226 research outputs found

    Taurine Treatment Modulates Circadian Rhythms in Mice Fed A High Fat Diet

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    Close ties have been made among certain nutrients, obesity, type 2 diabetes and circadian clocks. Among nutrients, taurine has been documented as being effective against obesity and type 2 diabetes. However, the impact of taurine on circadian clocks has not been elucidated. We investigated whether taurine can modulate or correct disturbances in daily rhythms caused by a high-fat diet in mice. Male C57BL/6 mice were divided in four groups: control (C), control + taurine (C+T), high-fat diet (HFD) and HFD + taurine (HFD+T). They were administered 2% taurine in their drinking water for 10 weeks. Mice were euthanized at 6:00, 12:00, 18:00, and 24:00. HFD mice increased body weight, visceral fat and food intake, as well as higher levels of glucose, insulin and leptin, throughout the 24 h. Taurine prevented increments in food intake, body weight and visceral fat, improved glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity and reduced disturbances in the 24 h patterns of plasma insulin and leptin. HFD downregulated the expression of clock genes Rev-erbα, Bmal1, and Per1 in pancreatic islets. Taurine normalized the gene and protein expression of PER1 in beta-cells, which suggests that it could be beneficial for the correction of daily rhythms and the amelioration of obesity and diabetes

    Isolation and characterization of an antifungal agent active against human pathogenic fungi, produced by Pseudomonas fluorescens FSJ-3

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    An antifungal agent, produced by Pseudomonas fiuorescens strain FSJ-3 originating from Moroccan soil (Fès), was isolated and characterized. It was extracted from Sabouraud's glucose broth culture by n-butanol and purified by gel filtration and silica gel chromatography giving yellow crystals. Its structure was assigned to 1-phenazinecarboxamide by analysing IH and 13 C-NMR and mass spectral data. It shOwed excellent activity against several species ofbacteria, yeasts and human pathogenic filamentous fungi , including Candida albicans, Cryptococcus neoformans, Aspergillus fumigatus and caused morphological modifications on Arthroderma simii hyphae. I-phenazinecarboxamide was non toxicwhen tested on rat leucocytes up to the highest concentration (200 pg/ml).Isolement et caractérisation d'une substance antifongique élaborée par Pseudomonas fluorescens FSJ-3, active contre des champignons pathogènes de l'hommeLa souche FSJ-3 de Pseudomonas fZuorescens douée d'une forte activité antifongique contre les champignons pathogènes de l'homme a été isolée à partir du sol (Fès, Maroc). La substance active, élaborée par cette souche, a été extraite du milieu de culture liquide, avec du n-butanol et purifiée par chromatographie sur gel de filtration et sur gel de silice. Le I-phénazinecarboxamide, obtenu sous forme de cristaux jaunes, a été analysé par RMN -IH et I3C et par spectrométrie de masse. Cette molécule inhibe la croissance de plusieurs bactéries, levures et champignons filamenteux, comme Candida albicans, Cryptococcus neoformans , Aspergillus fumigatus. Le 1-phénazinecarboxamide provoque des altérations morphologiques sur les hyphes d' Arthroderma simii. À forte concentration (200 pg/ml), il n'est pas toxique pour les leucocytes de rat

    SMILE: A joint ESA/CAS mission to investigate the interaction between the solar wind and Earth's magnetosphere

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    The Solar wind Magnetosphere Ionosphere Link Explorer (SMILE) is a collaborative science mission between ESA and the Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS). SMILE is a novel self-standing mission to observe the coupling of the solar wind and Earth's magnetosphere via X-Ray imaging of the solar wind -- magnetosphere interaction zones, UV imaging of global auroral distributions and simultaneous in-situ solar wind, magnetosheath plasma and magnetic field measurements. The SMILE mission proposal was submitted by a consortium of European, Chinese and Canadian scientists following a joint call for mission by ESA and CAS. It was formally selected by ESA's Science Programme Committee (SPC) as an element of the ESA Science Program in November 2015, with the goal of a launch at the end of 2021. In order to achieve its scientific objectives, the SMILE payload will comprise four instruments: the Soft X-ray Imager (SXI), which will spectrally map the Earth's magnetopause, magnetosheath and magnetospheric cusps; the UltraViolet Imager (UVI), dedicated to imaging the auroral regions; the Light Ion Analyser (LIA) and the MAGnetometer (MAG), which will establish the solar wind properties simultaneously with the imaging instruments. We report on the status of the mission and payload developments and the findings of a design study carried out in parallel at the concurrent design facilities (CDF) of ESA and CAS in October/November 2015. © (2016) COPYRIGHT Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers (SPIE). Downloading of the abstract is permitted for personal use only

