61 research outputs found

    Association studies for asthma and atopic diseases: a comprehensive review of the literature

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    Hundreds of genetic association studies on asthma-related phenotypes have been conducted in different populations. To date, variants in 64 genes have been reported to be associated with asthma or related traits in at least one study. Of these, 33 associations were replicated in a second study, 9 associations were not replicated either in a second study or a second sample in the same study, and 22 associations were reported in just a single published study. These results suggest the potential for a great amount of heterogeneity underlying asthma. However, many of these studies are methodologically limited and their interpretation hampered by small sample sizes

    Evaluation of the toll-like receptor 6 Ser249Pro polymorphism in patients with asthma, atopic dermatitis and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

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    BACKGROUND: For allergic disorders, the increasing prevalence over the past decade has been attributed in part to the lack of microbial burden in developed countries ('hygiene hypothesis'). Variation in genes encoding toll-like receptors (TLRs) as the receptor system for the first innate immune response to microbial stimuli has been implicated in various inflammatory diseases. We evaluated here the role of a coding variation, Ser249Pro, in the TLR6 gene in the pathogenesis of asthma, atopic dermatitis (AD) and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). METHODS: Genotyping of the Ser249Pro polymorphism in 68 unrelated adult patients and 132 unrelated children with asthma, 185 unrelated patients with COPD, 295 unrelated individuals with AD and 212 healthy control subjects was performed by restriction enzyme digestion. RESULTS: We found a weak association of the 249Ser allele with childhood asthma (p = 0.03). Yet, significance was lost after Bonferroni correction. No association was evident for AD or COPD. CONCLUSION: Variation in TLR6 might play a role in the pathogenesis of childhood asthma

    Variation in genes encoding eosinophil granule proteins in atopic dermatitis patients from Germany

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    <p>Abstract</p> <p>Background</p> <p>Atopic dermatitis (AD) is believed to result from complex interactions between genetic and environmental factors. A main feature of AD as well as other allergic disorders is serum and tissue eosinophilia. Human eosinophils contain high amounts of cationic granule proteins, including eosinophil cationic protein (ECP), eosinophil-derived neurotoxin (EDN), eosinophil peroxidase (EPO) and major basic protein (MBP). Recently, variation in genes encoding eosinophil granule proteins has been suggested to play a role in the pathogenesis of allergic disorders. We therefore genotyped selected single nucleotide polymorphisms within the <it>ECP, EDN, EPO </it>and <it>MBP </it>genes in a cohort of 361 German AD patients and 325 healthy controls.</p> <p>Results</p> <p>Genotype and allele frequencies did not differ between patients and controls for all polymorphisms investigated in this study. Haplotype analysis did not reveal any additional information.</p> <p>Conclusion</p> <p>We did not find evidence to support an influence of variation in genes encoding eosinophil granule proteins for AD pathogenesis in this German cohort.</p

    47 patients with FLNA associated periventricular nodular heterotopia

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    Background: Heterozygous loss of function mutations within the Filamin A gene in Xq28 are the most frequent cause of bilateral neuronal periventricular nodular heterotopia (PVNH). Most affected females are reported to initially present with difficult to treat seizures at variable age of onset. Psychomotor development and cognition may be normal or mildly to moderately impaired. Distinct associated extracerebral findings have been observed and may help to establish the diagnosis including patent ductus arteriosus Botalli, progressive dystrophic cardiac valve disease and aortic dissection, chronic obstructive lung disease or chronic constipation. Genotype-phenotype correlations could not yet be established. Methods: Sanger sequencing and MLPA was performed for a large cohort of 47 patients with Filamin A associated PVNH (age range 1 to 65 years). For 34 patients more detailed clinical information was available from a structured questionnaire and medical charts on family history, development, epileptologic findings, neurological examination, cognition and associated clinical findings. Available detailed cerebral MR imaging was assessed for 20 patients. Results: Thirty-nine different FLNA mutations were observed, they are mainly truncating (37/39) and distributed throughout the entire coding region. No obvious correlation between the number and extend of PVNH and the severity of the individual clinical manifestation was observed. 10 of the mutation carriers so far are without seizures at a median age of 19.7 years. 22 of 24 patients with available educational data were able to attend regular school and obtain professional education according to age. Conclusions: We report the clinical and mutation spectrum as well as MR imaging for a large cohort of 47 patients with Filamin A associated PVNH including two adult males. Our data are reassuring in regard to psychomotor and cognitive development, which is within normal range for the majority of patients. However, a concerning median diagnostic latency of 17 to 20 years was noted between seizure onset and the genetic diagnosis, intensely delaying appropriate medical surveillance for potentially life threatening cardiovascular complications as well as genetic risk assessment and counseling prior to family planning for this X-linked dominant inherited disorder with high perinatal lethality in hemizygous males

