1,139 research outputs found

    Does the national competency standards framework for pharmacists in Australia support the provision of behaviour change interventions?

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    Issue addressed: Australian pharmacists are increasingly moving towards the provision of patient-centred professional pharmacy services for chronic disease management. Some of these services are targeted towards improving patients‚Äô health and wellbeing through the facilitation of patient-driven health behaviour change. This paper investigates whether the provision of behaviour change interventions by Australian pharmacists is adequately underpinned by the current competency framework. Methods: The foundation and behaviour change competences within each of the domains in the generic health behaviour change competency framework (GHBC-CF), was mapped to the Australian pharmacist competency framework. Results: Although the Australian competency framework underpins most of the foundation and behaviour change competences of the GHB-CF required to undertake low-intensity interventions, for medium to high-intensity interventions four specific task-related competences need to be addressed. These are F12 ‚ÄėAbility to recognise barriers to and facilitators of implementing interventions‚Äô, BC4 ‚Äėability to agree on goals for the intervention‚Äô, BC5 ‚Äėcapacity to implement behaviour change models in a flexible but coherent manner‚Äô and BC6 ‚Äėcapacity to select and skilfully apply most appropriate intervention method‚Äô. Conclusion: Additional training is necessary if pharmacists aspire to provide behaviour change interventions for chronic disease management, in particular those that are complex as they involve changes to multiple health behaviours. So what?: The identification of these gaps is critical and can potentially be addressed in postgraduate training programs and as pharmacy curricula are updated. ¬© 2021 Australian Health Promotion Association

    Grass Gazers: Using citizen science as a tool to facilitate practical and online science learning for secondary school students during the COVID‚Äź19 lockdown

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    The coronavirus disease of 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has impacted educational systems worldwide during 2020, including primary and secondary schooling. To enable students of a local secondary school in Brisbane, Queensland, to continue with their practical agricultural science learning and facilitate online learning, a ‚ÄúGrass Gazers‚ÄĚ citizen science scoping project was designed and rapidly implemented as a collaboration between the school and a multidisciplinary university research group focused on pollen allergy. Here, we reflect on the process of developing and implementing this project from the perspective of the school and the university. A learning package including modules on pollen identification, tracking grass species, measuring field greenness, using a citizen science data entry platform, forensic palynology, as well as video guides, risk assessment and feedback forms were generated. Junior agriculture science students participated in the learning via online lessons and independent data collection in their own local neighborhood and/or school grounds situated within urban environments. The university research group and school coordinator, operating in their own distributed work environments, had to develop, source, adopt, and/or adapt material rapidly to meet the unique requirements of the project. The experience allowed two-way knowledge exchange between the secondary and tertiary education sectors. Participating students were introduced to real-world research and were able to engage in outdoor learning during a time when online, indoor, desk-based learning dominated their studies. The unique context of restrictions imposed by the social isolation policies, as well as government Public Health and Department of Education directives, allowed the team to respond by adapting teaching and research activity to develop and trial learning modules and citizen science tools. The project provided a focus to motivate and connect teachers, academic staff, and school students during a difficult circumstance. Extension of this citizen project for the purposes of research and secondary school learning has the potential to offer ongoing benefits for grassland ecology data acquisition and student exposure to real-world science.</p

    Social networking sites:Can midwives and nurses working with adolescent mothers harness their potential value?

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    Aim: This paper aims to discuss social networking sites as potentially salutogenic, culturally relevant extensions to maternity care provision for adolescent mothers. Background: Studies report that online networking may enhance social capital, a concept linked to enhanced well-being, particularly for marginalized individuals. Improving outcomes for adolescent mothers is an ongoing global strategy; thus, this paper has relevance for all professionals involved in their care. Design: This is a discussion paper. Data Sources: This paper draws on the authors' research and is supported by literature and theory. Key terms and Boolean operators were used to identifiy English-language papers published in January 1995 to January 2019 in nine databases and Google Scholar databases. Implications for nursing: Despite limited evidence specific to adolescent mothers, contextual studies suggest that social networking sites may enhance well-being. Nurses and midwives need to understand adolescent mothers' use of online networks to aid development of innovative, health-enhancing care strategies using adolescent-familiar modalities. Conclusion: This paper highlights the need for further research regarding the value of professional engagement in online networks to enhance an adolescent's transition to motherhood. © 2020 John Wiley & Sons Australia, Lt

    Gender-based violence: Case studies from the Global South

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    Violence against women and girls (VAWG) is a global policy issue with significant social, economic and personal consequences. The burden of violence against women and girls is distributed unequally, with rates of gender violence significantly higher in low to middle income countries of the Global South. Yet the bulk of global research on gender violence is based on the experiences of urban communities in high-income English-speaking countries mainly from the Global North. This body of research typically takes the experience of women from Anglophone countries as the norm from which to theorise and frame theories and research of gender-based violence. Our chapter problematises theories that the privilege women in the Global North as the empirical referents of ‚Äėeveryday violence‚Äô (Carrington, Hogg and Sozzo, 2016). At the same time however it is important to resist homogenisng the violence experienced by women across diverse societies in the global south. This orientalist vision of oppressed subaltern Southern women is directly contrasted with an ideal rights bearing feminine subject from the Anglophone countries of the global north (Mohanty, 2012). This binary discourse exaggerates the differences and obfuscates the similarities of VAWG across Northern and Southern borders and reproduces images of women in the Global South as unfortunate victims of ‚Äėother‚Äô cultures (Durham, 2015; Narayan, 1997). This chapter contrasts three examples, the policing of family violence in Indigenous communities in Australia; Image Based Abuse in Singapore; and the policing of gender violence in the Pacific as a way of concretising the argument

    Drinking risk varies within and between Australian Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander samples: a meta-analysis to identify sources of heterogeneity

