27,788 research outputs found

    Evaluating the fit for images of known standards under lab light when normalizing to a custom grayscale.

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    In this case, the images were taken under lab light and normalized to a set of ARUCO standards. The plots show the animal quantum catch predicted from reflectance (Spectrometer-predicted AC) against our camera-predicted animal quantum catch (Camera-predicted AC). We plot the fit for known color standards (our custom ARUCO standard, another set of pastels and a DKK Color Calibration Chart), and for both the honeybee (Apis sp., top) and the average ultraviolet sensitive avian receiver (Avian sp., bottom), for each of their 3 and 4 photoreceptors, respectively. The marker colors indicate the human-perceived color of the sample. For data on fit, please see S5 Table. The data underlying this figure can be found in S1 Data. (TIF)</p

    Distribucija sialoglikokonjugata - gangliozida i PSA-NCAM u mozgu dviju zmija otrovnica: Vipera ammodytes i Vipera berus bosniensis

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    The Bosnian adder (Vipera berus bosniensis) and the horned viper (Vipera ammodytes) are two venomous snake species with different ecological preferences. The Bosnian adder occurs in a range of habitats and is endemic to the Balkan Peninsula, while the horned viper thrives in dry, rocky areas with little vegetation. The horned viper is best known for its highly venomous venom, making it the most dangerous of the European vipers. The aim of this study was to compare the expression and distribution of complex gangliosides and to identify migratoryzones in the brain of Bosnian adder and horned viper. Immunohistochemistry was performed using specific antibodies for the major brain gangliosides (GM1, GD1a, GD1b, GT1b) and PSA NCAM and analysed in different brain regions. Both snake species showed expression of all four complex gangliosides with similar distribution patterns. GD1b was the most prominent ganglioside expressed in all brain structures, while GM1 showed varying distribution between the species. The strongest expression of PSA NCAM was observed in the periventricular zones of the telencephalon, suggesting that these areas are associated with neurogenesis, whereas other regions with lower expression may serve as migratory zones. In addition, it is important to note that the specific distribution of gangliosides and PSA NCAM may be influenced by factors such as brain region, developmental stage, and species-specific characteristics.Bosanska ri─Ĺovka (Vipera berus bosniensis) i poskok (Vipera ammodytes) dvije su otrovne vrste zmija razli─Źitih ekolo┼íkih preferencija. Bosanska se ri─Ĺovka javlja u razli─Źitim stani┼ítima i endem je Balkanskog poluotoka, dok poskok obitava u suhim, stjenovitim podru─Źjima s malo vegetacije i najpoznatija je zmija po vrlo otrovnom otrovu, ┼íto ga ─Źini najopasnijom od europskih zmija. Cilj je ovog rada bio usporediti ekspresiju i distribuciju slo┼żenih gangliozida i identificirati migracijske zone u mozgu bosanske ri─Ĺovke i poskoka. Imunohistokemija je provedena pomo─çu specifi─Źnih protutijela za glavne gangliozide mozga (GM1, GD1a, GD1b, GT1b) i PSA NCAM ─Źija je ekspresija i distribucija analizirana u razli─Źitim regijama mozga. Obje vrste zmija pokazale su ekspresiju sva ─Źetiri slo┼żena gangliozida sa sli─Źnim obrascima distribucije. GD1b je bio najistaknutiji gangliozid izra┼żen u svim mo┼żdanim strukturama, a GM1 je pokazao razli─Źitu raspodjelu izme─Ĺu dviju vrste. Najja─Źa ekspresija PSA NCAM uo─Źena je u periventrikularnim zonama telencefalona, a to sugerira da su ta podru─Źja povezana s neurogenezom, dok druge regije s ni┼żom ekspresijom predstavljaju migracijske zone. Va┼żno je napomenuti da na specifi─Źnu distribuciju gangliozida i PSA NCAM mogu utjecati i drugi ─Źimbenici kao ┼íto su: regija mozga, razvojna faza ┼żivotinje i karakteristike specifi─Źne za vrstu. Stoga prou─Źavanje njihove distribucije u razli─Źitim ┼żivotinjskim vrstama pru┼ża uvid u raznolikost i evoluciju sialoglikokonjugata u kontekstu razvoja i funkcije neurona

