18,626 research outputs found

    Interference Resolution in Nonfluent Variant Primary Progressive Aphasia: Evidence From a Picture–Word Interference Task

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    Background: Picture-word interference tasks have been used to investigate (a) the time course of lexical access in individuals with primary progressive aphasia (PPA) and (b) how these individuals resolve competition during lexical selection. Objective: To investigate the time course of Greek-speaking individuals with PPA to produce grammatical gender-marked determiner phrases by examining their picture-naming latencies in the context of distractor words. Method: Eight individuals with nonfluent variant PPA (nfv-PPA; M age = 62.8 years) and eight cognitively intact controls (M age = 61.1 years) participated in our study. In a picture-word interference task, the study participants named depicted objects by producing determiner + noun sequences. Interference was generated by manipulating the grammatical gender of the depicted objects and distractor words. Two stimulus onset asynchronies were used: +200 ms and +400 ms. Results: The individuals with nfv-PPA exhibited longer picture-naming latencies than the controls (P = 0.003). The controls exhibited interference from incongruent distractors at both asynchronies (P < 0.001); the individuals with PPA exhibited interference from incongruent distractors only at the +400-ms interval (P = 0.002). The gender-congruency effect was stronger for the individuals with PPA than for the controls at the +400-ms interval (P = 0.05); the opposite pattern was observed at the +200-ms interval (P = 0.024). Conclusion: Gender interference resolution was abnormal in the individuals with nfv-PPA. The results point to deficits in lexicosyntactic networks that compromised the time course of picture-naming production

    Effects of Home-Based Physical Exercise on Days at Home and Cost-Effectiveness in Pre-Frail and Frail Persons : Randomized Controlled Trial

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    Objectives: Frailty increases the risks of hospitalization, institutionalization, and death. Our objective was to study the effects of home-based physical exercise on the number of days spent at home among pre frail and frail persons, versus usual care. In addition, utilization and costs of health care and social services, cost-effectiveness, and health-related quality-of-life (HRQoL) were explored. Design: Randomized controlled trial, with year-long supervised exercise for 60 minutes twice a week versus usual care. Follow-up for 24 months after randomization. Setting and Participants: A sample of 299 home-dwelling persons in South Karelia, Finland. Main inclusion criteria: >65 years, meeting at least 1 of the frailty phenotype criteria, Mini-Mental State Examination score >17. Methods: Primary outcome, days spent at home over 24 months, was calculated deducting days in inpatient care, in nursing homes, and days after death. HRQoL was assessed (15D questionnaire) at baseline and at 3, 6, and 12 months. Utilization data were retrieved from medical records. Results: The participants' mean age was 82.5 (SD 6.3), 75% were women, 61% were pre-frail and 39% frail. After 24 months, there was no difference between groups in days spent at home [incidence rate ratio 1.03; 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.98-1.09]. After 12 months, the costs per person-year were 1.60-fold in the exercise group (95% CI 1.23-1.98), and after 24 months, 1.23-fold (95% CI 0.95-1.50) versus usual care. Over 12 months, the exercise group gained 0.04 quality-adjusted life-years and maintained the baseline 15D level, while the score in the usual care group deteriorated (P for group Conclusions and Implications: Physical exercise did not increase the number of days spent at home. Exercise prevented deterioration of HRQoL, and in the frail subgroup, all intervention costs were compensated with decreased utilization of other health care and social services over 24 months. (c) 2020 AMDA The Society for Post-Acute and Long-Term Care Medicine.Peer reviewe

    Prediction of 5-year mortality risk by malnutrition according to the GLIM format using seven pragmatic approaches to define the criterion of loss of muscle mass

