46 research outputs found

    Familial hypercholesterolaemia in children and adolescents from 48 countries: a cross-sectional study

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    Background: Approximately 450 000 children are born with familial hypercholesterolaemia worldwide every year, yet only 2·1% of adults with familial hypercholesterolaemia were diagnosed before age 18 years via current diagnostic approaches, which are derived from observations in adults. We aimed to characterise children and adolescents with heterozygous familial hypercholesterolaemia (HeFH) and understand current approaches to the identification and management of familial hypercholesterolaemia to inform future public health strategies. Methods: For this cross-sectional study, we assessed children and adolescents younger than 18 years with a clinical or genetic diagnosis of HeFH at the time of entry into the Familial Hypercholesterolaemia Studies Collaboration (FHSC) registry between Oct 1, 2015, and Jan 31, 2021. Data in the registry were collected from 55 regional or national registries in 48 countries. Diagnoses relying on self-reported history of familial hypercholesterolaemia and suspected secondary hypercholesterolaemia were excluded from the registry; people with untreated LDL cholesterol (LDL-C) of at least 13·0 mmol/L were excluded from this study. Data were assessed overall and by WHO region, World Bank country income status, age, diagnostic criteria, and index-case status. The main outcome of this study was to assess current identification and management of children and adolescents with familial hypercholesterolaemia. Findings: Of 63 093 individuals in the FHSC registry, 11 848 (18·8%) were children or adolescents younger than 18 years with HeFH and were included in this study; 5756 (50·2%) of 11 476 included individuals were female and 5720 (49·8%) were male. Sex data were missing for 372 (3·1%) of 11 848 individuals. Median age at registry entry was 9·6 years (IQR 5·8-13·2). 10 099 (89·9%) of 11 235 included individuals had a final genetically confirmed diagnosis of familial hypercholesterolaemia and 1136 (10·1%) had a clinical diagnosis. Genetically confirmed diagnosis data or clinical diagnosis data were missing for 613 (5·2%) of 11 848 individuals. Genetic diagnosis was more common in children and adolescents from high-income countries (9427 [92·4%] of 10 202) than in children and adolescents from non-high-income countries (199 [48·0%] of 415). 3414 (31·6%) of 10 804 children or adolescents were index cases. Familial-hypercholesterolaemia-related physical signs, cardiovascular risk factors, and cardiovascular disease were uncommon, but were more common in non-high-income countries. 7557 (72·4%) of 10 428 included children or adolescents were not taking lipid-lowering medication (LLM) and had a median LDL-C of 5·00 mmol/L (IQR 4·05-6·08). Compared with genetic diagnosis, the use of unadapted clinical criteria intended for use in adults and reliant on more extreme phenotypes could result in 50-75% of children and adolescents with familial hypercholesterolaemia not being identified. Interpretation: Clinical characteristics observed in adults with familial hypercholesterolaemia are uncommon in children and adolescents with familial hypercholesterolaemia, hence detection in this age group relies on measurement of LDL-C and genetic confirmation. Where genetic testing is unavailable, increased availability and use of LDL-C measurements in the first few years of life could help reduce the current gap between prevalence and detection, enabling increased use of combination LLM to reach recommended LDL-C targets early in life

    Inclusion and exclusion criteria.

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    BackgroundCardiological complications of oncological treatment, including the most serious one, heart failure, constitute a significant and still unsolved clinical problem. A history of dyslipidemia and complications of atherosclerosis, including coronary artery disease, are established risk factors for cardiotoxicity in cancer patients. In recent years, a protective effect of statin treatment on the development of heart failure in cancer patients has been observed. This protocol describes a study aiming to assess the prognostic value of coronary atherosclerosis burden and the CAC score on the onset of cardiac dysfunction associated with cancer therapy.MethodsANTEC (Atherosclerosis iN chemoTherapy-rElated Cardiotoxicity) is a single-site, prospective, observational study to evaluate the influence of the coronary atherosclerosis and CAC score assessed by computed tomography on the development of left ventricular systolic dysfunction in cancer patients with at least moderate cardiotoxicity risk. A group of 80 patients diagnosed with cancer prior to high-dose anthracycline chemotherapy (doxorubicin ≥ 240 mg / m2 body weight or epirubicin ≥ 600 mg / m2 body weight), without a history of heart failure and coronary artery disease, will be included in the study. Patient follow-up is planned for 12 months. In all patients, coronary computed tomographic angiography (CCTA) will be performed once at the beginning of the study. The primary endpoint is the onset of cancer therapy-related cardiovascular toxicity, defined as mild, moderate, severe and very severe according to ESC 2022 Cardio-oncology guidelines. During follow up, echocardiography with GLS assessment will be performed every three months. Additionally, new biomarkers of atherosclerosis (IL-6, MPO, TNF-alpha) will be measured every 6 months. The study registration identifier on clinicaltrials.gov is NCT05118178.Clinical trials registryThis study is listed on cinicaltrials.gov with identifier NCT05118178.</div

    Schedule of Activities (SoA).

