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    Site-Specific Evaluation of Nitrogen Inhibitors on Yield, Nitrogen Use Efficiency, Profit, and Soil Nitrogen Dynamics in On-Farm Experiments

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    Nitrogen inhibitors (N-in) are often used by farmers to reduce nitrogen (N) losses from fertilizer applications, improving nitrogen use efficiency (NUE) and mitigating environmental impact. However, there is limited understanding of the site-specific effectiveness of inhibitors and their effect on crop yield and profitability. This study aimed to (1) measure the site-specific performance of N-in using on-farm strip trials in Nebraska, (2) quantify the effects of N-in on yield, profitability, and NUE, and (3) determine if lysimeter water nitrate-N (NO3--N) and soil nitrate (NO3--N) and ammonium (NH4+-N) concentrations could help quantify the benefits of N-in. Eleven experiments were established between 2021 and 2022, including nine Nebraska On-Farm Research Network (NOFRN) and one long-term N study located at South Central Ag Lab (SCAL). Randomized strip trials were established in commercial fields, the selection of inhibitor type and N application timing was determined by the growers. Yield data was collected using yield monitors. Lysimeter water samples and soil samples were collected during the first six weeks after N-in application. Whole field results indicated no significant differences in yield, partial profit, or NUE among all study sites, regardless of the use of N-in. However, site-specific analysis at a smaller scale (~ 177 m2) where lysimeter and soil samples were collected, showed significant difference for N-in compared to the control at 2 out of 5 sites. At a site characterized with a loam soil type with 7 to 11% slope, N-in yielded 1832 kg ha-1 more than the control (p \u3c 0.1). Similarly, N-in outperformed N control at a silty clay loam and a fine sandy loam soil type with yield differences of 680 kg ha-1 and 950 kg ha-1, respectively (p \u3c 0.1). Lysimeter water NO3--N, soil NO3--N and NH4+-N concentrations did not yield conclusive evidence regarding the benefits of N-in. These findings highlight the potential variability of N-in effectiveness depending on specific soil conditions. Future studies should consider the specific field characteristics and management practices employed by growers to determine the optimal utilization of N-in products in agriculture. Advisor: Laila A. Punte

    A Short Account of that Part of Africa Inhabited by the Negroes

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    Anthony Benezet scoured the available English literature of colonial exploitation for evidence of the humanity of the trafficked Africans and the inhumanity of the European traders in human beings. He compiled and published this Short Account in 1762 to present the case for termination of the trans-Atlantic transportation of kidnapped Africans, for abolition of slavery and the slave trade, and for emancipation of the enslaved persons held in bondage in North America and elsewhere. Drawing on Scottish moral philosophy, British Whig ideology, and, most importantly, on New Testament gospel teachings, Benezet presented both reasoned and impassioned appeals for the recognition that Africans had rights to life and liberty that were being abrogated on an industrial scale in violation of the most sacred Christian beliefs. Benezet (1713–1784) was a refugee from France by way of England whose family had relocated to Philadelphia in 1731. He became a schoolteacher who founded the first public school for girls in America in 1755 and the Negro School at Philadelphia for black children in 1770. Benezet was an active member of the Quaker meetings and had previously authored a short pamplet (1760) and an epistle to congregations (1754) against the participation of Quakers and other Christians in “the man-trade.” This Short Account in 1762 was a more ambitious work, combining anti-slavery arguments with historical and sociological information about Africa and its ongoing exploitation. Informed by wide reading, particularly the serialized A New General Collection of Voyages and Travels (London, 1745-1747), known as Astley’s Collecctions, Benezet turned the literature of exploration and conquest into an argument for the common humanity of Africans. He found evidence that they were settled, cultured, independent, and largely peaceable; he contradicted the prevalent notion that enslaved transportees were prisoners of war who would otherwise have been executed; and he exposed the centuries-old efforts of English, French, Dutch, and Portuguese merchant enterprises to profit from buying and selling Negro men, women, and children. The mid-eighteenth century witnessed the height of the English and North American participation in the trans-Atlantic slave trade, and this early abolitionist tract raised an important and ultimately influential outcry in favor of its termination and the remediation of its manifold abuses. doi: 10.32873/unl.dc.zea.1507https://digitalcommons.unl.edu/zeaamericanstudies/1043/thumbnail.jp

    Supportive Supervision and Resiliency Ohio - Guidance for Coaches: Supporting Resilience

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    Reflections of “Use of Comics in Social Studies Education” Course: The Opinion and Experiences of Teachers