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    Objectives: To assess the association between baseline malnutrition according to the GLIM format, using seven pragmatic approaches to define the criterion of loss of muscle mass, with mortality in the SarcoPhAge (Sarcopenia and Physical Impairment with advancing Age) study during a 5-year follow-up. Secondarily, to calculate diagnostic performance indicators, concordance, and feasibility of these 7 pragmatic approaches compared to the original GLIM criteria. Methods: Post-hoc analysis of the SarcoPhAge cohort, which included 534 community-dwelling volunteers ≄65-year-old, followed-up from 2013 to 2019. Baseline malnutrition was defined by GLIM criteria and 7 approaches: 1) Omission of a reduced muscle mass as a criterion; 2) Substitution for handgrip strength, 3) Calf-circumference, 4) Mid-arm circumference, 5) Goodman's grid, 6) Ishii's score chart, and 7) Yu's formula. The association between malnutrition (according to GLIM criteria and the 7 approaches) and mortality was assessed by Cox-regressions. Sensitivity, Specificity, Positive (PPV), Negative (NPV) predictive values, area under the curve (AUC), Cohen-kappa coefficient, and TELOS-feasibility score were calculated. Results: Data to calculate GLIM criteria were available for 373 subjects (73.07 ± 5.96 years, 56% women). Prevalence of malnutrition with GLIM criteria was 24.4% (ranged from 13.9% to 20.9% with the 7 approaches). GLIM criteria showed a HR = 3.38 (1.89-6.09) to predict mortality during the 5-year follow-up, which ranged from HR = 2.72 (1.51-4.91) to 3.94 (2.14-7.24) with the 7 approaches. All 7 approaches were feasible (TELOS ≄ 3), showed sensitivity ≄ 65%, specificity ≄ 95.4%, PPV ≄ 85%, NPV ≄ 88%, AUC ≄ 0.7 and had almost-perfect/strong concordance (k ≄ 0.7) with the original GLIM criteria. Conclusions: GLIM criteria and the 7 approaches predicted three-to four-fold mortality, all ensured an accurate diagnosis, and were feasible in clinical settings

    Assessing people with dementia participating in cognitive stimulation activities – A qualitative pilot video analysis exploring the importance of facilitating the participation

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    BACKGROUND: This pilot video analysis was part of a feasibility control study, which aimed to gain information about the size and variability of the changes in outcome measures to plan a substantive effect study. It compared a cognitive stimulation programme named Lifelong Learning with other existing dementia services. OBJECTIVE: The pilot video analysis explored how facilitation is performed, when assessing people with dementia with standardized measures, to ensure their participation in research. DESIGN: A test battery of five measures (Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE), Quality of Life in Alzheimer's Disease Scale (QoL-AD), General Self-Efficacy Scale, Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale and Hawthorn Friendship Scale) was used. Each assessment was video-recorded. The findings from a microanalysis of 10 videos are presented in this article. SETTING: The study involved 55 active participants with mild-to-moderate dementia in six municipalities in Northern Denmark. RESULTS: The identified themes related to supportive facilitation: Positive facilitator strategies; Creating a safe and comfortable environment; and to dilemmas in facilitation: Balancing multiple dilemmas and Balancing the MMSE test. DISCUSSION: Results are discussed in relation to using standardized measures. CONCLUSION: The quality of facilitation when using standardized measures is of great importance as it may influence the participant, the assessment and the answers given. The facilitation role needs to be thoroughly planned and executed with ethical consideration to improve the participation of vulnerable groups in research and ensure a person-centred approach. PATIENT OR PUBLIC CONTRIBUTION: The identified measures were chosen based upon previous qualitative results and user-involvement workshops with people with dementia

    Exploring the Role of Explicit and Implicit Self-Esteem and Self-Compassion in Anxious and Depressive Symptomatology Following Acquired Brain Injury

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    [EN] Objectives Acquired brain injury (ABI) can lead to the emergence of several disabilities and is commonly associated with high rates of anxiety and depression symptoms. Self-related constructs, such as self-esteem and self-compassion, might play a key role in this distressing symptomatology. Low explicit (i.e., deliberate) self-esteem is associated with anxiety and depression after ABI. However, implicit (i.e., automatic) self-esteem, explicit-implicit self-discrepancies, and self-compassion could also significantly contribute to this symptomatology. The purpose of the present study was to examine whether implicit self-esteem, explicit-implicit self-discrepancy (size and direction), and self-compassion are related to anxious and depressive symptoms after ABI in adults, beyond the contribution of explicit self-esteem. Methods The sample consisted 38 individuals with ABI who were enrolled in a long-term rehabilitation program. All participants completed the measures of explicit self-esteem, implicit self-esteem, self-compassion, anxiety, and depression. Pearson's correlations and hierarchical regression models were calculated. Results Findings showed that both self-compassion and implicit self-esteem negatively accounted for unique variance in anxiety and depression when controlling for explicit self-esteem. Neither the size nor direction of explicit-implicit self-discrepancy was significantly associated with anxious or depressive symptomatology. Conclusions The findings suggest that the consideration of self-compassion and implicit self-esteem, in addition to explicit self-esteem, contributes to understanding anxiety and depression following ABI.Lorena Desdentado is supported by a FPU doctoral scholarship (FPU18/01690) from the Spanish Ministry of Universities. 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    The relationship between self-care, long-term mortality, and heart failure hospitalization: insights from a real-world cohort study