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    BackgroundCardiological complications of oncological treatment, including the most serious one, heart failure, constitute a significant and still unsolved clinical problem. A history of dyslipidemia and complications of atherosclerosis, including coronary artery disease, are established risk factors for cardiotoxicity in cancer patients. In recent years, a protective effect of statin treatment on the development of heart failure in cancer patients has been observed. This protocol describes a study aiming to assess the prognostic value of coronary atherosclerosis burden and the CAC score on the onset of cardiac dysfunction associated with cancer therapy.MethodsANTEC (Atherosclerosis iN chemoTherapy-rElated Cardiotoxicity) is a single-site, prospective, observational study to evaluate the influence of the coronary atherosclerosis and CAC score assessed by computed tomography on the development of left ventricular systolic dysfunction in cancer patients with at least moderate cardiotoxicity risk. A group of 80 patients diagnosed with cancer prior to high-dose anthracycline chemotherapy (doxorubicin ≥ 240 mg / m2 body weight or epirubicin ≥ 600 mg / m2 body weight), without a history of heart failure and coronary artery disease, will be included in the study. Patient follow-up is planned for 12 months. In all patients, coronary computed tomographic angiography (CCTA) will be performed once at the beginning of the study. The primary endpoint is the onset of cancer therapy-related cardiovascular toxicity, defined as mild, moderate, severe and very severe according to ESC 2022 Cardio-oncology guidelines. During follow up, echocardiography with GLS assessment will be performed every three months. Additionally, new biomarkers of atherosclerosis (IL-6, MPO, TNF-alpha) will be measured every 6 months. The study registration identifier on clinicaltrials.gov is NCT05118178.Clinical trials registryThis study is listed on cinicaltrials.gov with identifier NCT05118178.</div

    Ordered arrays of gold nanoparticles crosslinked by dithioacetate linkers for molecular devices

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    The final performance of a molecular electronic device is determined by the chemical structure of the molecular wires used in its assembly. Molecular place-exchange was used to incorporate di-thioacetate terminated molecules into ordered arrays of dodecanethiol capped gold nanoparticles. X-Ray photoelectron spectroscopy confirmed successful molecular replacement. Room-temperature molecular conductance of a statistically large number of devices reveals that conductance is enhanced by up to two orders of magnitude for the di-thioacetate terminated molecules. Density functional theory transport calculations were performed on five different configurations of the di-thioacetate molecules between gold electrodes, and the calculated average conductance values are in good agreement with the experimentally-observed conductance trend. Our findings highlight important cooperative effects of bridging neighboring gold nanoparticles and choice of appropriate molecular wires when designing devices for efficient transport

    Ordered arrays of gold nanoparticles crosslinked by dithioacetate linkers for molecular devices

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    Enhanced electrical conductance of the self-assembled monolayers upon molecular exchange with dithioacetate-terminating molecules.</jats:p

    Clinical utility and prognostic implications of the novel 4S-AF scheme to characterize and evaluate patients with atrial fibrillation: a report from ESC-EHRA EORP-AF Long-Term General Registry

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    International audienceAbstract Aims The 4S-AF classification scheme comprises of four domains: stroke risk (St), symptoms (Sy), severity of atrial fibrillation (AF) burden (Sb), and substrate (Su). We sought to examine the implementation of the 4S-AF scheme in the EORP-AF General Long-Term Registry and compare outcomes in AF patients according to the 4S-AF-led decision-making process. Methods and results Atrial fibrillation patients from 250 centres across 27 European countries were included. A 4S-AF score was calculated as the sum of each domain with a maximum score of 9. Of 6321 patients, 8.4% had low (St), 47.5% EHRA I (Sy), 40.5% newly diagnosed or paroxysmal AF (Sb), and 5.1% no cardiovascular risk factors or left atrial enlargement (Su). Median follow-up was 24 months. Using multivariable Cox regression analysis, independent predictors of all-cause mortality were (St) [adjusted hazard ratio (aHR) 8.21, 95% confidence interval (CI): 2.60–25.9], (Sb) (aHR 1.21, 95% CI: 1.08–1.35), and (Su) (aHR 1.27, 95% CI: 1.14–1.41). For CV mortality and any thromboembolic event, only (Su) (aHR 1.73, 95% CI: 1.45–2.06) and (Sy) (aHR 1.29, 95% CI: 1.00–1.66) were statistically significant, respectively. None of the domains were independently linked to ischaemic stroke or major bleeding. Higher 4S-AF score was related to a significant increase in all-cause mortality, CV mortality, any thromboembolic event, and ischaemic stroke but not major bleeding. Treatment of all 4S-AF domains was associated with an independent decrease in all-cause mortality (aHR 0.71, 95% CI: 0.55–0.92). For each 4S-AF domain left untreated, the risk of all-cause mortality increased substantially (aHR 1.35, 95% CI: 1.16–1.56). Conclusion Implementation of the novel 4S-AF scheme is feasible, and treatment decisions based on this scheme improve mortality rates in AF

