13,229 research outputs found

    Effects of replacing soybean meal with xylose-treated soybean meal on performance of nursing Awassi ewes and fattening lambs

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    Two experiments were conducted to evaluate the effect of replacing soybean meal with xylose-treated soybean meal (soypass meal; SPM) on performance of nursing Awassi ewes and fattening lambs. In Experiment 1, lasting for eight weeks, 39 Awassi ewes and their lambs were randomly assigned to three diets. Diets were formulated by replacing soybean meal from the basal diet (CON-SBM; n=13) with 50% (50% SPM; n=13) and 100% (100% SPM; n=13) SPM. Initial and final weights of the ewes were not different (P>0.55) among diets. Total gain and average daily gain (ADG) of lambs were similar (P=0.44) among diets. Ewes fed the CON-SBM diet tended (P<0.09) to have lower milk yields than those fed the 50% SPM and 100% SPM diets. No differences (P>0.38) in milk component percentages among diets were observed. In Experiment 2, lasting for 63 days, twenty weaned lambs were used to determine the effects of replacing soybean meal with SPM on growth performance. Diets were either soybean meal (SBM; n=10) or SPM (SPM; n=10). Nutrient intake and digestibility were not different between diets. However, rumen undegradable protein intake was greater (P<0.05) for the SPM diet than for the SBM diet. Final body weight, ADG and the feed conversion ratio were similar (P>0.05) between the diets. Results suggest that replacement of soybean meal with soypass meal is not likely to produce any production benefits in nursing Awassi ewes and fattening lambs except for the slight improvement of milk yield

    Sea Level Rise für the U.S. West Coast

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    Source: ICHE Conference Archive - https://mdi-de.baw.de/icheArchiv

    Dispelling the myth of robotic efficiency: why human space exploration will tell us more about the Solar System than will robotic exploration alone

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    There is a widely held view in the astronomical community that unmanned robotic space vehicles are, and will always be, more efficient explorers of planetary surfaces than astronauts (e.g. Coates, 2001; Clements 2009; Rees 2011). Partly this is due to a common assumption that robotic exploration is cheaper than human exploration (although, as we shall see, this isn't necessarily true if like is compared with like), and partly from the expectation that continued developments in technology will relentlessly increase the capability, and reduce the size and cost, of robotic missions to the point that human exploration will not be able to compete. I will argue below that the experience of human exploration during the Apollo missions, more recent field analogue studies, and trends in robotic space exploration actually all point to exactly the opposite conclusion.Comment: 12 pages; 5 figures. Published, with minor modifications, in Astronomy and Geophysics, Vol. 53, pp. 2.22-2.26, 201

    Exposure to Secondhand Smoke and Arrhythmogenic Cardiac Alternans in a Mouse Model.

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    BackgroundEpidemiological evidence suggests that a majority of deaths attributed to secondhand smoke (SHS) exposure are cardiovascular related. However, to our knowledge, the impact of SHS on cardiac electrophysiology, [Formula: see text] handling, and arrhythmia risk has not been studied.ObjectivesThe purpose of this study was to investigate the impact of an environmentally relevant concentration of SHS on cardiac electrophysiology and indicators of arrhythmia.MethodsMale C57BL/6 mice were exposed to SHS [total suspended particles (THS): [Formula: see text], nicotine: [Formula: see text], carbon monoxide: [Formula: see text], or filtered air (FA) for 4, 8, or 12 wk ([Formula: see text]]. Hearts were excised and Langendorff perfused for dual optical mapping with voltage- and [Formula: see text]-sensitive dyes.ResultsAt slow pacing rates, SHS exposure did not alter baseline electrophysiological parameters. With increasing pacing frequency, action potential duration (APD), and intracellular [Formula: see text] alternans magnitude progressively increased in all groups. At 4 and 8 wk, there were no statistical differences in APD or [Formula: see text] alternans magnitude between SHS and FA groups. At 12 wk, both APD and [Formula: see text] alternans magnitude were significantly increased in the SHS compared to FA group ([Formula: see text]). SHS exposure did not impact the time constant of [Formula: see text] transient decay ([Formula: see text]) at any exposure time point. At 12 wk exposure, the recovery of [Formula: see text] transient amplitude with premature stimuli was slightly (but nonsignificantly) delayed in SHS compared to FA hearts, suggesting that [Formula: see text] release via ryanodine receptors may be impaired.ConclusionsIn male mice, chronic exposure to SHS at levels relevant to social situations in humans increased their susceptibility to cardiac alternans, a known precursor to ventricular arrhythmia. https://doi.org/10.1289/EHP3664