    Elemental Fingerprinting Combined with Machine Learning Techniques as a Powerful Tool for Geographical Discrimination of Honeys from Nearby Regions

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    Discrimination of honey based on geographical origin is a common fraudulent practice and is one of the most investigated topics in honey authentication. This research aims to discriminate honeys according to their geographical origin by combining elemental fingerprinting with machinelearning techniques. In particular, the main objective of this study is to distinguish the origin of unifloral and multifloral honeys produced in neighboring regions, such as Sardinia (Italy) and Spain. The elemental compositions of 247 honeys were determined using Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS). The origins of honey were differentiated using Principal Component Analysis (PCA), Linear Discriminant Analysis (LDA), and Random Forest (RF). Compared to LDA, RF demonstrated greater stability and better classification performance. The best classification was based on geographical origin, achieving 90% accuracy using Na, Mg, Mn, Sr, Zn, Ce, Nd, Eu, and Tb as predictor

    BeeLife: a mobile application to foster environmental awareness in classroom settings

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    IntroductionSignificant threats to our environment tremendously affect biodiversity and related gains. Particularly wild bees actively contribute by pollinating plants and trees. Their increasing extinction comes with devastating consequences for nutrition and stability of our ecosystem. However, most people lack awareness about those species and their living conditions, preventing them to take on responsibility.MethodsWe introduce an intervention consisting of a mobile app and related project workshops that foster responsibility already at an early stage in life. Drawing on principles from multimedia learning and child-centered design, six gamified levels and accompanying nature-based activities sensitize for the importance of wild bees and their role for a stable and diverse ecosystem. A pilot evaluation across three schools, involving 44 children aged between 9 and 12, included a pre-, post-, and delayed post-test to inspect app usability and learning gains.ResultsMost children perceived the app as intuitive, engaging, and visually appealing, and sustainably benefited from our intervention in terms of retention performance. Teacher interviews following the intervention support the fit with the envisioned target group and the classroom setting.DiscussionTaken together, the obtained evidence emphasizes the benefits of our intervention, even though our sample size was limited due to dropouts. Future extensions might include adaptive instructional design elements to increase observable learning gains

    Learning-based oviposition constancy in insects

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    The search for resources occupies a major part of the time and energy budget of many insects. In this context, many insects display constancy behavior, in which they learn to return to the same, predictably rewarding resource repeatedly. Flower constancy is one such behavior, where nectar-feeding insects restrict foraging visits to a few plant species, sometimes overlooking potentially better-rewarding plants. This phenomenon is well documented in multiple species and is believed to be an optimal strategy to maximize benefits, while minimizing energy and time expenditure. Oviposition constancy is a similar behavior, where insects, dependent on previous experience, restrict their visits to a few types of potential oviposition sites. In contrast to flower constancy, the prevalence of oviposition constancy and the rationale behind this behavior are relatively unknown. An improved understanding of oviposition constancy can act as a lens into the evolutionary history of local insect adaptations, it can help gauge the impact of climate change on insect plant interactions, and it can aid the design of crop-pest management strategies. In this review, we discuss the potential benefits of oviposition constancy in insects and the extent of plasticity occurring in host-plant choice for oviposition

    A butterfly in <i>Apis</i> vision.

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    We illustrate a zebra swallowtail butterfly Protographium marcellus foraging on flowers. We depict this imagery in honeybee false colors where UV, blue, and green quantum catches are shown as blue, green, and red, respectively. Assessing the conspicuousness of this butterfly against a background of many small inflorescences would be challenging using spectroscopy. Also, note how scarce UV information is in such an average natural scene. (MP4)</p

    Evaporation rates of cinnamon essential oil.

