103 research outputs found

    Understanding environmental change through the lens of trait-based, functional, and phylogenetic biodiversity in freshwater ecosystems

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    In the era of the Anthropocene, environmental change is accelerating biodiversity loss across ecosystems on Earth, among which freshwaters are likely the most threatened. Different biodiversity facets in the freshwater realm suffer from various environmental changes that jeopardize the ecosystem functions and services important for humankind. In this work we examine how environmental changes (e.g., climate change, eutrophication, or invasive species) affect trait-based, functional, and phylogenetic diversity of biological communities. We first developed a simple conceptual model of the possible relationships between environmental change and these three diversity facets in freshwaters and, secondly, systematically reviewed articles where these relationships had been investigated in different freshwater ecosystems. Finally, we highlighted research gaps from the perspectives of organisms, ecosystems, stressors, and geographical locations. Our conceptual model suggested that both natural factors and global change operating at various spatial scales influence freshwater community structure and ecosystem functioning. The relationships between biodiversity and environmental change depend on geographical region, organism group, spatial scale, and environmental change gradient length. The systematic review revealed that environmental change impacts biodiversity patterns in freshwaters, but there is no single type of biodiversity response to the observed global changes. Natural stressors had different, even contradictory, effects (i.e., multiple, negative, and positive) on biodiversity compared with anthropogenic stressors. Anthropogenic stressors more often decreased biodiversity, although eutrophication and climate change affected freshwater ecosystems in a complex, more multi-dimensional way. The research gaps we identified were related, for example, to the low number of community-based biodiversity studies, the lack of information on true phylogenies for all freshwater organism groups, the missing evaluations whether species traits are phylogenetically conserved, and the geographical biases in research (i.e., absence of studies from Africa, Southern Asia, and Russia). We hope that our review will stimulate more research on the less well-known facets and topics of biodiversity loss in highly vulnerable freshwater ecosystems

    Freshwater ecosystem services in Finland

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    Ecosystem services have become a significant multidisciplinary research agenda in the world. Man-made activities both at global and local scales deteriorate biodiversity and ecosystem functioning, which are essential also to human welfare. Ecosystem services are material and immaterial benefits and services provided by nature. Ecosystem services can be divided to the following main categories: provisioning, regulating, cultural and sustaining services. Different ecosystems provide various services depending also on their geographical location. For example, boreal ecosystems differ ecologically from tropical ones, for which the services they provide also vary. Boreal region is generally known for its high abundance of freshwaters. Quantity of freshwaters is rarely a problem in boreal region, but quality of inland waters is decreased in many places due to anthropogenic pressures. Freshwaters have received less attention than other ecosystems in ecosystem services research, because direct link between inland waters and terrestrial ecosystems makes evaluation of freshwater ecosystem services challenging. Purpose of this report is to identity and classify freshwater ecosystem services in Finland. The report consists of two parts: 1) historical review of freshwater ecosystem services in Finland, and 2) identification and classification of current ecosystem services in Finnish freshwaters. In historical review, we roughly evaluate how identification and appreciation of freshwater ecosystem services have varied temporally. In the second part, we identify and classify current freshwater ecosystem services in Finland based on two classification criteria, which complement each other. This report is part of project ”Integrated and policy relevant valuation of forest, agro, peatland and aquatic ecosystem services in Finland”, which is funded by Maj and Tor Nessling Foundation and coordinated by University of Eastern Finland. Appreciation of freshwater ecosystem services has varied over the decades. In the beginning of 20th century, inland waters were important source of nutriment and way of transportation. Increased pollution of water bodies awaked society to appreciate other services provided by freshwaters in turn of 1970s-80s. Nowadays, freshwaters have a major role among others in flood protection, climate regulation, primary production and recreation. However, identification of many freshwater services is still superficial or deficient. For example, genetic and biochemical resources, control of invasive species and diseases, aesthetic and religious services, and formation of soil and water cycling are generally poorly known in Finland. In addition, large scale studies of freshwater ecosystem services are rarely done in Finland and knowledge on how services interact with each other is inadequate

    Palaeontology meets metacommunity ecology: The Maastrichtian dinosaur fossil record of North America as a case study.

