1,176 research outputs found

    Proof of vanishing cohomology at the tachyon vacuum

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    We prove Sen's third conjecture that there are no on-shell perturbative excitations of the tachyon vacuum in open bosonic string field theory. The proof relies on the existence of a special state A, which, when acted on by the BRST operator at the tachyon vacuum, gives the identity. While this state was found numerically in Feynman-Siegel gauge, here we give a simple analytic expression.Comment: 19 pages, 4 figures; v2: references adde

    Female teat size is a reliable indicator of annual breeding success in European badgers: Genetic validation

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    Assessing which females have bred successfully is a central requirement in many ecological field studies, providing an estimate of the effective female population size. Researchers have applied teat measurements previously to assess whether females, in a variety of mammalian species, have bred; however, this technique has not been validated genetically. Furthermore, several analytical techniques are available to classify individuals, but their misclassification rates have not been compared. We used 22 microsatellite loci to assign maternity, with 95% confidence, within a high-density population of European badgers Meles meles, as plural and subterranean breeding means that maternity cannot be inferred from behavioural observations. The teat lengths and diameters of 136 females, measured May–July 1994–2005, from social groups in which all offspring were assigned a mother, were reliable indicators of recent breeding success. A Generalised Linear Mixed Model (GLMM) classified both breeding and non-breeding females with lower error rates than discriminant analyses and crude teat-size criteria. The GLMM model logit probability = −20 + 1.8 month + 1.6 mean teat length + 1.0 mean teat diameter can be applied quickly in the field to assess the probability with which a female badger should be assigned maternity. This is a low-cost measure which, after validation, could be used in other badger or mammalian populations to assess the breeding success of females. This may be a particularly useful welfare tool for veterinary practitioners, especially during badger culls

    Superstring field theory equivalence: Ramond sector

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    We prove that the finite gauge transformation of the Ramond sector of the modified cubic superstring field theory is ill-defined due to collisions of picture changing operators. Despite this problem we study to what extent could a bijective classical correspondence between this theory and the (presumably consistent) non-polynomial theory exist. We find that the classical equivalence between these two theories can almost be extended to the Ramond sector: We construct mappings between the string fields (NS and Ramond, including Chan-Paton factors and the various GSO sectors) of the two theories that send solutions to solutions in a way that respects the linearized gauge symmetries in both sides and keeps the action of the solutions invariant. The perturbative spectrum around equivalent solutions is also isomorphic. The problem with the cubic theory implies that the correspondence of the linearized gauge symmetries cannot be extended to a correspondence of the finite gauge symmetries. Hence, our equivalence is only formal, since it relates a consistent theory to an inconsistent one. Nonetheless, we believe that the fact that the equivalence formally works suggests that a consistent modification of the cubic theory exists. We construct a theory that can be considered as a first step towards a consistent RNS cubic theory.Comment: v1: 24 pages. v2: 27 pages, significant modifications of the presentation, new section, typos corrected, references adde

    Identification of QTLs associated with resistance to Phomopsis pod blight (Diaporthe toxica) in Lupinus albus

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    Phomopsis blight in Lupinus albus is caused by a fungal pathogen, Diaporthe toxica. It can invade all plant parts, leading to plant material becoming toxic to grazing animals, and potentially resulting in lupinosis. Identifying sources of resistance and breeding for resistance remains the best strategy for controlling Phomopsis and reducing lupinosis risks. However, loci associated with resistance to Phomopsis blight have not yet been identified. In this study, quantitative trait locus (QTL) analysis identified genomic regions associated with resistance to Phomopsis pod blight (PPB) using a linkage map of L. albus constructed previously from an F8 recombinant inbred line population derived from a cross between Kiev-Mutant (susceptible to PPB) and P27174 (resistant to PPB). Phenotyping was undertaken using a detached pod assay. In total, we identified eight QTLs for resistance to PPB on linkage group (LG) 3, LG6, LG10, LG12, LG17 and LG27 from different phenotyping environments. However, at least one QTL, QTL-5 on LG10 was consistently detected in both phenotyping environments and accounted for up to 28.2% of the total phenotypic variance. The results of this study showed that the QTL-2 on LG3 interacts epistatically with QTL-5 and QTL-6, which map on LG10 and LG12, respectively

    Ghost story. II. The midpoint ghost vertex

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    We construct the ghost number 9 three strings vertex for OSFT in the natural normal ordering. We find two versions, one with a ghost insertion at z=i and a twist-conjugate one with insertion at z=-i. For this reason we call them midpoint vertices. We show that the relevant Neumann matrices commute among themselves and with the matrix GG representing the operator K1. We analyze the spectrum of the latter and find that beside a continuous spectrum there is a (so far ignored) discrete one. We are able to write spectral formulas for all the Neumann matrices involved and clarify the important role of the integration contour over the continuous spectrum. We then pass to examine the (ghost) wedge states. We compute the discrete and continuous eigenvalues of the corresponding Neumann matrices and show that they satisfy the appropriate recursion relations. Using these results we show that the formulas for our vertices correctly define the star product in that, starting from the data of two ghost number 0 wedge states, they allow us to reconstruct a ghost number 3 state which is the expected wedge state with the ghost insertion at the midpoint, according to the star recursion relation.Comment: 60 pages. v2: typos and minor improvements, ref added. To appear in JHE

    Construction of integrated linkage map of a recombinant inbred line population of white lupin (Lupinus albus L.)