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    The ectoparasitic mite, Varroa destructor is the most serious widespread pest of managed honeybees (Apis mellifera). Several acaricide products, which include essential oils, have been proposed for mite control. In this study, we aimed to apply atmospheric-pressure plasma to modify a cardboard piece surface in order to prolong the delivery of essential oils for controlling Varroa in honeybee colonies. Absorption capacity, release rates and evaporation rates of essential oils were determined. Cardboard piece showed a higher absorption capacity of cinnamon compared to citronella and clove. Surface modification of cardboard pieces using argon plasma at different gas flow rates and treatment durations, significantly affected the absorption of clove oil. Additionally, the release rate of cinnamon, citronella and clove was significantly enhanced after argon plasma treatments. Evaporation of cinnamon was dramatically increased by plasma treatment at 6-h of incubation. The highest evaporation rate was obtained by plasma-treated cardboard piece at a gas flow rate of 0.5 Lpm for 60 s (0.2175 ┬▒ 0.0148 ╬╝l/gÔÇóh). Efficiency of plasma-treated cardboard piece, impregnated with essential oils, was also investigated for Varroa control in honeybee colonies. In the first experiment, formic acid 65% (v/v) showed the highest efficiency of 90.60% and 81.59% with the percent of mite infestation was 0.23 ┬▒ 0.13% and 0.47 ┬▒ 0.19% at 21 and 35 days, respectively after treatment. The efficacy of cardamon oil (5% (v/v)) delivered using plasma-treated cardboard pieces was 57.71% (0.70 ┬▒ 0.16% of mite infestation) at day 21 of experiment. However, the delivery of cardamon oil at the concentration of 1% and 5% (v/v) by untreated cardboard piece had 16.93% and 24.05% of efficacy to control mites. In the 2nd experiment, the application of plasma-treated cardboard pieces impregnated with 5% (v/v) clove oil induced a 38.10% reduction in the population of Varroa mites followed by 5% (v/v) of cardamon with 30% efficiency. Although, the infestation rate of Varroa in colonies was not significant different between treatments, essential oils delivered using plasma-treated cardboard pieces tended to decrease Varroa population in the treated colonies. Hence, atmospheric-pressure plasma for the modification of other materials, should be further investigated to provide alternative control treatment applications against honeybee mites.</div

    Residue dynamics of a contact and a systemic fungicide in pollen, nectar, and other plant matrices of courgette (Cucurbita pepo L.)

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    Pollen and nectar can be contaminated with a range of pesticides, including insecticides, fungicides, and herbicides. Since these matrices are important food sources for pollinators and other beneficial insects, their contamination can represent a key route of exposure. However, limited knowledge exists with respect to pesticide residue levels and their dynamics in these matrices for many crops and active ingredients (AIs). We used controlled glasshouse studies to investigate the residue dynamics of a systemic (cyprodinil) and a contact (fludioxonil) fungicide in the floral matrices and other plant parts of courgette/zucchini (Cucurbita pepo L.). We aimed to better understand the processes behind residue accumulation and decline in pollen and nectar. Each AI was applied to plants, either by spraying whole plants or by targeted spraying onto leaves only. Samples of pollen, nectar, anthers, flowers, and leaves were taken on the day of application and each subsequent morning for up to 13 days and analysed for residues using LC-MS/MS. Significant differences in residue levels and dynamics were found between AIs and floral matrices. The present study allowed for the identification of potential routes by which residues translocate between tissues and to link those to the physicochemical properties of each AI, which may facilitate the prediction of residue levels in pollen and nectar. Residues of the contact AI declined more quickly than those of the systemic AI in pollen and nectar. Our results further suggest that the risk of oral exposure for pollinators may be considerably reduced by using contact AIs during the green bud stage of plants, but application of systemic compounds could still result in a low, but continuous long-term exposure for pollinators with limited decline

    ISOLATION AND IDENTIFICATION OF BIOFILM PRODUCING ENTEROCOCCUS FAECALIS FROM ROOT CANAL

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    This study was aimed to one of the most prevalent causes for endodontic treatment failure is the presence of Enterococcus faecalis bacterium within teeth root canals. To achieve successful treatment, it is so important to study E. faecalis behavior. The aim of study was to investigate biofilm production and antibiotic sensitivity of E. faecalis isolated from root canals. Results showed isolation of E. feacalis (65%) of samples, identified by specific gene by PCR technique. Most isolates were sensitive to Imipenem and resistant to Erythromycin, Clindamycin, Tetracycline and Trimethoprim. Strong biofilm production was detected among 29.5% of highest antibiotic resistant isolates. The results may indicate that infected root canals with E. feacalis may lead to serious complication for patients
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