    Association of toll-interacting protein gene polymorphisms with atopic dermatitis

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    BACKGROUND: Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a common inflammatory skin disorder, affecting up to 15% of children in industrialized countries. Toll-interacting protein (TOLLIP) is an inhibitory adaptor protein within the toll-like receptor (TLR) pathway, a part of the innate immune system that recognizes structurally conserved molecular patterns of microbial pathogens, leading to an inflammatory immune response. METHODS: In order to detect a possible role of TOLLIP variation in the pathogenesis of AD, we screened the entire coding sequence of the TOLLIP gene by SSCP in 50 AD patients. We identified an amino acid exchange in exon 6 (Ala222Ser) and a synonymous variation in exon 4 (Pro139Pro). Subsequently, these two variations and four additional non-coding polymorphisms (-526 C/G, two polymorphisms in intron 1 and one in the 3'UTR) were genotyped in 317 AD patients and 224 healthy controls. RESULTS: The -526G allele showed borderline association with AD in our cohort (p = 0.012; significance level after correction for multiple testing 0.0102). Haplotype analysis did not yield additional information. Evaluation of mRNA expression by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction in six probands with the CC and six with the GG genotype at the -526 C/G locus did not reveal significant differences between genotypes. CONCLUSION: Variation in the TOLLIP gene may play a role in the pathogenesis of AD. Yet, replication studies in other cohorts and populations are warranted to confirm these association results

    The Rare IL22RA2 Signal Peptide Coding Variant rs28385692 Decreases Secretion of IL-22BP Isoform-1, -2 and -3 and Is Associated with Risk for Multiple Sclerosis.

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    The IL22RA2 locus is associated with risk for multiple sclerosis (MS) but causative variants are yet to be determined. In a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) screen of this locus in a Basque population, rs28385692, a rare coding variant substituting Leu for Pro at position 16 emerged significantly (p = 0.02). This variant is located in the signal peptide (SP) shared by the three secreted protein isoforms produced by IL22RA2 (IL-22 binding protein-1(IL-22BPi1), IL-22BPi2 and IL-22BPi3). Genotyping was extended to a Europe-wide case-control dataset and yielded high significance in the full dataset (p = 3.17 √ó 10-4). Importantly, logistic regression analyses conditioning on the main known MS-associated SNP at this locus, rs17066096, revealed that this association was independent from the primary association signal in the full case-control dataset. In silico analysis predicted both disruption of the alpha helix of the H-region of the SP and decreased hydrophobicity of this region, ultimately affecting the SP cleavage site. We tested the effect of the p.Leu16Pro variant on the secretion of IL-22BPi1, IL-22BPi2 and IL-22BPi3 and observed that the Pro16 risk allele significantly lowers secretion levels of each of the isoforms to around 50%-60% in comparison to the Leu16 reference allele. Thus, our study suggests that genetically coded decreased levels of IL-22BP isoforms are associated with augmented risk for MS

    De novo missense variants in FBXO11 alter its protein expression and subcellular localization.