    Transabdominal Preperitoneal Repair for Obturator Hernia

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    信州大学博士(医学)・学位論文・平成23年3月31日授与(甲第889号)・横山隆秀Background A laparoscopic surgical approach for obturator hernia (OH) repair is uncommon. The aim of the present study was to assess the effectiveness of laparoscopic transabdominal preperitoneal (TAPP) repair for OH. Methods From 2001 to May 2010, 659 patients with inguinal hernia underwent TAPP repair at in our institutes. Among these, the eight patients with OH were the subjects of this study. Results Three of the eight patients were diagnosed as having occult OH, and the other five were diagnosed preoperatively, by ultrasonography and/or computed tomography, as having strangulated OH. Bilateral OH was found in five patients (63%), and combined groin hernias, either unilaterally or bilaterally, were observed in seven patients (88%), all of whom had femoral hernia. Of the five patients with bowel obstruction at presentation, four were determined not to require resection after assessment of the intestinal viability by laparoscopy. There was one case of conversion to a two-stage hernia repair performed to avoid mesh contamination: addition of mini-laparotomy, followed by extraction of the gangrenous intestine for resection and anastomosis with simple peritoneal closure of the hernia defect in the first stage, and a Kugel hernia repair in the second stage. There was no incidence of postoperative morbidity, mortality, or recurrence. Conclusions Because TAPP allows assessment of not only the entire groin area bilaterally but also simultaneous assessment of the viability of the incarcerated intestine with a minimum abdominal wall defect, we believe that it is an adequate approach to the treatment of both occult and acutely incarcerated OH. Two-stage hernia repair is technically feasible in patients requiring resection of the incarcerated intestine.ArticleWORLD JOURNAL OF SURGERY. 35(10):2323-2327 (2011)journal articl

    Dibutyltin Disrupts Glucocorticoid Receptor Function and Impairs Glucocorticoid-Induced Suppression of Cytokine Production

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    BACKGROUND: Organotins are highly toxic and widely distributed environmental chemicals. Dibutyltin (DBT) is used as stabilizer in the production of polyvinyl chloride plastics, and it is also the major metabolite formed from tributyltin (TBT) in vivo. DBT is immunotoxic, however, the responsible targets remain to be defined. Due to the importance of glucocorticoids in immune-modulation, we investigated whether DBT could interfere with glucocorticoid receptor (GR) function. METHODOLOGY: We used HEK-293 cells transiently transfected with human GR as well as rat H4IIE hepatoma cells and native human macrophages and human THP-1 macrophages expressing endogenous receptor to study organotin effects on GR function. Docking of organotins was used to investigate the binding mechanism. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We found that nanomolar concentrations of DBT, but not other organotins tested, inhibit ligand binding to GR and its transcriptional activity. Docking analysis indicated that DBT inhibits GR activation allosterically by inserting into a site close to the steroid-binding pocket, which disrupts a key interaction between the A-ring of the glucocorticoid and the GR. DBT inhibited glucocorticoid-induced expression of phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK) and tyrosine-aminotransferase (TAT) and abolished the glucocorticoid-mediated transrepression of TNF-alpha-induced NF-kappaB activity. Moreover, DBT abrogated the glucocorticoid-mediated suppression of interleukin-6 (IL-6) and TNF-alpha production in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated native human macrophages and human THP-1 macrophages. CONCLUSIONS: DBT inhibits ligand binding to GR and subsequent activation of the receptor. By blocking GR activation, DBT may disturb metabolic functions and modulation of the immune system, providing an explanation for some of the toxic effects of this organotin