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    Documenting the patterns and potential associated processes of ancient biotas has always been a central challenge in palaeontology. Over the last decades, intense debate has focused on the organisation of dinosaur–dominated communities, yet no general consensus has been reached on how these communities were organised in a spatial context and if primarily affected by abiotic or biotic agents. Here, we used analytical routines typically applied in metacommunity ecology to provide novel insights into dinosaurian distributions across the latest Cretaceous of North America. To do this, we combined fossil occurrences with functional, phylogenetic and palaeoenvironmental modelling, and adopted the perspective that more reasonable conclusions on palaeoecological reconstructions can be gained from studies that consider the organisation of biotas along ecological gradients at multiple spatial scales. Our results showed that dinosaurs were restricted in range to different parts of the Hell Creek Formation, prompting the recognition of discrete and compartmentalised faunal areas during the Maastrichtian at fine-grained scales, whereas taxa ranges formed quasi–nested groups when combining data from various geological formations across the Western Interior of North America. Although groups of dinosaurs had coincident range boundaries, their communities responded to multiple ecologically–important gradients when compensating for differences in sampling effort. Metacommunity structures of both ornithischians and theropods were correlated with climatic barriers and potential trophic relationships between herbivores and carnivores, thereby suggesting that dinosaurian faunas were shaped by physiological constraints and a combination of bottom-up and top-down forces across multiple spatial grains and extents.Additional Supporting files include the following Appendices: Appendix S1. Body mass distributions based on product partition models with Markov sampling computations. Appendix S2. Functional and phylogenetic features for each spatial scale and study clade. Appendix S3. R packages and statistical routines. Appendix S4. Elements of metacommunity structure for the conservative fixed–fixed null model. Appendix S5. Results for the forward selection of explanatory variables. Appendix S6. Results for ordinary least squares (OLS) regression models. Appendix S7. Results for commonality analysis (CA) for each spatial scale and study clade. Appendix S8. Measuring the spatial autocorrelation of OLS model residuals. The Excel file includes occurrence data, palaeoenvironmental reconstructions, and functional features: Sheets 1 and 2 contain raw information on each study site for the Hell Creek and other North American geological formations, respectively. Sheet 1 includes palaeoenvironmental information for the Hell Creek Formation (i.e. lithofacies -C, channel; FP, floodplain- and palaeotopography -m.a.s.l. after log-transformation). Raw PalaeoDEM data (Scotese and Wright, 2018) are also available here: https://www.earthbyte.org/paleodem-resource-scotese-and-wright-2018/ Sheet 2 contains raw information on the log-transformed palaeoenvironmental reconstructions for the Maastrichtian of North America (Palaeotopography -m.a.s.l., TempMean and TempSDann in K; Prec and PrecSDann in kgm-2). Raw palaeoclimate GCMs (ValdĂ©s et al., 2017) can also be obtained here: https://www.paleo.bristol.ac.uk/ummodel/scripts/papers/ Sheet 3 includes a taxon-specific classification into several functional guilds (see the main text for details): These files may be opened and edited in Excel. For details or further queries, please contact Jorge GarcĂ­a-GirĂłn ([email protected]). Funding provided by: University of LeĂłn*Crossref Funder Registry ID: Award Number: 2017Funding provided by: Spanish Ministry of Economy and Industry*Crossref Funder Registry ID: Award Number: CGL2017–84176RFunding provided by: Junta de Castilla y LeĂłnCrossref Funder Registry ID: http://dx.doi.org/10.13039/501100014180Award Number: LE004G18Funding provided by: Academy of FinlandCrossref Funder Registry ID: http://dx.doi.org/10.13039/501100002341Award Number: 331957Funding provided by: Academy of FinlandCrossref Funder Registry ID: http://dx.doi.org/10.13039/501100002341Award Number: 322652Funding provided by: European Research Council Starting Grant*Crossref Funder Registry ID: Award Number: ERC StG 2017, 756226, PalMFunding provided by: University of LeĂłnCrossref Funder Registry ID: Award Number: 2017Funding provided by: Spanish Ministry of Economy and IndustryCrossref Funder Registry ID: Award Number: CGL2017–84176RFunding provided by: European Research Council Starting GrantCrossref Funder Registry ID: Award Number: ERC StG 2017, 756226, PalMDinosaur occurrences for the Maastrichtian of North America were retrieved from the Palaeobiology Database on May 2020, using the taxon name 'Dinosauria' and a time span of 72.1 – 66.0 Ma. Critically, although studies on modern community associations are limited to relatively brief periods of sampling time, fossil assemblages are windows on the faunas of ancient worlds occurring within particular chronostratigraphic units (Benson et al. 2018). Although this coarse temporal resolution will undoubtedly confound the data (which is addressed in detail below), it would be problematic to subdivide the time bins further, not least because only a handful of fossil assemblages are sufficiently informative to provide confident community-level estimates so far (Vavrek & Larsson 2010). Additionally, due to an insufficient amount of comparative data within high–resolution time bins (Dean et al. 2020) and the inherent errors in radiometric dating (Gates et al. 2010), the creation of a more tightly constrained correlative window is presently impractical. Here, we only retained occurrences belonging to Ornithischia and Theropoda since these two clades were the most diverse and abundant non–avian dinosaur groups in the latest Cretaceous of North America (Brusatte et al. 2015). Generic–level identifications were used in our study, and all avian taxa were excluded when delineating community types to keep our data more comparable to previous works (e.g. Vavrek & Larsson 2010; Dean et al. 2020). While birds are phylogenetically part of the dinosaurian clade, the different habits and habitats of latest Cretaceous Avialae (either diving or volant taxa) separates these faunas enough from ground-dwelling dinosaurs to justify their functional distinction in the context of the communities modelled here (see Heino et al. 2015b for an example on present-day biotas). Although the value of generic taxonomic ranks in community analyses has been debated, palaeontologists have used generic–level clades to investigate distributional patterns and variation in community composition of fossil taxa (e.g. Vavrek & Larsson 2010; Chiarenza et al. 2019; Dean et al. 2020). Indeed, generic–level identifications are preferred over species