    Contenido matemático fundacional para el aprendizaje en los primeros años

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    En este capítulo se describe el contenido matemático fundacional accesible para niñas y niños pequeños. El foco en este capítulo está puesto en las propias ideas matemáticas, más que en la enseñanza y el aprendizaje de las mismas. Estas ideas matemáticas se dan por sentadas por los adultos, pero son sorprendentemente profundas y complejas. Hay dos áreas fundamentales en las matemáticas para la primera infancia: (1) el número y (2) la geometría y la medición, tal como identifican los Focos Currículares del NCTM y subrraya este comité. También hay importantes procesos de razonamiento matemático en que los niños deben implicarse. Este capítulo también describe algunas de las conexiones más importantes de las matemáticas infantiles con las matemáticas posteriores

    Variaciones en el desarrollo, influencias socioculturales, y dificultades en el aprendizaje de las matemáticas

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    Es sabido que la mayoría de los niños entran en la escuela con conocimientos y recursos fundacionales para su aprendizaje matemático. Sin embargo, esta no es la historia completa. Resultados de investigaciones revelan enormes diferencias en los niveles de competencia matemática de los niños pequeños, y estas diferencias parecen ser más acusadas en los Estados Unidos que en algunos otros países (por ejemplo, China) (Starkey y Klein, 2008). En este artículo se describen los tipos de diferencias que se dan y se ofrece una revisión sobre lo que se sabe acerca de la naturaleza y las fuentes de las variaciones en el desarrollo entre los niños

    Fundamentos cognitivos para la iniciación en el aprendizaje de las matemáticas

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    En este artículo, sobre fundamentos cognitivos para la iniciación en el aprendizaje de las matemáticas, se realiza una revisión de investigaciones sobre el aprendizaje de las matemáticas en educación infantil. Esta revisión está estructurada según los siguientes apartados: Evidencias sobre la comprensión temprana del número, desarrollo del pensamiento espacial y la geometría, desarrollo de la medición, y regulación de la conducta y la atención

    Unravelling the roles of size, ligands and pressure in the piezochromic properties of CdS nanocrystals

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    Understanding the effects of pressure-induced deformations on the optoelectronic properties of nanomaterials is important not only from the fundamental point of view, but also for po- tential applications such as stress sensors and electromechanical devices. Here we describe the novel insights into these piezochromic ef- fects gained from using a linear-scaling den- sity functional theory framework and an elec- tronic enthalpy scheme, which allow us to ac- curately characterize the electronic structure of CdS nanocrystals with a zincblende-like core of experimentally relevant size. In particu- lar we focus on unravelling the complex inter- play of size and surface (phenyl) ligands with pressure. We show that pressure-induced de- formations are not simple isotropic scaling of the original structures and that the change in HOMO-LUMO gap with pressure results from two competing factors: (i) a bulk-like linear in- crease due to compression, which is offset by (ii) distortions/disorder and, to a lesser ex- tent, orbital hybridization induced by ligands affecting the frontier orbitals. Moreover, we observe that the main peak in the optical ab- sorption spectra is systematically red-shifted or blue-shifted, as pressure is increased up to 5 GPa, depending on the presence or absence of phenyl ligands. These heavily hybridize the frontier orbitals, causing a reduction in over- lap and oscillator strength, so that at zero pres- sure the lowest energy transition involves deeper hole orbitals than in the case of hydrogen- capped nanocrystals; the application of pressure induces greater delocalisation over the whole nanocrystals bringing the frontier hole orbitals into play and resulting in an unexpected red shift for the phenyl-capped nanocrystals, in part caused by distortions. In response to a growing interest in relatively small nanocrystals that can be difficult to accurately characterize with ex- perimental techniques, this work exemplifies the detailed understanding of structure-property re- lationships under pressure that can be obtained for realistic nanocrystals with state-of-the-art first principles methods and used for the charac- terization and design of devices based on these and similar nanomaterials
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