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    Data de publicaciĂł electrĂČnica: 19-05-2021Aims: The assumption that improved self-care in the setting of heart failure (HF) care necessarily translates into improvements in long-term mortality and/or hospitalization is not well established. We aimed to study the association between self-care and long-term mortality and other major adverse HF events (MAHFE). Methods and results: We conducted an observational, prospective, cohort study of 1123 consecutive patients with chronic HF. The primary endpoint was all-cause mortality. We used the European Heart Failure Self-care Behaviour Scale 9-item version (EHFSCBS-9) to measure global self-care (overall score) and three specific dimensions of self-care including autonomy-based adherence, consulting behaviour and provider-based adherence. After a mean follow-up of 3.3 years, all-cause death occurred in 487 patients (43%). In adjusted analysis, higher EHFScBS-9 scores (better self-care) at baseline were associated with lower risk of all-cause death [hazard ratio (HR) 0.993, 95% confidence interval (CI) (0.988-0.997), P-value = 0.002], cardiovascular (CV) death [HR 0.989, 95% CI (0.981-0.996), P-value = 0.003], HF hospitalization [HR 0.993, 95% CI (0.988-0.998), P-value = 0.005], and the combination of MAHFE [HR 0.995, 95% CI (0.991-0.999), P-value = 0.018]. Similarly, impaired global self-care [HR 1.589, 95% CI (1.201-2.127), P-value = 0.001], impaired autonomy-based adherence [HR 1.464, 95% CI (1.114-1.923), P-value = 0.006], and impaired consulting behaviour dimensions [HR 1.510, 95% CI (1.140-1.923), P-value = 0.006] were all associated with higher risk of all-cause mortality. Conclusion: In this study, we have shown that worse self-care is an independent predictor of long-term mortality (both, all-cause and CV), HF hospitalization, and the combinations of these endpoints in patients with chronic HF. Important dimensions of self-care such as autonomy-based adherence and consulting behaviour also determine the risk of all these outcomes in the long term

    Why should neuropsychological assessment always be considered in Myotonic Dystrophy Type 2? An overview of patients' cognitive profile

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    International audienceObjectives and background: Myotonic Dystrophies (DM) are hereditary, multisystem, slowly progressive myopathies that also affect the central nervous system. In contrast to the well-established cognitive profile of Myotonic Dystrophy Type 1 (DM1), only few studies investigated cognitive dysfunction in Myotonic Dystrophy Type 2 (DM2), and their findings are inconsistent. We have therefore performed a formal comprehensive review of available studies in DM2 to identify the most commonly affected cognitive domains. Methods: An advanced search was conducted on PubMed with the terms "myotonic dystrophy type 2" AND "cognitive deficits", "cognitive", "cognition", "neuropsychological", "neurocognitive", "neurobehavioral" in all fields. All available original research articles (13) and 1 case study, 14 in total, were included and thoroughly studied. Results: Most research studies indicate primary cognitive deficits in executive functions (dysexecutive syndrome), memory (short term nonverbal, verbal episodic memory), visuo-spatial/constructivemotor functions and attention while language is rarely reported to be affected. Cognitive profile is associated with brain abnormalities in several secondary and high-order cortical and subcortical regions and associative white matter tracts based on the few neuroimaging and/or multimodal studies. The limited sample size of DM2 patients is the most prominent limitation on current literature. Conclusions: The multifaceted profile of cognitive deficits highlights the need for routine neuropsychological evaluation in DM2 that could unveil patients' strengths and impairments at baseline and to be carefully monitored over time
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