1,290 research outputs found

    First conclusions about results of GPR investigations in the Church of the Assumption of the Blessed Virgin Mary in KŇāodzko, Poland

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    Abstract. The article presents results of a ground penetrating radar (GPR) investigation carried out in the Church of the Assumption of the Blessed Virgin Mary in KŇāodzko, Poland, dating from the 14th to 16th centuries. Due to the 20th century wars, the current state of knowledge about the history of the church is still poor. Under the floor of the Catholic temple, unknown structures might exist. To verify the presence of underground structures such as crypts and tombs, a GPR survey was carried out in chapels and aisles with 500 and 800‚ÄĮMHz GPR shielded antennas. Numerous anomalies were detected. It was concluded that those under the chapels were caused by the presence of crypts beneath the floor

    Woodland Cemetery Policies and Procedures, 1924-2009

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    Materialidade e tipologia do patrim√≥nio funer√°rio. O Cemit√©rio de Jesus em M√ļrcia, Espanha

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    The cemetery of Jesus of Murcia (Spain) has more than 600 pantheons, which converts it in a small funerary city, whose buildings show a large spectrum of architectural samples. This paper presents an exhaustive study of the typologies and materials used in those little buildings. In addition, this investigation addresses the study of the evolution and the distribution of the typologies and materials detected, drawing conclusions about both of these aspects.O cemit√©rio de Jesus de M√ļrcia (Espanha) tem mais de 600 pante√Ķes, o que faz dele uma pequena cidade funer√°ria, cujos edif√≠cios exibem um grande espectro de amostras arquitet√≥nicas. Este artigo apresenta um estudo exaustivo das tipologias e materiais utilizados nesses pequenos edif√≠cios. Al√©m disso, esta investiga√ß√£o aborda o estudo da evolu√ß√£o e distribui√ß√£o das tipologias e materiais identificados, procurando tirar conclus√Ķes sobre ambos os aspetos

    Non-destructive Techniques Methodologies for the Detection of Ancient Structures under Heritage Buildings

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    [EN] Structures and elements buried beneath heritage buildings are frequent but are often unknown and inaccessible. Therefore, they are difficult to locate in general if an archaeological excavation is not carried out, with the economic cost and time involved. It is important to discover them in order to increase our knowledge of cultural heritage, as well as to know, recover and improve the state of conservation of the materials that make up these structures. This paper presents methodologies for locating old structures using a low-cost NDT approach, with a qualitative and quantitative analysis of GPR profiles in heritage buildings. Small perforations are performed at critical points and introducing an endoscope for verification. Various crypts have been located using the proposed methodologies in a real study case: The Church of the Asución of Llíria in Spain.Gil Benso, E.; Mas Tomas, MDLA.; Lerma Elvira, C.; Torner, ME.; Vercher Sanchis, J. (2021). Non-destructive Techniques Methodologies for the Detection of Ancient Structures under Heritage Buildings. International journal of architectural heritage (electronic). 15(10):1457-1473. https://doi.org/10.1080/15583058.2019.1700320S14571473151

    Digestive System of Anourosorex squamipes - Appearance and Morphological Features

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    Background: Anourosorex squamipes have a wide range of feeding habits, which is a kind of omnivorous animal. As an indispensable part of organisms, the differentiation degree of digestive system indicates the evolution degree of species. The higher the evolution degree of animals, the higher the differentiation of digestive system. At present, the research on Anourosorex squamipes digestive system mainly focuses on its feeding habits and mainly depends on the direct observation of gastric contents with the naked eye, but the research on the morphology of digestive system has not been reported. Materials, Methods & Results: Twenty adult Anourosorex squamipes were selected to investigate the characteristics of the appearance, including the contour parameters (body weight, body length, forefoot length, posterior foot length, nasal length, tail length), digestive system parameters (length of esophagus, intestinal length, intestinal weight, stomach weight and liver weight) and morphological structure of the small intestine by histological methods. The results showed that there were no significant differences in body weight, body length, forefoot length, posterior foot length, nasal length and tail length between males and females in Anourosorex squamipes, and no significant differences were observed in parameters of digestive system in length of esophagus, intestinal length, intestinal weight, stomach weight and liver weight. There were no significant differences in villus height, muscular layer thickness and villus height/recess depth (V/C) between males and females, but only ileal crypt depth decreased significantly in males. Discussion: Animal morphological characteristics are closely related to their life habits, unique organs and lifestyles ensure that they thrive on earth. In our study, we found that unique characters are found by observing the appearance of Anourosorex squamipes, the snout is blunt and short, the eyes are degenerated, and the tail is very short and covered with scales, which may be related to its feeding habits, the living environment-long-term nocturnal life in underground with minimal exposure to sunlight, and the unique tail can reduce the friction between tail and soil during the movement. There are certain differences in the appearance parameters of male and female Anourosorex squamipes, but are not significant. The esophagus, stomach, intestine, liver and other parameters of Anourosorex squamipes have little difference between males and females, indicating that Anourosorex squamipes don’t have obvious distinctions between males and females in food intake. However, the liver weight of male Anourosorex squamipes is larger than female, indicating that the physiological metabolic capacity of male is larger than female. It is speculated that this may be related to the difference in the amount of activity between males and females in daily life. Males are more active and require more energy, but their digestion and absorption abilities are weaker than females. Therefore, the male Anourosorex squamipes needs more food to provide energy to meet the daily physiological metabolism, and the larger stomach capacity provides the essential conditions for the male to store more food. In addition, we found that the crypt depth of male Anourosorex squamipes is generally greater than that of females, especially in the ileal crypt depth, indicating that the female’s cell maturation rate is greater than that of the male. It is speculated that the female has a greater demand for nutrient absorption and better digestion and absorption of food, because females need to give birth to offspring and require greater nutrition.   Keywords: Anourosorex squamipes, contour characteristics, digestive system, small intestine

