28,835 research outputs found

    The interfascicular matrix enables fascicle sliding and recovery in tendon, and behaves more elastically in energy storing tendons

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    While the predominant function of all tendons is to transfer force from muscle to bone and position the limbs, some tendons additionally function as energy stores, reducing the cost of locomotion. Energy storing tendons experience extremely high strains and need to be able to recoil efficiently for maximum energy storage and return. In the equine forelimb, the energy storing superficial digital flexor tendon (SDFT) has much higher failure strains than the positional common digital extensor tendon (CDET). However, we have previously shown that this is not due to differences in the properties of the SDFT and CDET fascicles (the largest tendon subunits). Instead, there is a greater capacity for interfascicular sliding in the SDFT which facilitates the greater extensions in this particular tendon (Thorpe et al., 2012). In the current study, we exposed fascicles and interfascicular matrix (IFM) from the SDFT and CDET to cyclic loading followed by a test to failure. The results show that IFM mechanical behaviour is not a result of irreversible deformation, but the IFM is able to withstand cyclic loading, and is more elastic in the SDFT than in the CDET. We also assessed the effect of ageing on IFM properties, demonstrating that the IFM is less able to resist repetitive loading as it ages, becoming stiffer with increasing age in the SDFT. These results provide further indications that the IFM is important for efficient function in energy storing tendons, and age-related alterations to the IFM may compromise function and predispose older tendons to injury

    Word Equations

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    Word equations are formed so that the first letter is the value of the following letters when added or subtracted

    Splitting Words

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    Splitting single words into two words which, together, make sense

    Numerically Palindromic Words

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    A listing of words whose letters create palindromes when written out in numbers based on their order in the alphabet

    Noah\u27s Consonants

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    The title refers to he of the Ark as distinct from he of the dictionary. Noah\u27s Ark is a honeymoon haven for words because Noah only admits those words in which each consonant has a partner. In practice he\u27s even more picky, refusing entry to any such words with less than 3 different consonants (6 consonants in total). He also turns away hyphenated examples, phrases, coinages, palindromes, tautonyms and pair isograms. Here, we attempt to discover some of those words which have made it past Noah into the Ark

    Life\u27s Secret Files

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    In each of the groups of 3 words below, the first and second words make a 2-word phrase; the second and third words also make a 2-word phrase. Easy you might say and you would be right, if it wasn\u27t for the fact that a third constraint requires that the first and third words be related. They may both be transposals, synonyms, antonyms, homophones, heterophones, different tenses of the same verb, palindromes, reversals, mutual shifts, rhyming words, AEIOU words, and so on

    Removing Common Letters From 2-Word Phrases

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    A list of words that are made when you take a two word phrase and remove all the letters they have in common

    We Authors Present By Pen

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    The title is an amalgam, an anagram of the names of the joint authors who propose the term as a reasonable neologism for all such constructions of this type. Whilst it is not intended to restrict the term to anagrams of pairs of folk, nevertheless we considered that such a subject had much potential: we argued long into the telephonic night as to which pairings we might submit for your delight or critical comment

    Geometeric Letters

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    STRAIGHT LINE LETTERS ONLY (AEFHIKLMNTVWXYZ) Longest word made from straight line letters: possibly METHYLHEXANEAMINE (Dorland\u27s Medical Dictionary). (ZENZIZENZIZENZIc and sym-METHYLETHYLETHYLENE have straight line strings of 15, 19 letters.) Longest straight line letter heterogram: several, including WILKHAVEN and WYKHAMITE, have 9 letter

    Numerical Palindromes: The Next Generation

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    Several types of numerical palindromes have appeared in Word Ways (Susan Thorpe, Numerical Palindromes: Part 1 in Nov 1996 and Rex Gooch, Numerical Palindromes: Part 2 in Feb 1997). However, I believe the current exercise is the first to make two or more numerically-palindromic \u27offspring\u27 from the letters of a numerically-palindromic \u27parent\u27. In other words, numerical palindromes beget numerical palindromes
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