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    It is well known that a quality teacher education is necessary for qualified education. Teachers must be well-trained in multiple areas and have an open-minded structure. They must develop strategies based on the lesson and students, which needs effective material development and use. The materials to be used could be prepared by others and can be incorporated into the classroom setting or teachers could design and present them to students, which is essential for the quality of instruction. When a teacher creates and effectively employs instructional materials, his/her self-confidence will increase and teaching will be enriched and made easier. Comics is one of those materials enriching classroom. This study seeks to elucidate the perspectives and experiences of teachers who took course The Use of Comics in Social Studies Education on generating comics as educational materials. The instructor of the relevant course designed and implemented it for the first time in 2019. This is the first and only course of its kind in Turkey. It is an elective graduate course at Yildiz Technical University Faculty of Education, Istanbul, Turkey. The purpose of the courses is to introduce comics, explain the use of comics as an educational resource, and enhance the professional skills and competencies of teachers and teacher candidates. In this study, teachers who completed the course at the master\u27s level were examined. The study group consisted of twelve social studies teachers who took the course between 2019 and 2022, when it was offered for the first time. As a qualitative study, interviews were utilised to collect the data, then analysed through content analysis. The research revealed that the course The Use of Comics in Social Studies Education contributed positively to the academic and professional experiences of teachers. It has been determined that comics, as a medium, had positive effects on the professional experience of the participants, such as increasing student motivation, enabling learning while having fun, facilitating permanent learning, contributing to the development of empathy skills, and encouraging the formation of reading habits

    Families and Educators Co-Designing: Critical Education Research as Participatory Public Scholarship

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    For the past six years, we—members of the Family-School Collaboration Design Research Project—have been working to understand and transform family-school relationships in Salt Lake City, Utah. Our group includes an evolving cast of scholars, family leaders, professional educators, graduate students, and organizers. We are trying to create spaces where culturally and linguistically diverse (CLD) families-families whose language and culture differ from the dominant school culture-have real voice in schools and can partner equitably with educators. We are a part of a national network of scholars, practitioners, and family and community leaders called the Family Leadership Design Collaborative (FLDC). Since 2016, we have been working and learning alongside colleagues across the country, with support from the network\u27s central organizers, Drs. Ann Ishimaru and Megan Bang. The FLDC is carving out new aperturas (openings) for research and social change, based on a vision of community wellbeing and educational justice (Ishimaru et al., 2019). You can read more about the FLDC framework, methods, and projects at https://familydesigncollab.org . In the FLDC, we use a form of design-based research we call solidarity-driven co-design (Ishimaru et al., 2019). Design-based research advances educational theory by designing, piloting, studying, and revising educational interventions in real-life learning situations (Cobb et al., 2003; Collins et al., 2004). Solidarity-driven co-design takes design-based research and integrates aspects of community-based research and decolonizing methodologies (Bhattacharya, 2009; Beckman & Long, 2016; Strand et al., 2003; Tuhiwai Smith, 2013). The result is a critical, participatory process that centers the knowledge, leadership, and creativity of families that are usually kept out of research and decision-making spaces (Bang & Vossoughi, 2016; Philip et al., 2018). Solidarity-driven co-design follows an iterative, four-step cycle. In step one, families, educators, organizers, and researchers come together to build relationships, share stories, and theorize together about a topic of concern. In step two, the team designs possible solutions, which are then piloted in step three. In step four, the team analyzes data from the pilot and refines solutions for another cycle. Throughout the process, close attention is paid to critical questions of identity and power in terms of both the topic of study and internal dynamics among the co-designers (Ishimaru et al., 2019). This process shares features with other community-based methods, such as critical participatory action research (Fine & Torre, 2021; Torre et al., 2012). For example, it positions people who are usually the subjects of research as co-researchers, it goes through iterative cycles that include both research and action, and it is committed to social transformation. At the same time, the process of co-design makes much less of a distinction between the stages of research and action, instead merging the two into an ongoing process of creation. It emphasizes the tools of both reflection (looking at the past and the present) and imagination (envisioning and beginning to craft more just futures for our schools and communities) . In this chapter, we share a bit about our work in Salt Lake City-our goals and our methods, our challenges and our successes. We discuss how the project emerged, how we facilitated the co-design process, and the products we created in order to reach beyond the academy. We explore some of the tensions we faced and how the project evolved over time as COVID-19 changed the landscape of schooling

    Impediments to Peace: In Response to ‘The Evolution of Peace’ by Luke Glowacki (December 16, 2022)

