4,953,184 research outputs found

    Recall of MPs in the UK : 'if I were you I wouldn't start from here'

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    The publication of a White Paper, Recall of MPs, and a draft Bill for pre-legislative scrutiny, by the UK Government in December 2011 was greeted with almost universal antipathy. In bringing forward the draft Bill Cabinet Office ministers declared their intention to ‘trigger a debate on what would be the best model for a recall mechanism’ and they expressed a willingness ‘to consider alternative models’ or even to contemplate ‘adopting a completely different approach’. Yet, they made it clear any such proposals ‘must work within our unique constitutional framework’ and be ‘suitable for our system of representative democracy’. The objective of this article, therefore, is to do precisely what Cabinet Office ministers asked: to examine comparative experience and to apply lessons from that experience to the UK's ‘unique constitutional framework’. Three questions guide the analysis: first, what is the problem to be addressed in introducing recall?; secondly, what does comparative experience reveal about the operation of recall? and thirdly how unique is the UK's constitutional framework

    Choice of activity-intensity classification thresholds impacts upon accelerometer-assessed physical activity-health relationships in children

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    It is unknown whether using different published thresholds (PTs) for classifying physical activity (PA) impacts upon activity-health relationships. This study explored whether relationships between PA (sedentary [SED], light PA [LPA], moderate PA [MPA], moderate-to-vigorous PA, vigorous PA [VPA]) and health markers differed in children when classified using three different PTs

    Determinants of physical activity promotion by smoking cessation advisors as an aid for quitting: Support for the Transtheoretical Model

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    Objectives: Physical activity (PA) can reduce cigarette cravings and aid quitting but little is known about its promotion by smoking cessation advisors. This study aimed to: (1) determine the extent to which smoking cessation advisors promote PA; and (2) examine the relationship between PA promotion as a cessation aid and advisor characteristics and cognitions, within the Transtheoretical Model (TM) framework. Methods: Self-report surveys assessing PA promotion, TM variables, advisors’ own PA levels and demographics were completed by 170 advisors in England and Scotland. Results: Advisors reported spending 29 minutes promoting PA over a 6/7-week clinic. Those in later stages of readiness for promoting PA as a cessation aid and those spending more time promoting PA held more positive beliefs regarding pros and cons, self-efficacy, outcome efficacy and importance of PA within smoking cessation. Time spent promoting PA and stage of readiness were strongly associated. There was a trend for the more physically active advisors to promote PA more often. Conclusions: About half the advisors promoted PA and TM variables predicted this variability. Practice Implications: PA promotion among smoking cessation advisors may be facilitated by enhancing self-efficacy, outcome efficacy and pro and con-beliefs related to PA promotion

    Readiness to use physical activity as a smoking cessation aid: a multiple behaviour change application of the Transtheoretical Model among quitters attending Stop Smoking Clinics

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    Objective: Physical activity (PA) reduces cigarette cravings during smoking abstinence. However, little is known about quitters’ use of PA. This study aimed to: (1) determine the extent of quitters’ past and current use of PA as a cessation aid, while attempting to quit; (2) examine the relationship between use of PA and quitter characteristics and cognitions, within the Transtheoretical Model framework. Methods: Self-report surveys were completed by 181 smokers attending Stop Smoking Services in England and Scotland. Results: Twenty-two percent of quitters reported currently using PA to control their smoking, and 35% had used it during a previous quit attempt. Those in a more advanced stage of readiness for using PA as a cessation aid, held more positive beliefs regarding self-efficacy and outcome efficacy. Conclusion: Quitters were more likely to use PA to help them quit when they had greater belief in their own ability to use PA and in the efficacy of PA to help them to quit, and were also meeting weekly PA targets for health. Practice implications: Strategies by stop smoking advisors that aim to enhance client self-efficacy and outcome efficacy beliefs regarding PA as a cessation aid may help to increase the use of this behavioural strategy, since it seems that most quitters do not use PA

    Pa Jose\u27s voice...

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    In lieu of an abstract, below is the essay\u27s first paragraph. Pa Jose\u27s voice ran along the river-grained floor slats like wise currents. He had spoken to the slight-bodied youth statuted against the twilight blue window. His own antique shell balanced darkly in the doorframe he had hewn when his hands were the boy\u27s age. They shook gently now, twisted around the evening gazette, as if suddened by some unhappy headine

    Mutant and chimeric recobinant plasminogen activatorsproduction in eukaryotic cellsand preliminary characterization

