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    Bridging Bayesian, Frequentist And Fiducial Inferences Using Confidence Distributions

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    Bayesian, frequentist, and fiducial (BFF) inferences are much more congruous than have been perceived historically in the scientific community (e.g., Reid and Cox (2015); Kass (2011); Efron (1998)). Most practitioners are probably more familiar with the two dominant statistical inferential paradigms, Bayesian inference and frequentist inference. The third, lesser known fiducial inference paradigm was pioneered by R.A. Fisher in an attempt to define an inversion procedure for inference as an alternative to Bayes’ theorem. Although each paradigm has its own strengths and limitations subject to their different philosophical underpinnings, this chapter intends to bridge these different inferential methodologies by calling upon confidence distribution theory and Monte-Carlo simulation procedures, thereby increasing the range of possible techniques available to both statistical theorists and practitioners across all fields

    Reading Guide

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    This is a tool to support students in generously reading course materials. The guide invites users to read texts generously by first bracketing critique and prioritizing depth of understanding of the arguments articulated in the text as well as the author\u27s background and perspective

    With Liberty and Justice For All? The U.S. Internment of Japanese Peruvians During World War II

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    After the bombing of Pearl Harbor on December 7, 1941, the United States committed to a policy of interning more than 120,000 Japanese Americans. While Japanese American detention remains the most researched instance of wartime internment, the U.S. incarceration of Japanese Peruvians merits equal attention. The political forces behind Japanese Peruvian internment transcended the more common explanations that haunt so much of literature today. Racism and hysteria played their respective roles in this history of wartime internment, but as the war progressed, other reasons for Japanese internment emerged. On January 4, 1942, the Japanese began interning American civilians in the Philippines. Days later, the U.S. State Department decided to hold Japanese Peruvians hostage for the purpose of aiding American repatriation. America used hostage-taking as a political instrument of war, facilitating the return of more than 3,000 American citizens. Such retaliation, however, came at the human cost of interning more than 1,000 Japanese Peruvians without charge in places like Crystal City, Texas

    Inclusion and Hegemony: Reading Salmān al-Fārisī\u27s Conversion Story

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    In the otherwise expansive medieval Arabic literature, the scarcity of information concerning the conversion process of the early Islamic community piques interest in the handful of existing conversion narratives.One particular narrative that stands out is the conversion story of Salmān al-Farisi, recounting his transformation from a devout Zoroastrian to a dedicated companion of Prophet Muhammad. In the compilation of stories of Salmān al-Farisi by Louis Massignon named Khabar Salmān, the persistence of many plot elements across different accounts of the story suggests a deliberate process of repetition and canonization. Recognizing the Salmān al-Farisi story as a site of memory, curation, and elite intentions, this paper considers the purpose of the story in forging Muslim identity, managing intergroup dynamics, and maintaining political power within the early Islamic community

    Male Cope’s Gray Treefrogs (\u3cem\u3eHyla chrysoscelis\u3c/em\u3e) In Amplexus Have Elevated And Correlated Steroid Hormones Compared To Solitary Males

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    Gonadal steroid hormones are typically elevated during the breeding season—a finding known as an associated reproductive pattern. Though less studied, there is also evidence, in both sexes, for elevated adrenal/interrenal steroids, including acute elevations on the day of mating. I investigated gonadal and interrenal steroids in wild male Cope’s gray treefrogs at breeding aggregations. I collected blood from males found in amplexus with female mates (amplexed males) and males sampled at the same time and location that were actively advertising vocally and without a mate (solo males). Concentrations of plasma corticosterone, testosterone, and 17β-estradiol (CORT, T and E₂, respectively) were validated and measured. These two categories of males differed in four ways: (1) amplexed males exhibited significantly elevated concentrations of all three steroids compared to solo males (CORT: +347 %; T: +60 %; and E₂: +43 %); (2) these hormone profiles alone accurately predicted male mating category with ca. 83 % accuracy using a discriminant function analysis; (3) amplexed males exhibited significant between-hormone correlations (T and E₂ were positively correlated and CORT and E₂ were negatively correlated) whereas no correlations were found in solo males; (4) amplexed males showed a negative correlation with CORT concentration and the time of night, whereas no such pattern was present in solo males. These findings suggest an acute and strong coactivation of the interrenal and gonadal axes that could drive phenotypic integration during this fitness-determining moment. I discuss these findings and suggest experiments to determine causation, including the role of motor behavior driving endocrine states and the role of female selection on endocrine profiles

    Heroes, Victims, and Future Citizens: Representations of French Children During World War I

