110 research outputs found

    Factors of selection, standard universals, and the standardisation of German relativisers

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    Funder: Alexander von Humboldt-Stiftung; doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.13039/100005156Funder: Isaac Newton Trust; doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.13039/501100004815Abstract: This contribution explores the concept of selection as an integral part of Haugen’s standardisation model from a theoretical as well as an empirical angle. It focuses on different types of factors of selection and how they are relevant to the study of selection processes both on the level of individual variants and whole varieties. The question of why standard languages appear to differ systematically from vernaculars and at the same time exhibit remarkable resemblances among each other is addressed, and characteristic features of standard languages are traced to general conditions of standardisation processes. A case study on the standardisation of German relativisers illustrates how different factors of selection combine in the dynamics of linguistic structure, variation, attitudes, and codification. It also shows how general tendencies of selection can lead to similar structures across standard languages, while it becomes clear that register variation and the historical development and changing evaluation of stylistic varieties can be crucial in order to explain the selection or de-selection of linguistic forms

    Die Dynamik der Relativa in historischen deutschen Predigten: Zur Relevanz attitudinaler Faktoren in Sprachwandel und Standardisierung

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    Dieser Beitrag setzt sich anhand des diachronen Predigtenkorpus SermonC (800–1900) mit Wandel und Variation der Relativa in der Sprachgeschichte des Deutschen auseinander. Im Zentrum stehen dabei drei Varianten der Relativsatzeinleitung, der/die/das, welcher/welche/welches und so. Dabei wird insbesondere die Frage untersucht, inwiefern sich die Entwicklungen mit linearen Konzeptionalisierungen von Sprachwandel und Standardisierung vereinbaren lassen. Dazu werden zunĂ€chst einige gĂ€ngige Vorstellungen in diesen Bereichen diskutiert und in Bezug auf ihnen innenwohnende perspektivische Verengungen problematisiert. Dabei wird deutlich, dass ĂŒbliche Theorien und Methoden der Sprachwandel- und Standardisierungsforschung nichtlineare Prozesse nicht systematisch berĂŒcksichtigen. Die Untersuchung des diachronen Korpus zeigt hingegen, dass nichtlineare Prozesse nicht nur vorkommen können, sondern vielfach in verschiedenen Formen auftreten, die durch die linguistische Theoriebildung nicht oder nur peripher erfasst werden. Die Entwicklung der Relativa in historischen Predigten fĂŒhrt vor Augen, dass unvollstĂ€ndige und retrograde AusbreitungsvorgĂ€nge im Sprachwandel sowie Aufbau von Variation in der Standardisierung entgegen gĂ€ngigen Theorien immer wieder auftreten, was sich in sowohl in regionalen wie konfessionellen Unterschieden im Sprachgebrauch Ă€ußert

    Formen und Funktionen des Konjunktivs II in historischen ostoberdeutschen Predigten.: Eine Langzeit-Perspektive

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    This article presents a diachronic survey of forms and functions of the subjunctive II grammatical category in historical German. The subjunctive II is historically based on the subjunctive preterit form but has lost its temporal function and become a purely modal category. It has developed a variety of synthetic and analytical forms since Old High German, especially in vernacular varieties, but also in Standard German, and fulfils a range of functions, chiefly that of non-affirmativity. The present study aims to shed light on the historical development of the subjunctive II’s form and function. Its focus is on East Upper German, and its temporal scope spans over a millennium from the 9th to the 19th century. In order to study the usage and development of the subjunctive II in historical East Upper German sermons, the south-eastern part of SermonC, a diachronic corpus of historical German sermons, is analysed. While this (sub‑)corpus is restricted in terms of region and genre, it provides a unique window to written language usage, variation and change in a clearly defined domain over a very long time. The results show that the refunctionalization of the subjunctive preterit as a purely modal category does not date to prehistoric times, as is generally assumed; instead, they point to the 11th century as the likely time for this change, with limited temporal uses persisting into the 15th century. The 15th century is also the time when the synthetic subjunctive II form with -et/-at, a typical feature of Bavarian dialects, seems to have emerged in the spoken register. Analytical forms started to appear from the 13th century, and the periphrasis with wĂŒrde, today accepted in Standard German, prevailed among several written German analytical variants in the 18th century. While Standard German has preserved the distinction between two subjunctive categories, East Upper German spoken language has in effect reduced a two-way morphological system (tense and mood) to a pure mood system, with tense expressed syntactically, in effect refunctionalizing morphological tense as a mood marker. &nbsp