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    We report the development of a Diversity Arrays Technology (DArT) marker panel and its utilisation in the development of an integrated genetic linkage map of white lupin (Lupinus albus L.) using an F8 recombinant inbred line population derived from Kiev Mutant/P27174. One hundred and thirty-six DArT markers were merged into the first genetic linkage map composed of 220 amplified fragment length polymorphisms (AFLPs) and 105 genic markers. The integrated map consists of 38 linkage groups of 441 markers and spans a total length of 2,169 cM, with an average interval size of 4.6 cM. The DArT markers exhibited good genome coverage and were associated with previously identified genic and AFLP markers linked with quantitative trait loci for anthracnose resistance, flowering time and alkaloid content. The improved genetic linkage map of white lupin will aid in the identification of markers for traits of interest and future syntenic studies

    Maternal and perinatal outcomes by planned place of birth among women with low-risk pregnancies in high-income countries: A systematic review and meta-analysis

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    © 2018 The Author(s) Background: The comparative safety of different birth settings is widely debated. Comparing research across high-income countries is complex, given differences in maternity service provision, data discrepancies, and varying research techniques and quality. Studies of births planned at home or in birth centres have reported both better and poorer outcomes than planned hospital births. Previous systematic reviews have focused on outcomes from either birth centres or home births, with inconsistent attention to quality appraisal. Few have attempted to synthesise findings. Objective: To compare maternal and perinatal outcomes from different places of birth via a systematic review of high-quality research, and meta-analysis of appropriate data (Prospero registration CRD42016042291). Design: Reviewers searched CINAHL, Embase, Maternity and Infant Care, Medline and PsycINFO databases to identify studies comparing selected outcomes by place of birth among women with low-risk pregnancies in high-income countries. They critically appraised identified studies using an instrument specific to birth place research and then combined outcome data via meta-analysis, using RevMan software. Findings: Twenty-eight articles met inclusion criteria, yielding comparative data on perinatal mortality, mode of birth, maternal morbidity and/or NICU admissions. Meta-analysis indicated that women planning hospital births had statistically significantly lower odds of normal vaginal birth than in other planned settings. Women experienced severe perineal trauma or haemorrhage at a lower rate in planned home births than in obstetric units. There were no statistically significant differences in infant mortality by planned place of birth, although most studies had limited statistical power to detect differences for rare outcomes. Differences in location, context, quality and design of identified studies render results subject to variation. Conclusions and implications for practice: High-quality evidence about low-risk pregnancies indicates that place of birth had no statistically significant impact on infant mortality. The lower odds of maternal morbidity and obstetric intervention support the expansion of birth centre and home birth options for women with low-risk pregnancies

    Ghost story. III. Back to ghost number zero

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    After having defined a 3-strings midpoint-inserted vertex for the bc system, we analyze the relation between gh=0 states (wedge states) and gh=3 midpoint duals. We find explicit and regular relations connecting the two objects. In the case of wedge states this allows us to write down a spectral decomposition for the gh=0 Neumann matrices, despite the fact that they are not commuting with the matrix representation of K1. We thus trace back the origin of this noncommutativity to be a consequence of the imaginary poles of the wedge eigenvalues in the complex k-plane. With explicit reconstruction formulas at hand for both gh=0 and gh=3, we can finally show how the midpoint vertex avoids this intrinsic noncommutativity at gh=0, making everything as simple as the zero momentum matter sector.Comment: 40 pages. v2: typos and minor corrections, presentation improved in sect. 4.3, plots added in app. A.1, two refs added. To appear in JHE

    Relevant Deformations in Open String Field Theory: a Simple Solution for Lumps

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    We propose a remarkably simple solution of cubic open string field theory which describes inhomogeneous tachyon condensation. The solution is in one-to-one correspondence with the IR fixed point of the RG-flow generated in the two--dimensional world-sheet theory by integrating a relevant operator with mild enough OPE on the boundary. It is shown how the closed string overlap correctly captures the shift in the closed string one point function between the UV and the IR limits of the flow. Examples of lumps in non-compact and compact transverse directions are given.Comment: 45 pages. v2: typos and minor improvements. v3: submitted to jhe