142 research outputs found

    Age-Related Study of Anthropometry Indicators, Body Composition, Strength and Vital Capacity at Masters Athletics: How to Postpone Sarcopenia

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    Olga Safonicheva,1 Victoria Zaborova,1 Irina Lazareva,1 Kira Kryuchkova,1 Anastasia Bolotskaya,1 Marina Ovchinnikova,1 Christina Popova,1 Victor Putilo,1 Vitaly Rybakov,2 Sergey Kotovskiy,3 Mikhail Nikitin3 1Institute of Clinical Medicine, Sechenov First Moscow State Medical University (Sechenov University), Moscow, Russia; 2Moscow Institute of Physics and Technology (National Research University), Dolgoprudny, Moscow Region, Russia; 3National Medical Research Center of Rehabilitation and Balneology, Moscow, RussiaCorrespondence: Olga Safonicheva, Institute of Clinical Medicine, Sechenov First Moscow State Medical University (Sechenov University), 119991, Trubetskaya Street, 8/2, Moscow, Russia, Tel +7 926 534-62-65, Fax +7 495 609-14-00, Email [email protected]: The purpose of this study was to compare the anthropometric indicators of sports veterans, former athletes who stopped training, and non-sports people aged 40 years and older to assess the impact of regular sports on the stability of the body.Patients and Methods: 100 athletes and 31 people non-sports were included in the study. Athletes were divided into two groups depending on the mode of motor activity. The first group (n=75) continued their regular sports activities. The second group (n=25) stopped training. Height, weight, chest circumference, mobility, waist, shoulder circumference, forearm, hip, ankle, fat mass, and muscle mass were measured, and dynamometry was performed.Results: Body weight is statistically significantly (p< 0.05) less in those who continue sports (70.7± 10.2) classes after 60 years compared with the control group (82.4± 9.3). In sports veterans, the chest excursion and the shoulder circumference is statistically significantly (p< 0.05) greater than in the control group. In the subjects of the first group aged from 40 to 49 (4551± 612) and from 50 to 59 (4242± 416), the FVC index was statistically significantly (p< 0.05) higher than in the control group (3890± 344 and 3786± 401, respectively). The body composition of veterans is characterized by a high level of muscle mass and a low level of fat mass. At the age of 40– 49, the percentage of muscle tissue in sports veterans was statistically significantly higher (46.32± 2.74) (p< 0.05) than in the group of athletes who stopped sports activities (44.09± 5.29).Conclusion: Veterans of sports demonstrate higher indicators of limb girth and muscle strength compared to untrained people of the same age. In addition, sports veterans have a lower content of adipose tissue and a greater expression of muscle mass. Thus, the data obtained by us show that sports prevent the development of sarcopenia and can also affect cardiovascular risk.Keywords: regular motor activity, muscle mass, resilience, sarcopeni

    Выбор оптимального объема хирургического лечения при аноректальной меланоме: ретроспективный анализ реестра Российского общества специалистов по колоректальному раку