taxonomic ranks in dinosaur palaeobiology studies as most dinosaur genera (c. 87%) are easily diagnosed and monospecific (Weishampel et al. 2004; Mannion et al. 2012). Moreover, genus-level and species–level diversity patterns generally appear to track each other for Mesozoic tetrapods (Barrett et al. 2009), and genera are more taxonomically stable than species for many groups (Robeck et al. 2000). Here, however, taxa with unclear genus identification were discarded (i.e. we did not incorporate 'cryptic' diversity represented by taxonomically undiagnostic fossil remains that potentially represent distinct taxa, nor we did infer ghost lineages based on phylogenetic diversity estimates; Barrett et al. 2009; Mannion et al. 2011), and so were collections lacking formational assignment. If questionable ages appeared (e.g. ages notably deviating from ages of other collections from the same formation), they were either revised or excluded. These data are an up–to–date record of North American dinosaur faunas and therefore incorporate new Late Cretaceous fossils discovered over the past few years. Overall, our pruned dataset comprised 43 dinosaur genera, and consisted of 11 formations across the WIB of North America and 17 well–sampled locations across the Hell Creek landscape. Palaeoclimatic general circulation model. In this study, we used palaeoclimatic model outputs (here, near-surface [1.5 m] mean annual temperature (TempMean), near-surface [1.5 m] annual temperature standard deviation (TempSDann), annual average precipitation (PrecMean) and annual precipitation standard deviation (PrecSDann)) from the fully coupled atmosphere-ocean GCM HadCM3L v. 4.5 Atmospheric–Ocean General Circulation Model (Valdes et al. 2017). More specifically, we followed the nomenclature of Valdes et al. (2017) and applied the HadCM3BL–M2.1aE version of the model. The conditions of the model simulations for the Maastrichtian consist of an atmospheric CO2 concentration of 1120 ppmv, which is within the range of uncertainty provided by the recent proxy pCO2 reconstructions of Foster et al. (2017). The model simulations were run for a total of 1422 years, and the climate variables used in our analyses were an annual average of the last 30 years of these simulations. HadCM3L has contributed to the Coupled Mode Intercomparison Project experiments demonstrating skill when it comes to reproducing present-day climates (Collins et al. 2001; Valdes et al. 2017) and has also been used for an array of different palaeoclimate evaluations during the Eocene (Lunt et al. 2012), the Oligocene (Li et al. 2018) and the Miocene (Bradshaw et al. 2012). Detailed information on this palaeoclimatic model, including large–scale circulation (and associated energy and momentum fluxes) and temporal fluctuations, as well as the impacts of fine-scale orographic features on climate signals, are available elsewhere (e.g. Lunt et al. 2016; Chiarenza et al. 2019). Palaeogeographical digital elevation models (DEMs). The Maastrichtian palaeogeography for this study is that of Scotese & Wright (2018), which has been compiled as a palaeo-digital elevation model to facilitate grid-based analyses. In brief, these maps were created from publicly available stratigraphic literature, supplemented by fieldwork, including lithology, palaeoenvironmental information and broad-scale facies identification. For large–scale analyses, these palaeogeographies were upscaled to the palaeoclimatic model resolution (3.75° x 2.5°). This means that topographic and bathymetric information was broadly conserved, as it was resolved at a lower resolution (see Chiarenza et al. 2019 for a similar approach). Functional features. Each dinosaur taxon was classified into several functional guilds based on body mass (very small, small, medium, large and very large), locomotor mode (bipeds, facultative bipeds –capable of both quadrupedal and bipedal motion– and quadrupeds) and trophic habits (carnivores, omnivores and herbivores, and for the latter, low and high browsers). Body mass is perhaps the single most important and meaningful functional trait for animals, as it ultimately affects many aspects of their biology including metabolic rates, mechanical constraints, ecological performance and lifestyle strategies related to feeding, locomotion and reproduction (Loeuille & Loreau 2006; Iossa et al. 2008). Here, we used body mass estimates (very small ≀ 10 kg; 10 kg 10000 kg; Noto & Grossman 2010) based on adult representatives from the comprehensive dataset of Benson et al. (2014), which provides a wide list of dinosaur taxa using the scaling relationship of limb bone robustness (stylopodial circumference; Campione & Evans 2012). To obtain a more comprehensive understanding of body mass distributions in our data, we further applied an inflection point criterion based on the Barry & Hartigan (1993) product partition model with Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC). More specifically, this algorithm used the posterior probability of changes over 10000 MCMC iterations, excluding the first 1000 as burn in, to distinguish among different body mass categories in the latest Cretaceous dinosaurs of North America. Interestingly, this Bayesian analysis roughly identified most of the original body mass categories used in our study, with each category broadly representing an order of magnitude (GarcĂ­a–GirĂłn et al. 2020b, appendix S1, fig. S1). Trophic habits refer to the food processing strategies and diet of an animal, and it generally includes three primary categories, i.e. carnivores, herbivores and omnivores. Further subdivisions depend on the biological knowledge of the morphology (e.g. teeth morphology and skull) and behaviour of the study organismal group. Here, we assigned herbivores to categories of browse height rather than plant type due to the virtually unknown nature of plant preferences in dinosaurs. More specifically, we roughly assigned a simple maximum browsing limit (low ≀ 2 m; high > 2 m) based on characters such as limb length and neck posture using Noto & Grossman (2010) and Mallon et al. (2013). We further divided locomotor mode into two major categories: quadrupeds and bipeds. For those taxa with intermediate axial and limb morphologies in proportions between those of bipeds and obligate quadrupeds (e.g. Hadrosauridae), we included an additional locomotor division, i.e. facultative bipeds (see Noto & Grossman, 2010 for a similar approach). For the following analyses, we applied the mixed–variables coefficient of distance (i.e. a generalisation of Gower's distance; Pavoine et al. 2009) to extract a functional distance matrix, which described the functional differences between all taxon pairs based on body mass, trophic habits and locomotor mode (e.g. Heino & Tolonen 2017). Thereafter, the pairwise output values for the functional distance matrix were synthesised into separate axes using principal coordinate analysis (PCO) and following Duarte et al. (2012). See the main text for References

