34,963 research outputs found

    A decision model applied to alcohol effects on driver signal light behavior

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    A decision model including perceptual noise or inconsistency is developed from expected value theory to explain driver stop and go decisions at signaled intersections. The model is applied to behavior in a car simulation and instrumented vehicle. Objective and subjective changes in driver decision making were measured with changes in blood alcohol concentration (BAC). Treatment levels averaged 0.00, 0.10 and 0.14 BAC for a total of 26 male subjects. Data were taken for drivers approaching signal lights at three timing configurations. The correlation between model predictions and behavior was highly significant. In contrast to previous research, analysis indicates that increased BAC results in increased perceptual inconsistency, which is the primary cause of increased risk taking at low probability of success signal lights

    Enhanced effects of starlight on the interstellar medium

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    The photodesorption of molecules and atoms from the surfaces of interstellar grains can be an important source of heating for the interstellar medium and the origin of instabilities which may separate grains and gas. For low densities, the force exerted on the grains is proportional to the gas density and independent of the radiation intensity; for high densities, it is proportional to the radiative flux and independent of the gas density. This force may act differently on grains of different sizes. The photoelectric effect may also be an efficient mechanism for the separation of gas and dust in diffuse clouds

    A piezoelectrically actuated ball valve

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    Bimorph strip composed of two layers of poled piezoelectric ceramic material closes and opens valve. Strip performs like capacitator, allowing initial inrush of current when valve is energized and then only small leakage current flows as valve remains energized

    A characterization of quasi-rational polygons

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    The aim of this paper is to study quasi-rational polygons related to the outer billiard. We compare different notions introduced, and make a synthesis of those.Comment: 15 pages, 9 figure

    The ionization of hydrogen and of hydrogenic positive ions by electron impact

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    Ionization of hydrogen and hydrogenic positive ions by electron impac

    The effects of alcohol on driver performance in a decision making situation

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    The results are reviewed of driving simulator and in-vehicle field test experiments of alcohol effects on driver risk taking. The objective was to investigate changes in risk taking under alcoholic intoxication and relate these changes to effects on traffic safety. The experiments involved complex 15 minute driving scenarios requiring decision making and steering and speed control throughout a series of typical driving situations. Monetary rewards and penalties were employed to simulate the real-world motivations inherent in driving. A full placebo experimental design was employed, and measures related to traffic safety, driver/vehicle performance and driver behavior were obtained. Alcohol impairment was found to increase the rate of accidents and speeding tickets. Behavioral measures showed these traffic safety effects to be due to impaired psychomotor performance and perceptual distortions. Subjective estimates of risk failed to show any change in the driver's willingness to take risks when intoxicated

    Does Choice Mean Freedom And Well-Being?

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    Americans live in a political, social, and historical context that values personal freedom and choice above all else, an emphasis that has been amplified by contemporary psychology. However, this article reviews research that shows that in non-Western cultures and among working-class Westerners, freedom and choice do not have the meaning or importance they do for the university-educated people who have been the subjects of almost all research on this topic. We cannot assume that choice, as understood by educated, affluent Westerners, is a universal aspiration. The meaning and significance of choice are cultural constructions. Moreover, even when choice can foster freedom, empowerment, and independence, it is not an unalloyed good. Too much choice can produce a paralyzing uncertainty, depression, and selfishness. In the United States, the path to well-being may require that we strike a balance between the positive and negative consequences of proliferating choice in every domain of life

    Older Adults and Forgoing Cancer Screening

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    Although there is a growing recognition that older adults and those with extensive comorbid conditions undergo cancer screening too frequently, there is little information about patients’ perceptions regarding cessation of cancer screening. Information on older adults’ views of screening cessation would be helpful both for clinicians and for those designing interventions to reduce overscreening
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