45 research outputs found

    Influence of nuclear physics inputs and astrophysical conditions on Th/U chronometer

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    The productions of thorium and uranium are key ingredients in rr-process nucleo-cosmochronology. With the combination of improved nuclear and stellar data, we have made detailed investigations on the rr-process abundance pattern in the very metal-poor halo stars based on the classical rr-process approach. It is found that the results are almost independent of specified simulations to observed abundances. The influence from nuclear mass uncertainties on Th/U chronometer can approach 2 Gyr. Moreover, the ages of the metal-poor stars HE 1523-0901, CS 31082-001, and BD +17∘^\circ3248 are determined as 11.8±3.711.8\pm 3.7, 13.5±2.913.5\pm 2.9, and 10.9±2.910.9 \pm 2.9 Gyr, respectively. The results can serve as an independent check for age estimate of the universe.Comment: 20 pages, 5 figures. accepted by Phys. Rev.

    Feasibility of the finite amplitude method in covariant density functional theory

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    Self-consistent relativistic random-phase approximation (RPA) in the radial coordinate representation is established by using the finite amplitude method (FAM). Taking the isoscalar giant monopole resonance in spherical nuclei as example, the feasibility of the FAM for the covariant density functionals is demonstrated, and the newly developed methods are verified by the conventional RPA calculations. In the present relativistic RPA calculations, the effects of the Dirac sea can be automatically taken into account in the coordinate-space representation. The rearrangement terms due to the density-dependent couplings can be implicitly calculated without extra computational costs in both iterative and matrix FAM schemes.Comment: 12 pages, 5 figure

    Finite-amplitude method: An extension to the covariant density functionals

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    The finite-amplitude method (FAM) is one of the most promising methods for optimizing the computational performance of the random-phase approximation (RPA) calculations in deformed nuclei. In this report, we will mainly focus on our recent progress in the self-consistent relativistic RPA established by using the FAM. It is found that the effects of Dirac sea can be taken into account implicitly in the coordinate-space representation and the rearrangement terms due to the density-dependent couplings can be treated without extra computational costs.Comment: 5 pages, 2 figures, Proceedings of the 20th Nuclear Physics Workshop "Marie & Pierre Curie", Kazimierz, Poland, 25-29 September, 201

    Methylprednisolone as Adjunct to Endovascular Thrombectomy for Large-Vessel Occlusion Stroke

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    Importance It is uncertain whether intravenous methylprednisolone improves outcomes for patients with acute ischemic stroke due to large-vessel occlusion (LVO) undergoing endovascular thrombectomy. Objective To assess the efficacy and adverse events of adjunctive intravenous low-dose methylprednisolone to endovascular thrombectomy for acute ischemic stroke secondary to LVO. Design, Setting, and Participants This investigator-initiated, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial was implemented at 82 hospitals in China, enrolling 1680 patients with stroke and proximal intracranial LVO presenting within 24 hours of time last known to be well. Recruitment took place between February 9, 2022, and June 30, 2023, with a final follow-up on September 30, 2023.InterventionsEligible patients were randomly assigned to intravenous methylprednisolone (n = 839) at 2 mg/kg/d or placebo (n = 841) for 3 days adjunctive to endovascular thrombectomy. Main Outcomes and Measures The primary efficacy outcome was disability level at 90 days as measured by the overall distribution of the modified Rankin Scale scores (range, 0 [no symptoms] to 6 [death]). The primary safety outcomes included mortality at 90 days and the incidence of symptomatic intracranial hemorrhage within 48 hours. Results Among 1680 patients randomized (median age, 69 years; 727 female [43.3%]), 1673 (99.6%) completed the trial. The median 90-day modified Rankin Scale score was 3 (IQR, 1-5) in the methylprednisolone group vs 3 (IQR, 1-6) in the placebo group (adjusted generalized odds ratio for a lower level of disability, 1.10 [95% CI, 0.96-1.25]; P = .17). In the methylprednisolone group, there was a lower mortality rate (23.2% vs 28.5%; adjusted risk ratio, 0.84 [95% CI, 0.71-0.98]; P = .03) and a lower rate of symptomatic intracranial hemorrhage (8.6% vs 11.7%; adjusted risk ratio, 0.74 [95% CI, 0.55-0.99]; P = .04) compared with placebo. Conclusions and Relevance Among patients with acute ischemic stroke due to LVO undergoing endovascular thrombectomy, adjunctive methylprednisolone added to endovascular thrombectomy did not significantly improve the degree of overall disability.Trial RegistrationChiCTR.org.cn Identifier: ChiCTR210005172

    Retrospective evaluation of whole exome and genome mutation calls in 746 cancer samples

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    Funder: NCI U24CA211006Abstract: The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) and International Cancer Genome Consortium (ICGC) curated consensus somatic mutation calls using whole exome sequencing (WES) and whole genome sequencing (WGS), respectively. Here, as part of the ICGC/TCGA Pan-Cancer Analysis of Whole Genomes (PCAWG) Consortium, which aggregated whole genome sequencing data from 2,658 cancers across 38 tumour types, we compare WES and WGS side-by-side from 746 TCGA samples, finding that ~80% of mutations overlap in covered exonic regions. We estimate that low variant allele fraction (VAF < 15%) and clonal heterogeneity contribute up to 68% of private WGS mutations and 71% of private WES mutations. We observe that ~30% of private WGS mutations trace to mutations identified by a single variant caller in WES consensus efforts. WGS captures both ~50% more variation in exonic regions and un-observed mutations in loci with variable GC-content. Together, our analysis highlights technological divergences between two reproducible somatic variant detection efforts

    Studies of nuclear β-decay half-lives with Bayesian neural network approach

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    Backgroundβ-decay half-life is one of the fundamental physical properties of unstable nuclei and plays an important role in nuclear physics and astrophysics.PurposeThis study aimed to provide accurate nuclear β-decay half-life predictions and reasonable uncertainties associated with the predictions.MethodsNuclear β-decay half-lives were studied based on the Bayesian neural network (BNN) approach. Three types of neural networks with x = (Z, N), x = (Z, N, Qβ), and x = (Z, N, δ, Qβ) were constructed as inputs to explore the influence of the input on the prediction. The posterior distributions were sampled using the Markov chain Monte Carlo algorithm. The mathematical expectations and standard deviations of the neural network predictions on the posterior distributions were used as the predicted values and errors of the BNN approach.ResultsThe learning accuracy can be significantly improved by incorporating the β-decay energy and physical quantity related to the nuclear pair effect into the neural network input layer and then using the logarithm of β-decay half-life as the network output. For nuclei with half-lives of less than 1 s, the prediction accuracy is approximately 0.2 orders of magnitude, which is similar to that afforded by the BNN method by learning the differences between the logarithms of the experimental half-lives and theoretical results.ConclusionsThe Bayesian neural network can accurately predict β-decay half-lives. When extrapolated to the unknown nuclear region, the predicted β-decay half-lives agree with the results of other theoretical models within errors, especially for nuclei with Z ≳ 50

    Comparative study of nuclear masses in the relativistic mean-field model

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