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    Recently, we and others identified de novo FBXO11 variants as causative for a variable neurodevelopmental disorder (NDD). We now assembled clinical and mutational information on 23 additional individuals. The phenotypic spectrum remains highly variable, with developmental delay and/or intellectual disability as the core feature and behavioral anomalies, hypotonia and various facial dysmorphism as frequent aspects. The mutational spectrum includes intragenic deletions, likely gene disrupting and missense variants distributed across the protein. To further characterize the functional consequences of FBXO11 missense variants, we analyzed their effects on protein expression and localization by overexpression of 17 different mutant constructs in HEK293 and HeLa cells. We found that the majority of missense variants resulted in subcellular mislocalization and/or reduced FBXO11 protein expression levels. For instance, variants located in the nuclear localization signal and the N-terminal F-Box domain lead to altered subcellular localization with exclusion from the nucleus or the formation of cytoplasmic aggregates and to reduced protein levels in western blot. In contrast, variants localized in the C-terminal Zn-finger UBR domain lead to an accumulation in the cytoplasm without alteration of protein levels. Together with the mutational data our functional results suggest that most missense variants likely lead to a loss of the original FBXO11 function and thereby highlight haploinsufficiency as the most likely disease mechanism for FBXO11-associated NDDs

    De novo missense variants in FBXO11 alter its protein expression and subcellular localization.

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    Recently, we and others identified de novo FBXO11 variants as causative for a variable neurodevelopmental disorder (NDD). We now assembled clinical and mutational information on 23 additional individuals. The phenotypic spectrum remains highly variable, with developmental delay and/or intellectual disability as the core feature and behavioral anomalies, hypotonia and various facial dysmorphism as frequent aspects. The mutational spectrum includes intragenic deletions, likely gene disrupting and missense variants distributed across the protein. To further characterize the functional consequences of FBXO11 missense variants, we analyzed their effects on protein expression and localization by overexpression of 17 different mutant constructs in HEK293 and HeLa cells. We found that the majority of missense variants resulted in subcellular mislocalization and/or reduced FBXO11 protein expression levels. For instance, variants located in the nuclear localization signal and the N-terminal F-Box domain lead to altered subcellular localization with exclusion from the nucleus or the formation of cytoplasmic aggregates and to reduced protein levels in western blot. In contrast, variants localized in the C-terminal Zn-finger UBR domain lead to an accumulation in the cytoplasm without alteration of protein levels. Together with the mutational data our functional results suggest that most missense variants likely lead to a loss of the original FBXO11 function and thereby highlight haploinsufficiency as the most likely disease mechanism for FBXO11-associated NDDs

    Genome-wide significant association with seven novel multiple sclerosis risk loci

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    Objective: A recent large-scale study in multiple sclerosis (MS) using the ImmunoChip platform reported on 11 loci that showed suggestive genetic association with MS. Additional data in sufficiently sized and independent data sets are needed to assess whether these loci represent genuine MS risk factors. Methods: The lead SNPs of all 11 loci were genotyped in 10‚ÄÖ796 MS cases and 10‚ÄÖ793 controls from Germany, Spain, France, the Netherlands, Austria and Russia, that were independent from the previously reported cohorts. Association analyses were performed using logistic regression based on an additive model. Summary effect size estimates were calculated using fixed-effect meta-analysis. Results: Seven of the 11 tested SNPs showed significant association with MS susceptibility in the 21‚ÄÖ589 individuals analysed here. Meta-analysis across our and previously published MS case-control data (total sample size n=101‚ÄÖ683) revealed novel genome-wide significant association with MS susceptibility (p<5√ó10‚ąí8) for all seven variants. This included SNPs in or near LOC100506457 (rs1534422, p=4.03√ó10‚ąí12), CD28 (rs6435203, p=1.35√ó10‚ąí9), LPP (rs4686953, p=3.35√ó10‚ąí8), ETS1 (rs3809006, p=7.74√ó10‚ąí9), DLEU1 (rs806349, p=8.14√ó10‚ąí12), LPIN3 (rs6072343, p=7.16√ó10‚ąí12) and IFNGR2 (rs9808753, p=4.40√ó10‚ąí10). Cis expression quantitative locus effects were observed in silico for rs6435203 on CD28 and for rs9808753 on several immunologically relevant genes in the IFNGR2 locus. Conclusions: This study adds seven loci to the list of genuine MS genetic risk factors and further extends the list of established loci shared across autoimmune diseases
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