2,647,476 research outputs found

    Towards Designing a Performance Measurement System for the CGIAR : Draft Report

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    The System Office established the Working Group on Performance Measurement in May 2003, under the Co-Chairmanship of two ExCo members: Kevin Cleaver (ExCo/FC Chair) and Luis Arango (ExCo/PC member). Three sets of activities were carried out in preparation for the first meeting of the WG on September 5, 2003:(1) The CGIAR Secretariat prepared a Sourcebook on Performance Measurement in Research Institutions and Programs as background on approaches and methods of performance measurement being used in similar organizations globally.(2) Members of the WG shared additional information relevant to the objectives of the exercise (e.g., papers, articles);(3) A sub-group of the WG (made up of technical experts and resource persons1) met for a two day workshop on August 11-12, 2003 to discuss and outline performance measurement options that could be considered by the WG at its September 5 meeting, as a means of facilitating the task of the WG. This paper reflects the outcome of this preparatory workshop.The paper is organized as follows: the remainder of this chapter discusses the rationalebehind the worldwide trends towards Performance Measurement and offers definitions ofsome key terms. Chapter 2 focuses on the CGIAR, describing potential purposes and usesof performance measurement, identifying possible key elements of a performance measurement system, and outlining how such a system could fit into the planning and evaluation processes of the CGIAR. The final chapter summarizes the main conclusions and recommendations. This report was discussed during the Business Meeting at AGM 2003

    Measurement in marketing

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    We distinguish three senses of the concept of measurement (measurement as the selection of observable indicators of theoretical concepts, measurement as the collection of data from respondents, and measurement as the formulation of measurement models linking observable indicators to latent factors representing the theoretical concepts), and we review important issues related to measurement in each of these senses. With regard to measurement in the first sense, we distinguish the steps of construct definition and item generation, and we review scale development efforts reported in three major marketing journals since 2000 to illustrate these steps and derive practical guidelines. With regard to measurement in the second sense, we look at the survey process from the respondent's perspective and discuss the goals that may guide participants' behavior during a survey, the cognitive resources that respondents devote to answering survey questions, and the problems that may occur at the various steps of the survey process. Finally, with regard to measurement in the third sense, we cover both reflective and formative measurement models, and we explain how researchers can assess the quality of measurement in both types of measurement models and how they can ascertain the comparability of measurements across different populations of respondents or conditions of measurement. We also provide a detailed empirical example of measurement analysis for reflective measurement models

    Welfare measurement and measurement error

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    The approximate effects of measurement error on a variety of measures of inequality and poverty are derived. They are shown to depend on the measurement error variance and functionals of the error contaminated income distribution, but not on the form of the measurement error distribution, and to be accurate within a rich class of error free income distributions and measurement error distributions. The functionals of the error contaminated income distribution that approximate the measurement error induced distortions can be estimated. So it is possible to investigate the sensitivity of welfare measures to alternative amounts of measurement error and, when an estimate of the measurement error variance is available, to calculate corrected welfare measures. The methods are illustrated in an application using Indonesian household expenditure data.

    Direct measurement of general quantum states using weak measurement

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    Recent work [J.S. Lundeen et al. Nature, 474, 188 (2011)] directly measured the wavefunction by weakly measuring a variable followed by a normal (i.e. `strong') measurement of the complementary variable. We generalize this method to mixed states by considering the weak measurement of various products of these observables, thereby providing the density matrix an operational definition in terms of a procedure for its direct measurement. The method only requires measurements in two bases and can be performed `in situ', determining the quantum state without destroying it.Comment: This is a later and very different version of arXiv:1110.0727v3 [quant-ph]. New content: a method to directly measure each element of the density matrix, specific Hamiltonians to weakly measure the product of non-commuting observables, and references to recent related wor