    A methodological guide to observe local-scale geodiversity for biodiversity research and management

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    Current global environmental change calls for comprehensive and complementing approaches for biodiversity conservation. According to recent research, consideration of the diversity of Earth's abiotic features (i.e. geodiversity) could provide new insights and applications into the investigation and management of biodiversity. However, methods to map and quantify geodiversity at local scale have not been developed although this scale is important for conservation planning. Here, we introduce a field methodology for observing plot-scale geodiversity, pilot the method in an Arctic–alpine tundra environment, provide empirical evidence on the plot-scale biodiversity–geodiversity relationship and give guidance for practitioners on the implementation of the method. The field method is based on observation of geofeatures, that is, elements of geology, geomorphology and hydrology, from a given area surrounding a location of species observations. As a result, the method provides novel information on the variation of abiotic nature for biodiversity research and management. The method was piloted in northern Norway and Finland by observing geofeatures from 76 sites at three scales (5, 10 and 25 m radii). To explore the relationship between measures of biodiversity and geodiversity, the occurrence of vascular plant species was recorded from 2 m × 2 m plots at the same sites. According to the results, vascular plant species richness was positively correlated with the richness of geofeatures (Rs = 0.18–0.59). The connection was strongest in habitats characterized by deciduous shrubs. The method has a high potential for observing geofeatures without extensive geological or geomorphological training or field survey experience and could be applied by conservation practitioners. Synthesis and applications. Consideration of geodiversity in understanding, analysing and conserving biodiversity could facilitate environmental management and ensure the long-term sustainability of ecosystem functions. With the developed method, it is possible to cost-efficiently observe the elements of geodiversity that are useful in ecology and biodiversity conservation. Our approach can be adapted in different ecosystems and biodiversity investigations. The method can be adjusted depending on the abiotic conditions, expertise of the observer(s) and the equipment available.publishedVersio

