1,567 research outputs found

    Service delivery interventions to increase uptake of voluntary medical male circumcision for HIV prevention: A systematic review.

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    BackgroundVoluntary medical male circumcision (VMMC) remains an essential component of combination HIV prevention services, particularly in priority countries in sub-Saharan Africa. As VMMC programs seek to maximize impact and efficiency, and to support World Health Organization guidance, specific uptake-enhancing strategies are critical to identify.MethodsWe systematically reviewed the literature to evaluate the impact of service delivery interventions (e.g., facility layout, service co-location, mobile outreach) on VMMC uptake among adolescent and adult men. For the main effectiveness review, we searched for publications or conference abstracts that measured VMMC uptake or uptake of HIV testing or risk reduction counselling within VMMC services. We synthesized data by coding categories and outcomes. We also reviewed studies assessing acceptability, values/preferences, costs, and feasibility.ResultsFour randomized controlled trials and five observational studies were included in the effectiveness review. Studies took place in South Africa, Tanzania, Uganda, Zambia, and Zimbabwe. They assessed a range of service delivery innovations, including community-, school-, and facility-based interventions. Overall, interventions increased VMMC uptake; some successfully improved uptake among age-specific subpopulations, but urban-rural stratification showed no clear trends. Interventions that increased adult men's uptake included mobile services (compared to static facilities), home-based testing with active referral follow-up, and facility-based HIV testing with enhanced comprehensive sexual education. Six acceptability studies suggested interventions were generally perceived to help men choose to get circumcised. Eleven cost studies suggested interventions create economies-of-scale and efficiencies. Three studies suggested such interventions were feasible, improving facility preparedness, service quality and quantity, and efficiencies.ConclusionsInnovative changes in male-centered VMMC services can improve adult men's and adolescent boys' VMMC uptake. Limited evidence on interventions that enhance access and acceptability show promising results, but evidence gaps persist due to inconsistent intervention definition and delivery, due in part to contextual relevance and limited age disaggregation

    Economic compensation interventions to increase uptake of voluntary medical male circumcision for HIV prevention: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

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    BackgroundEconomic compensation interventions may help support higher voluntary medical male circumcision (VMMC) coverage in priority sub-Saharan African countries. To inform World Health Organization guidelines, we conducted a systematic review of economic compensation interventions to increase VMMC uptake.MethodsEconomic compensation interventions were defined as providing money or in-kind compensation, reimbursement for associated costs (e.g. travel, lost wages), or lottery entry. We searched five electronic databases and four scientific conferences for studies examining the impact of such interventions on VMMC uptake, HIV testing and safer-sex/risk-reduction counseling uptake within VMMC, community expectations about compensation, and potential coercion. We screened citations, extracted data, and assessed risk of bias in duplicate. We conducted random-effects meta-analysis. We also reviewed studies examining acceptability, values/preferences, costs, and feasibility.ResultsOf 2484 citations identified, five randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and three non-randomized controlled trials met our eligibility criteria. Studies took place in Kenya, Malawi, South Africa, Tanzania, Uganda, Zambia, and Zimbabwe. Meta-analysis of four RCTs showed significant impact of any economic compensation on VMMC uptake (relative risk: 5.23, 95% CI: 3.13 to 8.76). RCTs of food/transport vouchers and conditional cash transfers generally showed increases in VMMC uptake, but lotteries, subsidized VMMC, and receiving a gift appeared somewhat less effective. Three non-randomized trials showed mixed impact. Six additional studies suggested economic compensation interventions were generally acceptable, valued for addressing key barriers, and motivating to men. However, some participants felt they were insufficiently motivating or necessary; one study suggested they might raise community suspicions. One study from South Africa found a program cost of US91peradditionalcircumcisionandUS91 per additional circumcision and US450-$1350 per HIV infection averted.ConclusionsEconomic compensation interventions, particularly transport/food vouchers, positively impacted VMMC uptake among adult men and were generally acceptable to potential clients. Carefully selected economic interventions may be a useful targeted strategy to enhance VMMC coverage