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    Background and Aims: To reduce health and social inequities, it is important to understand how drinking patterns vary within and between Indigenous peoples. We aimed to assess variability in estimates of Indigenous Australian drinking patterns and to identify demographic and methodological factors associated with this. Design: A three-level meta-analysis of Australian Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander (‚ÄėIndigenous‚Äô) drinking patterns [International Prospective Register of Systematic Reviews (PROSPERO) no. CRD42018103209]. Setting: Australia. Participants: Indigenous Australians. Measurements: The primary outcomes extracted were drinking status, single-occasion risk and life-time risk. Moderation analysis was performed to identify potential sources of heterogeneity. Moderators included gender, age, socio-economic status, local alcohol restrictions, sample population, remoteness, Australian state or territory, publication year, Indigenous involvement in survey design or delivery and cultural adaptations. Findings: A systematic review of the literature revealed 41 eligible studies. For all primary outcomes, considerable heterogeneity was identified within ((Formula presented.) = 51.39‚Äď68.80%) and between ((Formula presented.) = 29.27‚Äď47.36%) samples. The pooled proportions (P) of current drinkers [P\ua0=\ua00.59, 95% confidence interval (CI)\ua0=\ua00.53‚Äď0.65], single-occasion (P\ua0=\ua00.34, 95% CI\ua0=\ua00.24‚Äď0.44) and life-time (P\ua0=\ua00.21, 95% CI\ua0=\ua00.15‚Äď0.29) risk were all moderated by gender, age, remoteness and measurement tool. Reference period moderated proportions of participants at single-occasion risk. Conclusions: Indigenous Australian drinking patterns vary within and between communities. Initiatives to reduce high-risk drinking should take account of this variability

    Recent trends in heroin and pharmaceutical opioid‚Äźrelated harms in Victoria, Australia up to 2018

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    Aims To characterize the trajectory in the years leading up to 2018 in pharmaceutical opioid and heroin morbidity in Victoria, Australia, and to assess the effect on that trajectory of reformulation of oxycodone to a form that could not be easily snorted or injected. Design Interrupted time‚Äďseries analyses of population-level data before versus after reformulation of oxycodone, stratified by sex. Setting Victoria, Australia. Participants The population of Victoria aged 12+ years. Measurements Ambulance patient care and emergency department (ED) records were examined using both fixed-code and free-text fields, with each record manually cleaned and checked by trained coders. These were used to derive the output variables providing an index of harm: rates of opioid-related ambulance attendances and ED attendances for pharmaceutical opioids and heroin. The input variable was pre- versus post-oxycodone reformulation. Findings There were 30‚ÄČ045 opioid-related ambulance attendances from January 2012 to October 2018 (54% heroin-related), and 10‚ÄČ113 ED attendances from July 2008 to June 2018 (39% heroin-related). There was an increase in the rate (events per 100‚ÄČ000 people per year) of all opioid ED attendances from 2008 to 2018 [increase = 0.063; 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.049, 0.078]. Pharmaceutical opioid ED attendances decreased from 2014 onwards (slope change = ‚Äď0.083; 95% CI = ‚Äď0.108, ‚Äď0.059). Heroin-related ED attendances increased from 2014 to 2018; 11‚ÄČ324 heroin-related ambulance attendances and 1980 ED attendances were observed from April 2014 to June 2018, compared with the respective estimates of 8176, and 1661 had the pre-April 2014 trend continued (ambulance slope change = 0.296, 95% CI = 0.104, 0.489; ED slope change = 0.026, 95% CI = 0.005, 0.046). The inflection point of 2014 coincided with the re-formulation of oxycodone. Conclusion In Victoria, Australia, there appears to have been a trend starting around mid-2014 of increasing heroin-related harm, and a flattening of the increase or a decrease of harms relating to pharmaceutical opioids. These changes may, in part, reflect reformulation of oxycodone to reduce the extent to which it can be injected or snorted

    Disability and migration in urban Australia: The case of Liverpool

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    This article presents and analyses population data on the Liverpool area of Greater Western Sydney, identifying trends with significant policy implications. Liverpool city is home to one of the highest concentrations of Australia’s recent arrivals, many of whom have refugee backgrounds. From those who arrived under Australia’s post-Second World War resettlement programme to new arrivals, it is also home to a rich diversity of sociocultural and linguistic communities at different stages of settlement. Demographic data show significant relationships between age, country of origin, year of arrival and need for assistance variables, many of which are either qualitatively distinct or quantitatively different from other regions in Sydney, New South Wales and Australia. Building on this analysis, the article further identifies significant policy issues in relation to disability, care and support. While Western Sydney has figured prominently in national and state public-policy directives, particularly in relation to economic growth, public infrastructure and transport mobility corridors, the analysis presented here illustrates that national policy directives for socioeconomic imperatives, such as the appropriate uptake of the National Disability Insurance Scheme, are critical to facilitate social sustainability, cohesion and equity within the region

    Siblicide: The Psychology of Sibling Homicide

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    Siblicide has been overlooked in both the family violence literature and homicide studies. This is unsurprising as sibling abuse research in general has remained on the periphery until recently, and since then has tended to focus on non-lethal conflict, bullying or bi-directional aggression. This chapter examines the available literature to present a comprehensive overview of this poorly understood phenomenon. We report on prevalence rates, the sociodemographic context of offenses and the patterns and dynamics that underpin offender and victim characteristics - including age, birth order, gender, genetic-relatedness, race and cultural collectivism. Individual risk factors such as the influence of psychopathology and substance use are explored, as well the impact of developmental disorders, that is, Autism and Asperger’s syndrome. The chapter will conclude by examining sibling homicide in the context of sociobiological and psychoanalytical perspectives
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