    Epidemiology and impact of frailty in patients with atrial fibrillation in Europe

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    Background: Frailty is a medical syndrome characterised by reduced physiological reserve and increased vulnerability to stressors. Data regarding the relationship between frailty and atrial fibrillation (AF) are still inconsistent. Objectives: We aim to perform a comprehensive evaluation of frailty in a large European cohort of AF patients. Methods: A 40-item frailty index (FI) was built according to the accumulation of deficits model in the AF patients enrolled in the ESC-EHRA EORP-AF General Long-Term Registry. Association of baseline characteristics, clinical management, quality of life, healthcare resources use and risk of outcomes with frailty was examined. Results: Among 10,177 patients [mean age (standard deviation) 69.0 (11.4) years, 4,103 (40.3%) females], 6,066 (59.6%) were pre-frail and 2,172 (21.3%) were frail, whereas only 1,939 (19.1%) were considered robust. Baseline thromboembolic and bleeding risks were independently associated with increasing FI. Frail patients with AF were less likely to be treated with oral anticoagulants (OACs) (odds ratio 0.70, 95% confidence interval 0.55–0.89), especially with non-vitamin K antagonist OACs and managed with a rhythm control strategy, compared with robust patients. Increasing frailty was associated with a higher risk for all outcomes examined, with a non-linear exponential relationship. The use of OAC was associated with a lower risk of outcomes, except in patients with very/extremely high frailty. Conclusions: In this large cohort of AF patients, there was a high burden of frailty, influencing clinical management and risk of adverse outcomes. The clinical benefit of OAC is maintained in patients with high frailty, but not in very high/extremely frail ones

    Impact of renal impairment on atrial fibrillation: ESC-EHRA EORP-AF Long-Term General Registry

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    Background: Atrial fibrillation (AF) and renal impairment share a bidirectional relationship with important pathophysiological interactions. We evaluated the impact of renal impairment in a contemporary cohort of patients with AF. Methods: We utilised the ESC-EHRA EORP-AF Long-Term General Registry. Outcomes were analysed according to renal function by CKD-EPI equation. The primary endpoint was a composite of thromboembolism, major bleeding, acute coronary syndrome and all-cause death. Secondary endpoints were each of these separately including ischaemic stroke, haemorrhagic event, intracranial haemorrhage, cardiovascular death and hospital admission. Results: A total of 9306 patients were included. The distribution of patients with no, mild, moderate and severe renal impairment at baseline were 16.9%, 49.3%, 30% and 3.8%, respectively. AF patients with impaired renal function were older, more likely to be females, had worse cardiac imaging parameters and multiple comorbidities. Among patients with an indication for anticoagulation, prescription of these agents was reduced in those with severe renal impairment, p&nbsp;&lt;.001. Over 24&nbsp;months, impaired renal function was associated with significantly greater incidence of the primary composite outcome and all secondary outcomes. Multivariable Cox regression analysis demonstrated an inverse relationship between eGFR and the primary outcome (HR 1.07 [95% CI, 1.01–1.14] per 10&nbsp;ml/min/1.73&nbsp;m2 decrease), that was most notable in patients with eGFR &lt;30&nbsp;ml/min/1.73&nbsp;m2 (HR 2.21 [95% CI, 1.23–3.99] compared to eGFR ≥90&nbsp;ml/min/1.73&nbsp;m2). Conclusion: A significant proportion of patients with AF suffer from concomitant renal impairment which impacts their overall management. Furthermore, renal impairment is an independent predictor of major adverse events including thromboembolism, major bleeding, acute coronary syndrome and all-cause death in patients with AF

    Clinical complexity and impact of the ABC (Atrial fibrillation Better Care) pathway in patients with atrial fibrillation: a report from the ESC-EHRA EURObservational Research Programme in AF General Long-Term Registry