    Integrating Female Condoms into HIV Prevention Programs: A Case Study of Barriers, Facilitators, and Future Opportunities in Kenya

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    Female condoms are an important option for dual protection from unintended pregnancy and HIV and other sexually transmitted infections, especially when male condoms cannot be used. Incorporating female condoms into other HIV prevention channels is a potential strategy to increase access for women and men in need of dual protection beyond male condoms. Policies recommend incorporating female condoms into two HIV prevention programs that have gained significant momentum and political support -- prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HIV (PMTCT) and voluntary medical male circumcision (VMMC). However, there is a lack of clarity on how female condoms are being included at the programmatic level

    Is there scope for cost savings and efficiency gains in HIV services? A systematic review of the evidence from low- and middle-income countries.

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    OBJECTIVE: To synthesize the data available--on costs, efficiency and economies of scale and scope--for the six basic programmes of the UNAIDS Strategic Investment Framework, to inform those planning the scale-up of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) services in low- and middle-income countries. METHODS: The relevant peer-reviewed and "grey" literature from low- and middle-income countries was systematically reviewed. Search and analysis followed Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-analyses guidelines. FINDINGS: Of the 82 empirical costing and efficiency studies identified, nine provided data on economies of scale. Scale explained much of the variation in the costs of several HIV services, particularly those of targeted HIV prevention for key populations and HIV testing and treatment. There is some evidence of economies of scope from integrating HIV counselling and testing services with several other services. Cost efficiency may also be improved by reducing input prices, task shifting and improving client adherence. CONCLUSION: HIV programmes need to optimize the scale of service provision to achieve efficiency. Interventions that may enhance the potential for economies of scale include intensifying demand-creation activities, reducing the costs for service users, expanding existing programmes rather than creating new structures, and reducing attrition of existing service users. Models for integrated service delivery--which is, potentially, more efficient than the implementation of stand-alone services--should be investigated further. Further experimental evidence is required to understand how to best achieve efficiency gains in HIV programmes and assess the cost-effectiveness of each service-delivery model

    The cost effectiveness of integrated care for people living with HIV including antiretroviral treatment in a primary health care centre in Bujumbura, Burundi

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    The incremental cost effectiveness of an integrated care package (i.e., medical care including antiretroviral therapy (ART) and other services such as psychological and social support) for people living with HIV/AIDS was calculated in a not-for-profit primary health care centre in Bujumbura run by Society of Women against AIDS-Burundi (SWAA-Burundi), an African non-governmental organisation (NGO). Results are expressed as cost-effectiveness ratio 2007, constant USperdisabilityadjustedlifeyear(DALY)averted.UnitcostsareestimatedfromtheNGOsaccountingdataandactivityreports,healthcareutilisationisestimatedfromthemedicalrecordsofacohortof149patients.Effectivenessismodelledonthesurvivalofthiscohort,usingstandardcalculationmethods.TheincrementalcostofintegratedcareforpeoplelivingwithHIV/AIDSintheBujumburahealthcentreofSWAABurundiis258US per disability-adjusted life year (DALY) averted. Unit costs are estimated from the NGO's accounting data and activity reports, healthcare utilisation is estimated from the medical records of a cohort of 149 patients. Effectiveness is modelled on the survival of this cohort, using standard calculation methods. The incremental cost of integrated care for people living with HIV/AIDS in the Bujumbura health centre of SWAA-Burundi is 258 US per DALY averted. The package of care provided by SWAA-Burundi is therefore a very cost-effective intervention in comparison with other interventions against HIV/AIDS that include ART. It is however, less cost effective than other types of interventions against HIV/AIDS, such as preventive activities

    Addressing the Quality and Safety Gap Part I: Case Studies in Transforming Hospital Nursing and Building Cultures of Safety

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    Presents case studies of strategies four healthcare systems and a state government are using to address underlying causes in flawed systems: strengthening care processes, optimizing staffing, and promoting safe work habits. Lists policy recommendations