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    The effects of total war society in France during WWI dramatically altered the daily lives of both adults and children, witnessing increasing levels of patriotic rhetoric, wartime propaganda, and anti-German sentiment. Children were often made the focal point of this propaganda, as they represented the future of the nation. As such, three specific representations of children emerge from WWI propaganda in France: the heroic child, the victimized child, and the malleable future citizen. Some of these representations were depicted in propaganda meant for children specifically, while others were depicted in propaganda meant to mobilize adults in the name of children. Regardless of whether the propaganda was made for children or simply manipulated their images to mobilize adults, these representations established the only acceptable roles that children could fit into in society during the war. By analyzing collections of photographs, posters, newspaper articles, children\u27s literature, memoirs, and school assignments from 1914 to 1919, it is possible to examine the development of these representations of children in French media during WWI and, to an extent, judge whether or not children understood themselves as fitting into these roles

    Prelude To Molecularization: The Double Gradient Model Of Sulo Toivonen And Lauri Saxén

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    The present molecular investigations of Organizer phenomena show a remarkable connection to the earlier classical embryological studies that used transplantation as a method for making mechanistic models of induction. One of the most prominent of these connections is the dual gradient model for anterior-posterior and dorsal-ventral polarity. This paper will discuss some of the history of how transplantation experiments provided data that could be interpreted in terms of two gradients of biologically active materials. It will highlight how the attempts to discover the elusive Induktionsstoffen gave rise to the double gradient model of Sulo Toivonen and Lauri Saxén in the 1950s and 1960s. This paper will also document how this research into the identity of these molecules gave rise to the developmental genetics that eventually would find the molecules responsible for primary embryonic induction

    Review Of Living Together: Inventing Moral Science By D. Schmidtz

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    Schmidtz (West Virginia Univ.) is a widely published, well-regarded philosopher of economics with a strong tilt toward libertarianism. In this engaging book he argues that (1) moral philosophy is less fundamental than political philosophy; (2) moral philosophy had become disconnected from social science (especially economics) by mid-19th century; (3) the fundamental question humans have always faced is how to live together peacefully while prospering; (4) this is achieved primarily by establishing conventions that are tested by experience; and (5) justice not only manages conflict and traffic but is an adaptation to the human condition (at different stages of history) and a process, not an end. Schmidtz believes David Hume and Adam Smith were on the right path in thinking about these matters. In the course of defending his claims, Schmidtz defends the way economists tend to think about such matters, and he specifically defends cost benefit analysis even regarding intrinsic values that are incommensurable. He argues that living together peacefully while prospering requires that one should not impose specific ends on others, just specific conventions that primarily manage how to live together, mainly through conventions that work well enough to achieve these essential but modest goals. Nonlibertarians will find many things to contest, but that makes the book all the more worth reading. Summing Up: Recommended. Upper-division undergraduates through faculty

    “Into the Sea of Forgetfulness”: An Analysis of Anna Komnene’s Alexiad in Relation to the First Crusade

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    Anna Komnene’s account of the First Crusade in her work The Alexiad provides invaluable insight into the Byzantine perspective of this pivotal event defining the 11th century. While shunned in a monastery, she wrote her celebrated work known as The Alexiad. Anna’s primary motivation for writing the biography stems from her desire to emphasize the accomplishments of her father, especially in regards to protecting the Byzantine Empire against invaders, both Latin and Turkish. For Anna, the crusade functions as a Western pretext for taking land away from the Byzantines. Comparing specific sieges in the First Crusade to their Latin counterparts provides a significantly more nuanced comprehension of the Crusades from a Christian perspective. Anna\u27s Byzantine perspective contradicts the simplified characterization of the First Crusade as a united Christian front against the Muslim forces

    Review Of Friendship: The Future Of An Ancient Gift By C. Baracchi, Translated By E. Bartolini And C. Fullarton

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    How can one understand friendship in an era when someone can have a thousand friends on FaceBook? Baracchi (Università di Milano, Bicocca, Italy) concentrates on how ancient Greeks—mainly but not solely Plato and Aristotle—understood the nature and limits of friendship. Her understanding of Greek thought is impressive. Her linking of friendship and justice in the polis is inventive. Baracchi’s style is postmodern, and the vices and virtues of that style are on display in this book: “The human being is ... grasped in its structural openness, in the infinite and indefinite task of turning toward the good” (p. 41) is genuinely thought-provoking, though one might balk at what it means for a human task to be ‘infinite. On the other hand, from the fact that Socrates addresses “men of the jury” but imagines a possible afterlife in which he can discuss philosophical issues with men and women, Barrachi concludes that Socrates recognizes that patriarchal conventions are limiting, a claim that outruns the evidence for it. Barrachi does nicely dismantle the still-read Nazi political thinker Carl Schmitt, who thought that politics and friendship are necessarily at odds. Those with a fairly good understanding of Plato and Aristotle will find this book a welcome addition to the literature. Summing Up: Recommended. Upper-division undergraduates through faculty

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