    BRAN THE BROKEN: CLASSICAL PRECEDENTS FOR THE FIGURE OF BRAN STARK IN G R R MARTIN’S A SONG OF ICE AND FIRE NOVELS AND IN THE GAME OF THRONES TELEVISION SERIES

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    This article seeks to explain why many viewers and fans of the Game of thrones¬† series and the novels that inspired them were disappointed and frustrated with the ending of the eighth season. Although it has long been observed that kingship often coincided with magical powers or the abilities of the seer in a wide range of early human societies, we have come to prefer the heroes whom we celebrate and the seers or wise people who advise them to be separate entities.¬† Bran Stark endured physical disability as the result of an attempted assassination as a child; either in spite of this or because of this, he developed soothsaying powers as a ‚Äėgreenseer‚Äô and journeyed beyond the Wall to become the next Three-Eyed Raven.¬† While disability has traditionally been linked to the ambiguouspowers of the seer, there is also a strong tradition for this not tobe associated with kingship. Then there is the nature of Bran himself.In some ways Bran has remained a child, avoiding normal humanrelationships and the usual progression of life; at the same time,however, Bran is an old man, with hints of omniscience, longevityand even immortality. He fulfils the Jungian puer-senex archetype.Both Classical and other precedents are used to view Bran as anambiguous and dualistic figure with whom most fans of Game ofthrones can no longer sympathize

    Beowulf and archaeology: Megaliths imagined and encountered in early medieval Europe

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    This is the author's version of a book chapter published in The lives of prehistoric monuments in Iron Age, Roman and medieval Europe by Oxford University Press, 2015.The dragon‚Äôs lair in the epic Anglo-Saxon poem Beowulf has been widely interpreted to reflect engagement with Neolithic megalithic architecture. Embodying the poet‚Äôs sense of the past, the stone barrow (Old English: stńĀnbeorh) of the dragon has been taken to reveal mythological and legendary attributions to megalithic monuments as the works of giants and haunts of dragons in the early medieval world. This chapter reconsiders this argument, showing how the dragon‚Äôs mound invoked a biography of successive pasts and significances as treasure hoard, monstrous dwelling, place of exile, theft, conflict and death. Only subsequently does the mound serve as the starting-point for the funeral of Beowulf involving his cremation ceremony and mound-raising nearby. The biography of the dragon‚Äôs barrow is a literary one, in which inherited prehistoric megaliths were counter-tombs, antithetical to contemporary stone architectures containing the bodies of kings, queens and the relics of saints.Sponsored by European Research Counci

    The hypogea of the churches of Naples: Burials and cult of the dead

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    An interesting mortuary practice widespread in Naples until the second half of the nineteenth century was the one housed in the hypogea located under the floor of churches and convents. These funerary crypts were structured according to two organizational models based on the double burial system: the terresante and the scolatoi, both of which aimed at favouring the decomposition of the corpses and reaching the state of a skeleton. According to the established procedures, once skeletonization was accomplished, the skulls were usually displayed on a cornice running along the walls of the hypogeum, while non-cranial bones were placed in a common ossuary. The foundation of the ritual was the idea of death perceived not as a sudden event but as a long-lasting process, during which the deceased went through a transitional phase, gradually passing from the earthly state to the hereafter. Indeed, the ultimate purpose of these funerary rituals was the liberation of the bones from the earthly element of the flesh, an indispensable condition to allow the definitive passage of the soul into the afterlife. This process also had to been exhibited, and, therefore, in these hypogea the decomposition of the corpse was displayed to visitors. Through the corpse’s progressive decomposition, the ritual was intended to visually symbolize the various stages of purification faced by the soul on its path towards the kingdom of the dead, a destination considered reached only when the skeletonization was complete, and the definitive burial carried out. This article briefly reviews the structural organization of these underground sepulchral chambers, the funerary practices held within and the worships which took root and developed within them
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