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    A response to ‘The evolution of peace’ by Luke Glowacki (December 16, 2022) While effective institutional practices are critical for the evolution of peace certain factors deter their effectiveness. In-group and out-group dynamics may make peace difficult between culturally distinct groups. Critical ecological conditions often lead to intractable conflict over resources. And within group conflicts of interest most prominently between generations may inhibit effective peace makin

    Biographical Memoirs: Napoleon A. Chagnon

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    Napoleon A. Chagnon (August 27, 1938–September 21, 2019), elected to the National Academy of Science in 2012. A Biographical Memoir by Raymond B. Hames, University of Nebraska-Lincoln. Chagnon was a Renaissance anthropologist who made numerous fundamental contributions to anthropology. His films and ethnography have been viewed by millions around the world. He combined a humanistic eye in research with an unwavering scientific approach to human culture and behavior. He set multiple standards for long-term field research in terms of methodological rigor and refinement. He made some of the first tests of inclusive fitness theory in human behavior. And he was a major force in the institutional establishment of evolutionary approaches in anthropology as well as the rest of the social sciences

    Supportive Supervision and Resiliency Ohio - Final Summary

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    Supportive Supervision and a Resilient Workforce Ohio Department of Job and Family Services (ODJFS) is a state-led, county-administered child welfare system. Ohio’s 83 single-county agencies and two multi-county agencies are responsible for the delivery of child protective services and ongoing case management in Ohio’s 88 counties. In 2017, ODJFS had an annual turnover rate of about 27%. They applied to be a Quality Improvement Center for Workforce Development (QIC-WD) site with the goal of strengthening their child welfare workforce. When ODJFS started working with the QIC-WD, a Workforce Implementation Team (WIT) was established to participate in a needs assessment process, determine an intervention, and support implementation. The needs assessment included discussions with multiple county leaders, surveys, and a review of Human Resources (HR) data over the period of months. The results pointed to issues related to supervision at every level within the agencies. The QIC-WD also conducted surveys with 588 Ohio child welfare workers across the nine counties involved in the project and found that the organizational culture and climate across all participating counties was above average in rigidity and resistance, and below average in engagement. The survey also revealed that, on average, 53% of respondents had recently excperienced elevated levels of secondary traumatic stress (STS) symptoms. It was noted that supportive supervision could enhance engagement and address rigidity, resistance, and STS. Focus groups with 90 supervisors across the nine counties found that they desired more support from both managers and peers, were willing to support staff more, and believed it was important to engage staff directly in learning resilience skills. A theory of change that addressed supervision and STS was ultimately used to guide program development. The WIT created Coach Ohio, a multi-level supportive supervision intervention, to help child welfare staff within the original six Ohio implementation counties prevent and mitigate the effects of secondary trauma, employee dissatisfaction, and disengagement from families and children served by the agencies (see the Intervention Background for more information). The team used a logic model to connect the intervention activities and expected outcomes. Coach Ohio includes an adaptation of Resilience Alliance (RA) and the Atlantic Coast Child Welfare Implementation Center (ACCWIC) Coaching Curriculum. This video highlights the experience of workers, supervisors, and administrators who were involved in Coach Ohio. The site began to implement Coach Ohio in six counties. Directors, managers, administrators, and frontline supervisors were trained in the ACCWIC coaching model. The coaching model involves being present, listening, reflecting and clarifying, questioning, giving feedback, and holding staff accountable. Coaching was used to reinforce RA concepts once that part of the intervention began. The intervention counties offered 24-weeks of RA and the counties varied in how they managed RA facilitation. In most counties, leaders and frontline staff met separately. For leaders, separate RA groups enhanced peer support. For frontline staff, separate RA groups facilitated a sense of safety to talk openly about their experiences. Participants followed an RA manual, participated in 1-hour weekly groups, and practiced skills in between sessions with support and coaching from their supervisors. Peer-led support groups continued in the intervention counties after the 24-weeks of RA. These groups met in-person until the COVID-19 pandemic caused offices to close, and then meetings were virtual. The QIC-WD evaluation team carefully monitored the implementation of Coach Ohio, including the fidelity to both the ACCWIC coaching model and RA. Fidelity was measured by checking on adherence, dosage, quality, and staff engagement, as well as the impact of the intervention over time. Evaluation of fidelity to each aspect of the intervention found that the ACCWIC coaching model was strong with high dosage (98%), high adherence to the curriculum (92%), high quality ratings by participants in the coaching training and follow-up sessions (82%), high engagement of participants and high scores on a transfer of learning measure that research has shown is predictive of actual knowledge