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    Mutant urokinase-type plasminogen activator (u-PA) genes and hybrid genes between tissue-type plasminogen activator (t-PA) and u-PA have been designed to direct the synthesis of new plasminogen activators and to investigate the structure-function relationship in these molecules. The following classes of constructs were made starting from cDNA encoding human t-PA or u-PA: 1) u-PA mutants in which the Arg156 and Lys158 were substituted with threonine, thus preventing cleavage by thrombin and plasmin; 2) hybrid molecules in which the NH2-terminal regions of t-PA (amino acid residues 1-67, 1-262, or 1-313) were fused with the COOH-terminal region of u-PA (amino acids 136-411, 139-411, or 195-411, respectively); and 3) a hybrid molecule in which the second kringle of t-PA (amino acids 173-262) was inserted between amino acids 130 and 139 of u-PA. In all cases but one, the recombinant proteins, produced by transfected eukaryotic cells, were efficiently secreted in the culture medium. The translation products have been tested for their ability to activate plasminogen after in situ binding to an insolubilized monoclonal antibody directed against urokinase. All recombinant enzymes were shown to be active, except those in which Lys158 of u-PA was substituted with threonine. Recombination of structural regions derived from t-PA, such as the finger, the kringle 2, or most of the A-chain sequences, with the protease part or the complete u-PA molecule did not impair the catalytic activity of the hybrid polypeptides. This observation supports the hypothesis that structural domains in t-PA and u-PA fold independently from one to another

    Potential Architecture

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    The exhibition brings together new work: sculpture, drawings and models created by Lucy + Jorge Orta during their research on new organic and modular architecture as a result of their collaborations with the Greenham partnership and other communities across Europe. Lucy Orta’s practice from the early 1990s began with a series of artworks that combined architecture, fashion and social intervention. Produced in collaboration with her partner, these works took the form of temporary refuges, prototype survival clothing, portable shelters, and tent villages for symbolic emergency situations exploring notions of identity, architecture and communication through workshops and community based actions. In 2002, Orta began working on a series entitled Totipotent Architecture marking a shift away from the body and the transient shelters, to more permanent proposals for sculpture and interventions in urban space. Totipotent Architecture is a reflection on the process of differentiation the human cell undertakes from its embryonic state, to a defined cell structural organism, the wonderful building block of our body

    Exploring the relationship between baseline physical activity levels and mortality reduction associated with increases in physical activity : a modelling study

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    Background Increasing physical activity (PA) levels among the general adult population of developed nations is important for reducing premature mortality and the burdens of preventable illness. Assessing how effective PA interventions are as health interventions often involves categorising participants as either ‘active’ or ‘sedentary’ after the interventions. A model was developed showing that doing this could significantly misestimate the health effect of PA interventions. Methods A life table model was constructed combining evidence on baseline PA levels with evidence indicating the non-linear relationship between PA levels and all-cause mortality risks. PA intervention scenarios were modelled which had the same mean increase in PA but different levels of take-up by people who were more active or more sedentary to begin with. Results The model simulations indicated that, compared with a scenario where already-active people did most of the additional PA, a scenario where the least active did the most additional PA was around a third more effective in preventing deaths between the ages of 50 and 60 years. The relationship between distribution of PA take-up and health effect was explored systematically and appeared non-linear. Conclusions As the health gains of a given PA increase are greatest among people who are most sedentary, smaller increases in PA in the least active may have the same health benefits as much larger PA increases in the most active. To help such health effects to be assessed, PA studies should report changes in the distribution of PA level between the start and end of the study

    Physical activity in older men: longitudinal associations with inflammatory and hemostatic biomarkers, N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide, and onset of coronary heart disease and mortality.

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    OBJECTIVES: To examine associations between habitual physical activity (PA) and changes in PA and onset of coronary heart disease (CHD) and the pathways linking PA to CHD. DESIGN: British Regional Heart Study population-based cohort; men completed questionnaires in 1996 and 1998 to 2000, attended rescreen in 1998 to 2000, and were followed up to June 2010. SETTING: Community. PARTICIPANTS: Of 4,252 men recruited from primary care centers (77% of those invited and eligible) who were rescreened in 1998 to 2000, 3,320 were ambulatory and free from CHD, stroke, and heart failure and participated in the current study. MEASUREMENTS: Usual PA (regular walking and cycling, recreational activity and sport). Outcome was first fatal or nonfatal myocardial infarction. RESULTS: In 3,320 ambulatory men, 303 first and 184 fatal CHD events occurred during a median of 11 years of follow-up; 9% reported no usual PA, 23% occasional PA, and 68% light or more-intense PA. PA was inversely associated with novel risk markers C-reactive protein, D-dimer, von Willebrand Factor and N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP). Compared with no usual PA, hazard ratios (HRs) for CHD events, adjusted for age and region, were 0.52 (95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.34-0.79) for occasional PA, 0.47 (95% CI = 0.30-0.74) for light PA, 0.51 (95% CI = 0.32-0.82) for moderate PA, and 0.44 (95% CI = 0.29-0.65) for moderately vigorous or vigorous PA (P for linear trend =.004). Adjustment for established and novel risk markers somewhat attenuated HRs and abolished linear trends. Compared with men who remained inactive, men who maintained at least light PA had an HR for CHD events of 0.73 (95% CI = 0.53-1.02) and men whose PA level increased had an HR of 0.86 (95% CI = 0.55-1.35). CONCLUSION: Even light PA was associated with significantly lower risk of CHD events in healthy older men, partly through inflammatory and hemostatic mechanisms and cardiac function (NT-proBNP)
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