8,164 research outputs found

    Shadows of the SIS immortality transition in small networks

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    Much of the research on the behavior of the SIS model on networks has concerned the infinite size limit; in particular the phase transition between a state where outbreaks can reach a finite fraction of the population, and a state where only a finite number would be infected. For finite networks, there is also a dynamic transition---the immortality transition---when the per-contact transmission probability λ\lambda reaches one. If λ<1\lambda < 1, the probability that an outbreak will survive by an observation time tt tends to zero as tt \rightarrow \infty; if λ=1\lambda = 1, this probability is one. We show that treating λ=1\lambda = 1 as a critical point predicts the λ\lambda-dependence of the survival probability also for more moderate λ\lambda-values. The exponent, however, depends on the underlying network. This fact could, by measuring how a vertex' deletion changes the exponent, be used to evaluate the role of a vertex in the outbreak. Our work also confirms an extremely clear separation between the early die-off (from the outbreak failing to take hold in the population) and the later extinctions (corresponding to rare stochastic events of several consecutive transmission events failing to occur).Comment: Bug fixes from the first versio

    Model validation of simple-graph representations of metabolism

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    The large-scale properties of chemical reaction systems, such as the metabolism, can be studied with graph-based methods. To do this, one needs to reduce the information -- lists of chemical reactions -- available in databases. Even for the simplest type of graph representation, this reduction can be done in several ways. We investigate different simple network representations by testing how well they encode information about one biologically important network structure -- network modularity (the propensity for edges to be cluster into dense groups that are sparsely connected between each other). To reach this goal, we design a model of reaction-systems where network modularity can be controlled and measure how well the reduction to simple graphs capture the modular structure of the model reaction system. We find that the network types that best capture the modular structure of the reaction system are substrate-product networks (where substrates are linked to products of a reaction) and substance networks (with edges between all substances participating in a reaction). Furthermore, we argue that the proposed model for reaction systems with tunable clustering is a general framework for studies of how reaction-systems are affected by modularity. To this end, we investigate statistical properties of the model and find, among other things, that it recreate correlations between degree and mass of the molecules.Comment: to appear in J. Roy. Soc. Intefac

    Threshold model of cascades in temporal networks

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    Threshold models try to explain the consequences of social influence like the spread of fads and opinions. Along with models of epidemics, they constitute a major theoretical framework of social spreading processes. In threshold models on static networks, an individual changes her state if a certain fraction of her neighbors has done the same. When there are strong correlations in the temporal aspects of contact patterns, it is useful to represent the system as a temporal network. In such a system, not only contacts but also the time of the contacts are represented explicitly. There is a consensus that bursty temporal patterns slow down disease spreading. However, as we will see, this is not a universal truth for threshold models. In this work, we propose an extension of Watts' classic threshold model to temporal networks. We do this by assuming that an agent is influenced by contacts which lie a certain time into the past. I.e., the individuals are affected by contacts within a time window. In addition to thresholds as the fraction of contacts, we also investigate the number of contacts within the time window as a basis for influence. To elucidate the model's behavior, we run the model on real and randomized empirical contact datasets.Comment: 7 pages, 5 figures, 2 table

    Attractiveness and activity in Internet communities

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    Datasets of online communication often take the form of contact sequences -- ordered lists contacts (where a contact is defined as a triple of a sender, a recipient and a time). We propose measures of attractiveness and activity for such data sets and analyze these quantities for anonymized contact sequences from an Internet dating community. For this data set the attractiveness and activity measures show broad power-law like distributions. Our attractiveness and activity measures are more strongly correlated in the real-world data than in our reference model. Effects that indirectly can make active users more attractive are discussed

    A Zero-Temperature Study of Vortex Mobility in Two-Dimensional Vortex Glass Models

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    Three different vortex glass models are studied by examining the energy barrier against vortex motion across the system. In the two-dimensional gauge glass this energy barrier is found to increase logarithmically with system size which is interpreted as evidence for a low-temperature phase with zero resistivity. Associated with the large energy barriers is a breaking of ergodicity which explains why the well established results from equilibrium studies could fail. The behavior of the more realistic random pinning model is however different with decreasing energy barriers a no finite critical temperature