transfer to the field (79%). Frontline staff reported their supervisors high on usage of the coaching skills (73% rated 4 or higher on 5-point scale) and in each area of being present (78%), listening (69%), reflecting (69%), asking questions (71%), giving feedback (76%) and holding accountable to use the RA skills (72%). Evaluation of fidelity to implementation of the RA groups found that 81% of participants had very high exposure to the intervention. In other words, they attended at least 20 of the 24 sessions (or 80% of the sessions offered). Adherence by facilitators to the RA curriculum was also high (97%), ratings of quality of the RA sessions by participants was high (90%), as was a sense of engagement by facilitators during sessions (83%). There were also high scores on a transfer of learning measure (78%), indicating that participants gained skills during their RA sessions that they could apply to their job. For all but one county, a longitudinal quasi-experimental study design was employed to assess the impact of the intervention over time. The results focus on the comparison between four intervention counties and three comparison counties. (Results from the large county that engaged in a wait-list control design are not included here but are similar.) A mix of survey and administrative data were used to evaluate the intervention. There were no differences at baseline between those in intervention vs. comparison counties in the factors assessed. So, even though the design was quasi-experimental, there was equivalence at baseline between the two groups. Key findings include: Coach Ohio participants reported higher levels of active coping, resilience, work-life balance, and supervisor support than those in the comparison counties, although they did not show more optimism which may be a more stable trait. STS symptoms significantly increased over time in staff in the comparison counties, particularly after pandemic-related lockdowns. Although participants in the intervention condition (Coach Ohio) also reported that their STS symptoms persisted over time (6-months after the intervention began), symptoms did not increase. Coach Ohio participants reported higher levels of work engagement and job embeddedness post-intervention, than did comparison participants. Coach Ohio participants reported more job satisfaction, intent to stay, and lower intent to leave (overall, thinking about quitting and looking for a job) than did those in the comparison counties. Resignation rates were comparable in the intervention and comparison counties prior to the implementation of Coach Ohio. Once the intervention began, resignations were significantly lower in the intervention counties than in the comparison counties. In fact, caseworkers in the intervention were 2.73 times more likely to remain with the agency than those in the comparison counties. The exit rates did not change for those in the intervention counties but declined in the comparison counties during the pandemic, wiping out the differences. The follow-up finding was confounded by the pandemic effect. The study examined all components of organizational culture and climate (OCC) from before the intervention began and annually for several years. Three of the four targeted OCC areas showed improvements in the intervention counties but not in the comparison counties. Those in the intervention perceived reductions in the rigidity of the agency but not resistance (culture measures), as well as reductions in stress, and increases in engagement (climate measures). Fidelity to all components of the Coach Ohio implementation was high and buy-in and uptake by county agencies involved in the intervention was strong. Therefore, using a quasi-experimental evaluation design, comparisons of attitudes, perceptions, emotions, and behaviors can be attributed to the intervention. The QIC-WD evaluators were able to conclude that the multi-level Coach Ohio intervention had the desired impact. County and state child welfare leaders and staff saw the value of the Coach Ohio intervention as it was being rolled out, including during the COVID 19 pandemic. Higher resourced counties immediately invested in continuing to train new child welfare supervisors in the ACCWIC Coaching Model and facilitating RA groups for new child welfare employees (once QIC-WD support ended). They also expanded these Coach Ohio components with other social service staff in their agencies. Lower resourced counties requested, and will be receiving, state funds to continue Coach Ohio in their counties. Through the Ohio Workforce Initiative, counties that did not implement Coach Ohio as part of the QIC-WD project will have the opportunity to do so in the future. A Coach Ohio Implementation Manual is available so that other counties can deliver the model as tested by the QIC-WD with the goal of strengthening their child welfare workforce

    Illustrating Thoughts & Feelings: Student-Produced Political Cartoons About Israel

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    This paper presents the findings of a qualitative study about the inclusion of arts-based assessment strategies in a 12th grade Israel education classroom. Students were tasked with producing a political cartoon that demonstrated their understandings of contemporary Israeli society. Data was collected from interviews and students\u27 original artwork. The findings revealed that learning through the arts provided students with opportunities to think about and express their feelings about Israel in aesthetically complex and personal ways. The findings also demonstrated the importance of pre-assessment strategies like frequent exposure to the genre of political cartoons and conferencing before submission

    Supportive Supervision and Resiliency Ohio - Coaching in Child Welfare 2019 Participant Guide

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