    Changes in the functional features of macrophyte communities and driving factors across a 70-year period

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    Functional homogenisation occurs across many areas and organism groups, thereby seriously affecting biodiversity loss and ecosystem functioning. In this study, we examined how functional features of aquatic macrophytes have changed during a 70-year period at community and species levels in a boreal lake district. At the community level, we examined if aquatic macrophyte communities showed different spatial patterns in functional composition and functional richness in relation to main environmental drivers between the time periods. We also observed each species in functional space to assess if species with certain sets of traits have become more common or rare in the 70-year study period. We found changes in the relationship between functional community composition and the environment. The aquatic macrophyte communities showed different patterns in functional composition between the two time periods, and the main environmental drivers for these changes were partly different. Temporal changes in functional richness were only partially linked to concomitant changes in the environment, while stable factors were more important. Species’ functional traits were not associated with commonness or rarity patterns. Our findings revealed that functional homogenisation has not occurred across these boreal lakes, ranging from small oligotrophic forest lakes to larger lakes affected by human impacts

    Using Hilbert-Huang Transform to Assess EEG Slow Wave Activity During Anesthesia in Post-Cardiac Arrest Patients

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    Proceeding volume: 38Hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy (HIE) is a severe consequence of cardiac arrest (CA) representing a substantial diagnostic challenge. We have recently designed a novel method for the assessment of HIE after CA. The method is based on estimating the severity of the brain injury by analyzing changes in the electroencephalogram (EEG) slow wave activity while the patient is exposed to an anesthetic drug propofol in a controlled manner. In this paper, Hilbert-Huang Transform (HHT) was used to analyze EEG slow wave activity during anesthesia in ten post-CA patients. The recordings were made in the intensive care unit 36-48 hours after the CA in an experiment, during which the propofol infusion rate was incrementally decreased to determine the drug-induced changes in the EEG at different anesthetic levels. HHT was shown to successfully capture the changes in the slow wave activity to the behavior of intrinsic mode functions (IMFs). While, in patients with good neurological outcome defined after a six-month control period, propofol induced a significant increase in the amplitude of IMFs representing the slow wave activity, the patients with poor neurological outcome were unable to produce such a response. Consequently, the proposed method offer substantial prognostic potential by providing a novel approach for early estimation of HIE after CA.Peer reviewe

    Assessing the relation between geodiversity and species richness in mountain heaths and tundra landscapes

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    Context Recent studies show that geodiversity—the diversity of Earth's landforms, materials, and processes—has a positive relationship with biodiversity at a landscape scale. However, there is a substantial lack of evidence from finer scales, although this knowledge could improve the understanding of biodiversity patterns. Objectives We investigate whether plot-scale geodiversity and plant species richness (vascular plants, bryophytes, lichens, and total richness) are positively linked in different tundra landscapes. Methods We collected geodiversity (presence of different geofeatures) and plant species richness data from 165 sites in three distinct regions: isolated low-lying mountain heaths, and in sporadic and continuous mountain heaths and tundra. We used non-metric multidimensional scaling (NMDS) ordination to explore the correlations between the composition of geofeatures and species richness, followed by univariate and multivariate generalized linear models (GLM), to assess whether georichness is important for species richness. Results Geofeature composition was linked to species richness in all regions, as indicated by NMDS ordination. Both univariate and multivariate GLM models showed statistically significant relationship between species richness and georichness in all studied species richness groups in continuous Arctic-alpine tundra. Additionally, there was a positive link between georichness and lichen richness in isolated boreal mountain tops. Main conclusions We showed that plot-scale geodiversity has a positive relationship with species richness, yet the effect varies regionally and between species groups. Our study provides strong empirical evidence that geodiversity supports species richness in continuous Arctic-alpine tundra. This information can be used in species richness models but also be applied in biodiversity management and conservation.publishedVersio