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    Background. Anorectal melanoma is a rare malignancy without established standard treatment.Aim. To analyse the Russian Colorectal Cancer Society melanoma registry and to assess optimal surgery with regard to the extent of the disease.Materials and methods. A retrospective analysis of the Russian Colorectal Cancer Society registry was carried out during 2000–2020. Patients with cutaneous melanoma colonic metastases as well as patients with less than 6 months follow-up were excluded. Basic patient group characteristics, overall and disease-free survival (were analyzed depending on disease stage (by A. Stefanou) and surgery type.Results. 16 patients had stage I–IIA, 24 – stage IIB, 29 patients – stage III and 24 patients – stage IV disease. Wide local excision was performed in 15 (93.8 %) patients with stage I–IIA, 15 (62.5 %) patients with stage IIB, 2 (6.9 %) patients with stage III, and 8 (33.3 %) patients with stage IV disease. Abdomino-perineal excision (APE) was performed in 0 patients with stage I–IIA, 7 (29.2 %) patients with stage IIB, 22 (75.9 %) patients with stage III, and 7 (29.2 %) patients with stage IV disease. 2-year overall survival was 74.5 % in stage I–IIA, 49.4 % in stage IIB, 64.3 % in stage III, and 10.4 % in stage IV disease; 2-year disease-free survival was 67 %, 23,4 %, 34,1 % in stage I–IIA, IIB, III disease accordingly. Median overall survival was 17.8 months, 38.3 months and 27.9 months for non-surgical treatment, wide local excision and APR in non-metastatic patients accordingly. Median disease-free survival was 6.0 months, 14.1 months and 12.0 months for non-surgical treatment, wide local excision and APR in non-metastatic patients accordingly.Conclusions. APR should be considered in patients with stage IIB and stage III (by A. Stefanou) anorectal melanoma. Wide local excision is the preferred treatment in other patients.Введение. Аноректальная меланома – редкое злокачественное новообразование, для которого отсутствуют общепринятые стандарты лечения.Цель исследования – анализ данных реестра редких заболеваний Российского общества специалистов по колоректальному раку по аноректальной меланоме и оценка оптимальной тактики лечения при различной степени распространенности заболевания.Материалы и методы. Проведен ретроспективный анализ реестра аноректальных меланом Российского общества специалистов по колоректальному раку за 2000–2020 гг. Из анализа исключали пациентов с метастазами меланомы кожи в толстую кишку, пациентов, прослеженных &lt;6 мес. Анализировали основные клинические характеристики, характер метастазирования при различных стадиях, общую и безрецидивную выживаемость в зависимости от стадии по A. Stefanou и вида хирургического лечения.Результаты. В исследуемой группе было 16 пациентов с I–IIA стадией, 24 пациента с IIB стадией, 29 пациентов с III стадией и 24 пациента с IV стадией. Трансанальное иссечение было выполнено 15 (93,8 %) пациентам с I–IIA стадией, 15 (62,5 %) пациентам с IIB стадией, 2 (6,9 %) пациентам с III стадией и 8 (33,3 %) пациентам с IV стадией. Брюшно-промежностная экстирпация (БПЭ) прямой кишки была выполнена 7 (29,2 %) пациентам с IIB стадией, 22 (75,9 %) пациентам с III стадией, 7 (29,2 %) пациентам с IV стадией и не была выполнена ни одному из пациентов с I–IIA стадией. Двухлетняя общая выживаемость составила 74,5; 49,4; 64,3 и 10,4 % при I–IIA, IIB, III и IV стадии соответственно, 2-летняя БРВ – 67,0; 23,4 и 34,1 % при I–IIA, IIB и III стадии соответственно. Медиана общей выживаемости при неметастатических случаях составила 17,8; 38,3 и 27,9 мес для нехирургического лечения, трансанального иссечения и БПЭ прямой кишки соответственно, медиана безрецидивной выживаемости – 6,0; 14,1 и 12,0 мес.Выводы. Выполнение БПЭ прямой кишки следует рассматривать у пациентов с IIB и III стадиями аноректальной меланомы по A. Stefanou. У остальных пациентов при технической возможности следует выполнять трансанальное иссечение

    Effects of hospital facilities on patient outcomes after cancer surgery: an international, prospective, observational study

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    Background Early death after cancer surgery is higher in low-income and middle-income countries (LMICs) compared with in high-income countries, yet the impact of facility characteristics on early postoperative outcomes is unknown. The aim of this study was to examine the association between hospital infrastructure, resource availability, and processes on early outcomes after cancer surgery worldwide.Methods A multimethods analysis was performed as part of the GlobalSurg 3 study-a multicentre, international, prospective cohort study of patients who had surgery for breast, colorectal, or gastric cancer. The primary outcomes were 30-day mortality and 30-day major complication rates. Potentially beneficial hospital facilities were identified by variable selection to select those associated with 30-day mortality. Adjusted outcomes were determined using generalised estimating equations to account for patient characteristics and country-income group, with population stratification by hospital.Findings Between April 1, 2018, and April 23, 2019, facility-level data were collected for 9685 patients across 238 hospitals in 66 countries (91 hospitals in 20 high-income countries; 57 hospitals in 19 upper-middle-income countries; and 90 hospitals in 27 low-income to lower-middle-income countries). The availability of five hospital facilities was inversely associated with mortality: ultrasound, CT scanner, critical care unit, opioid analgesia, and oncologist. After adjustment for case-mix and country income group, hospitals with three or fewer of these facilities (62 hospitals, 1294 patients) had higher mortality compared with those with four or five (adjusted odds ratio [OR] 3.85 [95% CI 2.58-5.75]; p&lt;0.0001), with excess mortality predominantly explained by a limited capacity to rescue following the development of major complications (63.0% vs 82.7%; OR 0.35 [0.23-0.53]; p&lt;0.0001). Across LMICs, improvements in hospital facilities would prevent one to three deaths for every 100 patients undergoing surgery for cancer.Interpretation Hospitals with higher levels of infrastructure and resources have better outcomes after cancer surgery, independent of country income. Without urgent strengthening of hospital infrastructure and resources, the reductions in cancer-associated mortality associated with improved access will not be realised

    Status and initial physics performance studies of the MPD experiment at NICA

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    The Nuclotron-based Ion Collider fAcility (NICA) is under construction at the Joint Institute for Nuclear Research (JINR), with commissioning of the facility expected in late 2022. The Multi-Purpose Detector (MPD) has been designed to operate at NICA and its components are currently in production. The detector is expected to be ready for data taking with the first beams from NICA. This document provides an overview of the landscape of the investigation of the QCD phase diagram in the region of maximum baryonic density, where NICA and MPD will be able to provide significant and unique input. It also provides a detailed description of the MPD set-up, including its various subsystems as well as its support and computing infrastructures. Selected performance studies for particular physics measurements at MPD are presented and discussed in the context of existing data and theoretical expectations

    Effects of hospital facilities on patient outcomes after cancer surgery: an international, prospective, observational study