909 research outputs found

    Addressing climate change with behavioral science: A global intervention tournament in 63 countries

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    International audienceEffectively reducing climate change requires marked, global behavior change. However, it is unclear which strategies are most likely to motivate people to change their climate beliefs and behaviors. Here, we tested 11 expert-crowdsourced interventions on four climate mitigation outcomes: beliefs, policy support, information sharing intention, and an effortful tree-planting behavioral task. Across 59,440 participants from 63 countries, the interventions’ effectiveness was small, largely limited to nonclimate skeptics, and differed across outcomes: Beliefs were strengthened mostly by decreasing psychological distance (by 2.3%), policy support by writing a letter to a future-generation member (2.6%), information sharing by negative emotion induction (12.1%), and no intervention increased the more effortful behavior—several interventions even reduced tree planting. Last, the effects of each intervention differed depending on people’s initial climate beliefs. These findings suggest that the impact of behavioral climate interventions varies across audiences and target behaviors

    Addressing climate change with behavioral science::A global intervention tournament in 63 countries

    No full text
    Effectively reducing climate change requires marked, global behavior change. However, it is unclear which strategies are most likely to motivate people to change their climate beliefs and behaviors. Here, we tested 11 expert-crowdsourced interventions on four climate mitigation outcomes: beliefs, policy support, information sharing intention, and an effortful tree-planting behavioral task. Across 59,440 participants from 63 countries, the interventions’ effectiveness was small, largely limited to nonclimate skeptics, and differed across outcomes: Beliefs were strengthened mostly by decreasing psychological distance (by 2.3%), policy support by writing a letter to a future-generation member (2.6%), information sharing by negative emotion induction (12.1%), and no intervention increased the more effortful behavior—several interventions even reduced tree planting. Last, the effects of each intervention differed depending on people’s initial climate beliefs. These findings suggest that the impact of behavioral climate interventions varies across audiences and target behaviors

    Addressing climate change with behavioral science: A global intervention tournament in 63 countries

    No full text
    Effectively reducing climate change requires marked, global behavior change. However, it is unclear which strategies are most likely to motivate people to change their climate beliefs and behaviors. Here, we tested 11 expert-crowdsourced interventions on four climate mitigation outcomes: beliefs, policy support, information sharing intention, and an effortful tree-planting behavioral task. Across 59,440 participants from 63 countries, the interventions’ effectiveness was small, largely limited to nonclimate skeptics, and differed across outcomes: Beliefs were strengthened mostly by decreasing psychological distance (by 2.3%), policy support by writing a letter to a future-generation member (2.6%), information sharing by negative emotion induction (12.1%), and no intervention increased the more effortful behavior—several interventions even reduced tree planting. Last, the effects of each intervention differed depending on people’s initial climate beliefs. These findings suggest that the impact of behavioral climate interventions varies across audiences and target behaviors

    Global research priorities to mitigate plastic pollution impacts on marine wildlife

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    Marine wildlife faces a growing number of threats across the globe, and the survival of many species and populations will be dependent on conservation action. One threat in particular that has emerged over the last 4 decades is the pollution of oceanic and coastal habitats with plastic debris. The increased occurrence of plastics in marine ecosystems mirrors the increased prevalence of plastics in society, and reflects the high durability and persistence of plastics in the environment. In an effort to guide future research and assist mitigation approaches to marine conservation, we have generated a list of 16 priority research questions based on the expert opinions of 26 researchers from around the world, whose research expertise spans several disciplines, and covers each of the world's oceans and the taxa most at risk from plastic pollution. This paper highlights a growing concern related to threats posed to marine wildlife from microplastics and fragmented debris, the need for data at scales relevant to management, and the urgent need to develop interdisciplinary research and management partnerships to limit the release of plastics into the environment and curb the future impacts of plastic pollution

    Response to Merritts et al. (2023): The Anthropocene is complex. Defining it is not

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    Merritts et al. (2023) misrepresent Paul Crutzen's Anthropocene concept as encompassing all significant anthropogenic impacts, extending back many millennia. Crutzen's definition reflects massively enhanced, much more recent human impacts that transformed the Earth System away from the stability of Holocene conditions. His concept of an epoch (hence the ‘cene’ suffix) is more consistent with the strikingly distinct sedimentary record accumulated since the mid-20th century. Waters et al. (2022) highlighted a Great Acceleration Event Array (GAEA) of stratigraphic event markers that are indeed diverse and complex but also tightly clustered around 1950 CE, allowing ultra-high resolution characterization and correlation of a clearly recognisable Anthropocene chronostratigraphic base. The ‘Anthropocene event’ offered by Merritts et al., following Gibbard et al. (2021, 2022), is a highly nuanced concept that obfuscates the transformative human impact of the chronostratigraphic Anthropocene. Waters et al. (2022) restricted the meaning of the term ‘event’ in geology to conform with usual Quaternary practice and improve its utility. They simultaneously recognized an evidence-based Anthropogenic Modification Episode that is more explicitly defined than the highly interpretive interdisciplinary ‘Anthropocene event’ of Gibbard et al. (2021, 2022). The advance of science is best served through clearly developed concepts supported by tightly circumscribed terminology; indeed, improvements to stratigraphy over recent decades have been achieved through increasingly precise definitions, especially for chronostratigraphic units, and not by retaining vague terminology

    FinnGen provides genetic insights from a well-phenotyped isolated population.

