15,124 research outputs found

    Geant4 Applications for Modeling Molecular Transport in Complex Vacuum Geometries

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    We discuss a novel use of the Geant4 simulation toolkit to model molecular transport in a vacuum environment, in the molecular flow regime. The Geant4 toolkit was originally developed by the high energy physics community to simulate the interactions of elementary particles within complex detector systems. Here its capabilities are utilized to model molecular vacuum transport in geometries where other techniques are impractical. The techniques are verified with an application representing a simple vacuum geometry that has been studied previously both analytically and by basic Monte Carlo simulation. We discuss the use of an application with a very complicated geometry, that of the Large Synoptic Survey Telescope camera cryostat, to determine probabilities of transport of contaminant molecules to optical surfaces where control of contamination is crucial.Comment: 7 pages, 4 figures, 2 tables, to appear in IJMSSC, updated to accepted versio

    Infrared regularization of baryon chiral perturbation theory reformulated

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    We formulate the infrared regularization of Becher and Leutwyler in a form analogous to our recently proposed extended on-mass-shell renormalization. In our formulation, IR regularization can be applied straightforwardly to multi-loop diagrams with an arbitrary number of particles with arbitrary masses.Comment: 10 pages, ReVTEX 4, no figure

    Wide-field weak lensing by RXJ1347-1145

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    We present an analysis of weak lensing observations for RXJ1347-1145 over a 43' X 43' field taken in B and R filters on the Blanco 4m telescope at CTIO. RXJ1347-1145 is a massive cluster at redshift z=0.45. Using a population of galaxies with 20<R<26, we detect a weak lensing signal at the p<0.0005 level, finding best-fit parameters of \sigma_v=1400^{+130}_{-140} km s^{-1} for a singular isothermal sphere model and r_{200} = 3.5^{+0.8}_{-0.2} Mpc with c = 15^{+64}_{-10} for a NFW model in an \Omega_m = 0.3, \Omega_\Lambda = 0.7 cosmology. In addition, a mass to light ratio M/L_R =90 \pm 20 M_\odot / L_{R\odot} was determined. These values are consistent with the previous weak lensing study of RXJ1347--1145 by Fischer and Tyson, 1997, giving strong evidence that systemic bias was not introduced by the relatively small field of view in that study. Our best-fit parameter values are also consistent with recent X-ray studies by Allen et al, 2002 and Ettori et al, 2001, but are not consistent with recent optical velocity dispersion measurements by Cohen and Kneib, 2002.Comment: accepted to ApJ, tentative publication 10 May 2005, v624

    Is MS1054-03 an exceptional cluster? A new investigation of ROSAT/HRI X-ray data

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    We reanalyzed the ROSAT/HRI observation of MS1054-03, optimizing the channel HRI selection and including a new exposure of 68 ksec. From a wavelet analysis of the HRI image we identify the main cluster component and find evidence for substructure in the west, which might either be a group of galaxies falling onto the cluster or a foreground source. Our 1-D and 2-D analysis of the data show that the cluster can be fitted well by a classical betamodel centered only 20arcsec away from the central cD galaxy. The core radius and beta values derived from the spherical model(beta = 0.96_-0.22^+0.48) and the elliptical model (beta = 0.73+/-0.18) are consistent. We derived the gas mass and total mass of the cluster from the betamodel fit and the previously published ASCA temperature (12.3^{+3.1}_{-2.2} keV). The gas mass fraction at the virial radius is fgas = (14[-3,+2.5]+/-3)% for Omega_0=1, where the errors in brackets come from the uncertainty on the temperature and the remaining errors from the HRI imaging data. The gas mass fraction computed for the best fit ASCA temperature is significantly lower than found for nearby hot clusters, fgas=20.1pm 1.6%. This local value can be matched if the actual virial temperature of MS1054-032 were close to the lower ASCA limit (~10keV) with an even lower value of 8 keV giving the best agreement. Such a bias between the virial and measured temperature could be due to the presence of shock waves in the intracluster medium stemming from recent mergers. Another possibility, that reconciles a high temperature with the local gas mass fraction, is the existence of a non zero cosmological constant.Comment: 12 pages, 5 figures, accepted for publication in Ap

    The complex galaxy cluster Abell 514: New results obtained with the XMM - Newton satellite

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    We study the X-ray morphology and dynamics of the galaxy cluster Abell 514. Also, the relation between the X-ray properties and Faraday Rotation measures of this cluster are investigated in order to study the connection of magnetic fields and the intra-cluster medium. We use two combined XMM - Newton pointings that are split into three distinct observations. The data allow us to evaluate the overall cluster properties like temperature and metallicity with high accuracy. Additionally, a temperature map and the metallicity distribution are computed, which are used to study the dynamical state of the cluster in detail. Abell 514 represents an interesting merger cluster with many substructures visible in the X-ray image and in the temperature and abundance distributions. The new XMM - Newton data of Abell 514 confirm the relation between the X-ray brightness and the sigma of the Rotation Measure (S_X - sigma_RM relation) proposed by Dolag et al. (2001).Comment: 9 pages, 13 figures, accepted for publication in A&

    Polarization of electric field noise near metallic surfaces

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    Electric field noise in proximity to metallic surfaces is a poorly understood phenomenon that appears in different areas of physics. Trapped ion quantum information processors are particular susceptible to this noise, leading to motional decoherence which ultimately limits the fidelity of quantum operations. On the other hand they present an ideal tool to study this effect, opening new possibilities in surface science. In this work we analyze and measure the polarization of the noise field in a micro-fabricated ion trap for various noise sources. We find that technical noise sources and noise emanating directly from the surface give rise to different degrees of polarization which allows us to differentiate between the two noise sources. Based on this, we demonstrate a method to infer the magnitude of surface noise in the presence of technical noise

    Chandra Observation of the Merging Cluster A168: A Late Stage in the Evolution of a Cold Front

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    We present Chandra observations of the cool cluster A168, for which previous X-ray imaging and optical studies indicated a merger of two subclusters nearly in the plane of the sky. We derive a temperature map for A168, which shows that the merger has proceeded beyond the core passage and is near subcluster turnaround. It also reveals an unusual feature -- the gas core of one of the subclusters forms a tongue-like structure extending ahead (in the direction of motion) of the subcluster center. The coolest cluster gas is found in a crescent-shaped region at the tip of this tongue, and forms a cold front in pressure equilibrium with the external gas. In contrast with this feature's forward location, previously observed merger cold fronts (e.g., A3667, 1E0657--56) lagged behind their host subclusters, as expected in the presense of ram pressure. We propose that A168 illustrates a much later stage in the evolution of a cold front, when its host subcluster approaches the apocenter of the merger orbit where the ram pressure on its gas drops sharply. As a result, a large chunk of the subcluster gas ``slingshots'' past the dark matter center, becomes unbound from the subcluster and expands adiabatically, as seen in some recent hydrodynamic simulations.Comment: 4 pages, 3 figures, to be published in ApJ Letter
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