    Identification and Characterization of Microcin S, a New Antibacterial Peptide Produced by Probiotic Escherichia coli G3/10

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    Escherichia coli G3/10 is a component of the probiotic drug Symbioflor 2. In an in vitro assay with human intestinal epithelial cells, E. coli G3/10 is capable of suppressing adherence of enteropathogenic E. coli E2348/69. In this study, we demonstrate that a completely novel class II microcin, produced by probiotic E. coli G3/10, is responsible for this behavior. We named this antibacterial peptide microcin S (MccS). Microcin S is coded on a 50.6 kb megaplasmid of E. coli G3/10, which we have completely sequenced and annotated. The microcin S operon is about 4.7 kb in size and is comprised of four genes. Subcloning of the genes and gene fragments followed by gene expression experiments enabled us to functionally characterize all members of this operon, and to clearly identify the nucleotide sequences encoding the microcin itself (mcsS), its transport apparatus and the gene mcsI conferring self immunity against microcin S. Overexpression of cloned mcsI antagonizes MccS activity, thus protecting indicator strain E. coli E2348/69 in the in vitro adherence assay. Moreover, growth of E. coli transformed with a plasmid containing mcsS under control of an araC PBAD activator-promoter is inhibited upon mcsS induction. Our data provide further mechanistic insight into the probiotic behavior of E. coli G3/10

    Fungal volatile organic compounds: emphasis on their plant growth-promoting

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    Fungal volatile organic compounds (VOCs) commonly formed bioactive interface between plants and countless of microorganisms on the above- and below-ground plant-fungus interactions. Fungal-plant interactions symbolize intriguingly biochemical complex and challenging scenarios that are discovered by metabolomic approaches. Remarkably secondary metabolites (SMs) played a significant role in the virulence and existence with plant-fungal pathogen interaction; only 25% of the fungal gene clusters have been functionally identified, even though these numbers are too low as compared with plant secondary metabolites. The current insights on fungal VOCs are conducted under lab environments and to apply small numbers of microbes; its molecules have significant effects on growth, development, and defense system of plants. Many fungal VOCs supported dynamic processes, leading to countless interactions between plants, antagonists, and mutualistic symbionts. The fundamental role of fungal VOCs at field level is required for better understanding, so more studies will offer further constructive scientific evidences that can show the cost-effectiveness of ecofriendly and ecologically produced fungal VOCs for crop welfare

    Suppression of the Nrf2-Dependent Antioxidant Response by Glucocorticoids and 11β-HSD1-Mediated Glucocorticoid Activation in Hepatic Cells

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    Nuclear factor (erythroid-derived 2)-like 2 (Nrf2) is a key transcription factor regulating a plethora of detoxifying enzymes and antioxidant genes involved in drug metabolism and defence against oxidative stress. The glucocorticoid receptor (GR) is a ligand-induced transcription factor involved in the regulation of energy supply for metabolic needs to cope with various stressors. GR activity is controlled by glucocorticoids, which are synthesized in the adrenal glands and regenerated mainly in the liver from inactive cortisone by 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase-1 (11β-HSD1).; Using transfected HEK-293 cells and hepatic H4IIE cells we show that glucocorticoids, activated by 11β-HSD1 and acting through GR, suppress the Nrf2-dependent antioxidant response. The expression of the marker genes NQO1, HMOX1 and GST2A was suppressed upon treatment of 11β-HSD1 expressing cells with cortisone, an effect that was reversed by 11β-HSD1 inhibitors. Furthermore, our results demonstrate that elevated glucocorticoids lowered the ability of cells to detoxify H(2)O(2). Moreover, a comparison of gene expression in male and female rats revealed an opposite sexual dimorphism with an inverse relationship between 11β-HSD1 and Nrf2 target gene expression.; The results demonstrate a suppression of the cellular antioxidant defence capacity by glucocorticoids and suggest that elevated 11β-HSD1 activity may lead to impaired Nrf2-dependent antioxidant response. The gender-specific differences in hepatic expression levels of 11β-HSD1 and Nrf2 target genes and the impact of pharmacological inhibition of 11β-HSD1 on improving cellular capacity to cope with oxidative stress warrants further studies in vivo
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