132,379 research outputs found

    In the Heat of Battle: Letters from the Normandy Campaign

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    Harold S. MacDonald was an officer with the North Shore (New Brunswick) Regiment from June 1942 until the end of the Second World War in Europe. Throughout this period he penned a steady stream of letters to his bestfriend, his wife, Marjorie, who was then a newspaper reporter with the Saint John Evening Times-Globe. These letters, totalling 463, were carefully preserved by Marjorie and provide a continuous and absorbing account of the experiences of a front-line Canadian infantry officer in Northwest Europe during the Second World War. They begin in June 1942 with a description of the rowdy voyage on the troopship carrying him and his regiment to England, and go on to provide vivid portrayals of his experiences of life in wartime Great Britain and of numerous training exercises in which he participated. For the most part, however, they are concerned with his fraught and demanding responsibilities on the battlefields of continental Europe. Hal MacDonald was born in Saint John on 15 February 1917. A graduate of the Modern Business College in Saint John, he was working with the accounting department of T. McAvity and Sons, in Saint John, when the Second World War broke out in September 1939. He enlisted that year as a private, and progressed through non-commisioned ranks to officer training at Brockville in the fall of 1941. In June 1942 he was posted to the North Shore Regiment and remained with that unit until the end of the war. In action, he served successively as second-in-command of “D” Company, commander of the Carrier Platoon, commander of the Support Company, and then as adjutant. At war\u27s end he was the North Shores’ liaison officer with the 8th Brigade, of which the regiment formed a part. Upon his return to Canada and demobilization in 1945, MacDonald joined Colonel Charles Leonard in the century-old Saint John firm of manufacturers’ agents and food brokers, which in due course became Leonard and MacDonald Ltd. His many activities and interests included the New Brunswick presidency of the Canadian Red Cross from 1964 to 1967, and also the presidency of the Canadian Food Wholesalers from 1977 to 1978. He was killed in an automobile accident on 11 November 1984, leaving his wife, a son and a daughter. The letters presented in the following narrative cover the period from MacDonald’s landing in France in late June 1944 until the end of the campaign in Normandy in the third week of August. They constitute an invaluable source of information about that campaign from the point of view of an observant and articulate front-line participant and tell us much about such important subjects as battle stess and exhaustion, the conditions under which soldiers lived and died, morale, the debilitating effects of friendly fire and the daily grind of attrition warfare. The letters are presented here to stimulate interest in the collection as a whole, which almost certainly merits publication in its entirety

    The Long Wait (Part I): A Personal Account of Infantry Training in Britain, June 1942–June 1943

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    In the early summer of 1942, Harold (Hal) MacDonald, a young infantry officer from Saint John, New Brunswick, was posted overseas to join the North Shore (New Brunswick) Regiment, then stationed in Great Britain. The North Shores were part of a growing Canadian military presence in Britain, preparing for the day when the Allies would return to the continent to help defeat the armies of Adolf Hitler’s Third Reich. Canadian troops had begun to arrive in England in 1939, and indeed, after the fall of France in the late spring of 1940, formed an important part of Britain’s defence forces at a time when it and the Commonwealth stood alone against the combined might of Germany and Italy. By the time that MacDonald arrived, the number of Canadian troops had swelled to some 130,000, for the most part concentrated in the south of England, where they underwent rigorous training exercises and highly realistic simulated battles designed to prepare them to meet the enemy

    Striking Into Germany: From the Scheldt to the German Surrender

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    Holland Summer: Awaiting Repatriation, May–August 1945

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    Solar sail science mission applications and advancement : solar sailing: concepts, technology, missions

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    Solar sailing has long been envisaged as an enabling or disruptive technology. The promise of open-ended missions allows consideration of radically new trajectories and the delivery of spacecraft to previously unreachable or unsustainable observation outposts. A mission catalogue is presented of an extensive range of potential solar sail applications, allowing identification of the key features of missions which are enabled, or significantly enhance, through solar sail propulsion. Through these considerations a solar sail application-pull technology development roadmap is established, using each mission as a technology stepping-stone to the next. Having identified and developed a solar sail application-pull technology development roadmap, this is incorporated into a new vision for solar sailing. The development of new technologies, especially for space applications, is high-risk. The advancement difficulty of low technology readiness level research is typically underestimated due to a lack of recognition of the advancement degree of difficulty scale. Recognising the currently low technology readiness level of traditional solar sailing concepts, along with their high advancement degree of difficulty and a lack of near-term applications a new vision for solar sailing is presented which increases the technology readiness level and reduces the advancement degree of difficulty of solar sailing. Just as the basic principles of solar sailing are not new, they have also been long proven and utilised in spacecraft as a low-risk, high-return limited-capability propulsion system. It is therefore proposed that this significant heritage be used to enable rapid, near-term solar sail future advancement through coupling currently mature solar sail, and other, technologies with current solar sail technology developments. As such the near-term technology readiness level of traditional solar sailing is increased, while simultaneously reducing the advancement degree of difficulty along the solar sail application-pull technology development roadmap

    Drawing in the Collective

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