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    Population isolates such as those in Finland benefit genetic research because deleterious alleles are often concentrated on a small number of low-frequency variants (0.1% ≀ minor allele frequency < 5%). These variants survived the founding bottleneck rather than being distributed over a large number of ultrarare variants. Although this effect is well established in Mendelian genetics, its value in common disease genetics is less explored1,2. FinnGen aims to study the genome and national health register data of 500,000 Finnish individuals. Given the relatively high median age of participants (63 years) and the substantial fraction of hospital-based recruitment, FinnGen is enriched for disease end points. Here we analyse data from 224,737 participants from FinnGen and study 15 diseases that have previously been investigated in large genome-wide association studies (GWASs). We also include meta-analyses of biobank data from Estonia and the United Kingdom. We identified 30 new associations, primarily low-frequency variants, enriched in the Finnish population. A GWAS of 1,932 diseases also identified 2,733 genome-wide significant associations (893 phenome-wide significant (PWS), P < 2.6 × 10-11) at 2,496 (771 PWS) independent loci with 807 (247 PWS) end points. Among these, fine-mapping implicated 148 (73 PWS) coding variants associated with 83 (42 PWS) end points. Moreover, 91 (47 PWS) had an allele frequency of <5% in non-Finnish European individuals, of which 62 (32 PWS) were enriched by more than twofold in Finland. These findings demonstrate the power of bottlenecked populations to find entry points into the biology of common diseases through low-frequency, high impact variants

    The proposed Anthropocene Epoch/Series is underpinned by an extensive array of mid‐20<sup>th</sup> century stratigraphic event signals

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    The extensive array of mid-20 th century stratigraphic event signals associated with the ‘Great Acceleration’ enables precise and unambiguous recognition of the Anthropocene as an epoch/series within the Geological Time Scale. A mid-20 th century inception is consistent with Earth System science analysis in which the Anthropocene term and concept arose, and would reflect the reality that our planet has sharply exited the range of natural variability characterizing the Holocene Epoch/Series, which the Anthropocene would therefore terminate. An alternative, recently proposed ‘geological event’ approach to the Anthropocene is primarily an interdisciplinary concept, encompassing historical and socio-cultural processes and their global environmental impacts over a diachronous timeframe that extends back at least many millennia. Resembling more closely a geological episode than an event, it would decouple the Anthropocene from its chronostratigraphic delineation and association with an abrupt planetary perturbation; but separately defined and differently named it might be usefully complementary. We recommend a clear separation of epochs, events and episodes. An epoch is a formal subdivision of the Geological Time Scale, and its correlation may be assisted by one or more events; an event is usually, and particularly in the Quaternary, a brief incident or perturbation with a sedimentary expression; and an episode is a longer, internally complex time interval that may include several events and even extend across several epochs. </p

    The proposed Anthropocene Epoch/Series is underpinned by an extensive array of mid-20th century stratigraphic event signals

    No full text
    The extensive array of mid-20th century stratigraphic event signals associated with the ‘Great Acceleration’ enables precise and unambiguous recognition of the Anthropocene as an epoch/series within the Geological Time Scale. A mid-20th century inception is consistent with Earth System science analysis in which the Anthropocene term and concept arose, and would reflect the reality that our planet has sharply exited the range of natural variability characterizing the Holocene Epoch/Series, which the Anthropocene would therefore terminate. An alternative, recently proposed ‘geological event’ approach to the Anthropocene is primarily an interdisciplinary concept, encompassing historical and socio-cultural processes and their global environmental impacts over a diachronous timeframe that extends back at least many millennia. Resembling more closely a geological episode than an event, it would decouple the Anthropocene from its chronostratigraphic delineation and association with an abrupt planetary perturbation; but separately defined and differently named it might be usefully complementary. We recommend a clear separation of epochs, events and episodes. An epoch is a formal subdivision of the Geological Time Scale, and its correlation may be assisted by one or more events; an event is usually, and particularly in the Quaternary, a brief incident or perturbation with a sedimentary expression; and an episode is a longer, internally complex time interval that may include several events and even extend across several epochs
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