulo,1929-2003)- in the transformations of Spanish criticism and literature from thesecond half of the 1960s onwards, especially through their relationships with Julián Ríos (Vigo, 1941), Pere Gimferrer (Barcelona, 1945) and Andrés Sánchez Robayna (Gran Canaria, 1952). Bringing these three poles -Spain, Mexico and Brazil- into contact will make it possible to recognize some of the dynamics that crossed the literary life in the sixties and seventies, and to verify, incorporating other mediations, how they communicated at that time regions of knowledge that later, after those years of crisis, would become stagnant again.  Keywords: Octavio Paz, Haroldode Campos, contemporary Spanish literature, Andrés Sánchez Robayna, Julián Ríos, Pere Gimferrer. Este artículo rastrea la importancia de dos autores latinoamericanos –el mexicano Octavio Paz (México DF, 1914-1998) y el brasileño Haroldo de Campos (São Paulo, 1929-2003)– en las transformaciones de la crítica y la literatura española a partir de la segunda mitad de los años sesenta, especialmente a través de sus relaciones con Julián Ríos (Vigo, 1941), Pere Gimferrer (Barcelona, 1945) y Andrés Sánchez Robayna (Gran Canaria, 1952). Poner en contacto estos tres polos –España, México y Brasil– permitirá reconocer algunas dinámicas que atravesaron la vida literaria de los años sesenta y setenta, y constatar, incorporando otras mediaciones, cómo comunicaban en aquella época regiones del saber que posteriormente, y tras esos años de crisis, volverían a quedar estancas.  Palabras clave: Octavio Paz, Haroldo de Campos, literatura española contemporánea, Andrés Sánchez Robayna, Julián Ríos, Pere Gimferrer.&nbsp

    Produttività potenziata. Edoardo Sanguineti e Luciano Berio, da "Esposizione" a "Laborintus II"

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    In this essay, I consider the dynamics of collaboration and co-creation between Edoardo Sanguineti and Luciano Berio I examine how the ballet-performance Esposizione, considered by Berio as an aesthetic failure, was transformed, within a changed collaborative configuration, into Laborintus II. In fact, I claim that one of the prerequisites that fostered the aesthetic success of Laborintus II, refocusing the creative minds on an element absent from Esposizione, was precisely the intervention of the commissioners of the work at the ORTF, the French radio station, who on the occasion of Dante’s 700th birthday had asked Berio and Sanguineti for a work in homage to the poet of the Divina Commedia. By reusing the materials from Esposizione, but adding a dialogue with Dante to it, Berio and Sanguineti managed to convert failure into success.  Keywords: co-creation, intermediality, intertextuality, Dante, Ann Halprin. Nel presente saggio analizzo le dinamiche di collaborazione e di co-creazione tra Edoardo Sanguineti e Luciano Berio. Esamino come da una precedente collaborazione ritenuta da Berio esteticamente fallita, il balletto-performance Esposizione, nasca, in una configurazione collaborativa cambiata, Laborintus II. Sostengo l’ipotesi che uno dei presupposti che ha favorito la riuscita estetica di Laborintus II, rifocalizzando le menti creative su aspetti assenti in Esposizione, sia stato il ruolo dei committenti dell’opera alla ORTF, che in occasione del settimo centenario della nascita di Dante hanno richiesto a Berio e Sanguineti un’opera-omaggio del poeta della Commedia. Riutilizzando i materiali di Esposizione, ma attivando un dialogo con Dante, Berio e Sanguineti riuscirono a convertire il fallimento in successo.  Parole chiave: co-creazione, intermedialità, intertestualità, Dante, Ann Halprin.&nbsp

    Teatro mágico, teatro fantástico: tres piezas de Hugo Argüelles

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    Among the many peculiarities that made Hugo Argüelles (Veracruz, 1932-CDMX 2003) a unique dramatist, perhaps the repeated appearance of magical objects in his plays is the most recognizable. These motifs certainly lead many of the playwright’s work into the realm of the marvellous, although with some fantastic traits, as in Los amores criminales de las vampiras Morales and La esfinge de las maravillas. Nonetheless, a clear sample of pure fantastic mode appears in El gran inquisidor. Auto profano. Here, Argüelles uses the technique of metatheatre to achieve a transgression that cannot be explained in the work itself. We will see, then, how this dramatist approaches the frontiers between the marvellous and the fantastic mode while he works on his obsessions upon incest and how he achieves a fantastic piece with the figure of Tomás de Torquemada.  Keywords: metatheatre, fantastic literature, fantastic theatre, Mexican theater, magical objects. aEntre las múltiples particularidades que hicieron único al dramaturgo Hugo Argüelles (Veracruz, 1932-CDMX 2003), quizás la más conocida sea el uso constante de objetos mágicos en su obra. Estos motivos llevan la obra del dramaturgo a lo maravilloso, aunque con algunos rasgos de lo fantástico, como sucede en Los amores criminales de las vampiras Morales y La esfinge de las maravillas. En cambio, una clara muestra de lo fantástico aparece en El gran inquisidor. Auto profano, donde el escritor acude al metateatro para lograr una transgresión que no logra explicarse en la obra misma. Veremos, entonces, cómo Argüelles se acerca a las fronteras de lo fantástico cuando trabaja sobre las obsesiones del incesto y cómo logra una pieza fantástica con la figura de Tomás de Torquemada.  Palabras clave: metateatro, fantástico, teatro fantástico, teatro mexicano, objetos mágicos.&nbsp

    Senancour écocritique : la conception pastorale

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       The relationship of man with nature is just as much a relationship of man with his nature. This is Étienne Pivert de Senancour’s (1770-1846) fundamental contribution to the studies of nature. He analyses the conversion from the human to the natural by identifying, though in a problematic way, the deviant paths of anthropization. His analysis identifies different elements pointing to a form of misguidance that makes sense, but also counter-sense: the illusion of a destination conceived as an indefinite extension, but also as a distortion and equal devaluation of man and nature. Senancour thus advocates a form of restoration of value, of a use value of nature, and a reassessment of the place and mission of mankind in what could be called a new pastoral conception.  Keywords: Senancour, nature, pastoral (life), romanticism, ecocriticism. Le rapport de l’homme avec la nature est tout autant un rapport de l’homme avec sa nature. C’est l’apport fondamental de la pensée de la nature chez Étienne Pivert de Senancour (1770-1846). L’auteur indique les chemins méthodiques d’une conversion de l’humain vers le naturel en identifiant de façon problématique les voies déviantes de l’anthropisation. Son analyse relève différentes directions qui dessinent une forme d’égarement qui font sens, mais aussi contre-sens : l’illusion d’une destination conçue comme extension indéfinie, mais aussi comme dénaturation et égale dévaluation de l’homme et de la nature. Face à cela, Senancour propose une forme de restauration de la valeur, d’une valeur d’usage de la nature, et une réévaluation de la place et de la mission de l’homme dans ce qu’on pourrait appeler une nouvelle conception pastorale.  Mots-clés : Senancour, nature, pastorale (vie), romantisme, écocritique.&nbsp

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