University of Northampton

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    10459 research outputs found

    An Analysis of Cybersecurity Data Breach in The State of California

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    As the wave of data breaches continues to crash down on organisations, we will analyse the largest publicly available database of data breaches in the state of California using the public data breach database functioning under the state notification law of data breach. The dataset contains records since January 2012. These records were analysed in order to classify and identify California data breaches by multiple company types, attack vectors and sto-len personal information. The main findings were that Software vulnerabil-ity is the most common attack vector due to third-party software, the finan-cial industry is the most targeted industry while both large and small organ-isations are equally targeted by attackers. The analysis also found that cred-it/debit card information and social security numbers represent the most stolen personal information

    Exploring the relationship of static and dynamic balance with muscle mechanical properties of the lower limbs in healthy young adults

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    There is emerging evidence that mechanical properties of in vivo muscle tissues are associated with postural sway during quiet standing. However, it is unknown if the observed relationship between mechanical properties with static balance parameters generalise to dynamic balance. Thus, we determined the relationship between static and dynamic balance parameters with muscle mechanical properties of the ankle plantar flexors [lateral gastrocnemius (GL)] and knee extensors [vastus lateralis (VL)] in vivo. Twenty-six participants (men = 16, women = 10; age = 23.3 ± 4.4 years) were assessed for static balance [centre of pressure (COP) movements during quiet standing], dynamic balance (reach distances for the Y-balance test) and mechanical properties (stiffness and tone) of the GL and VL measured in the standing and lying position. Significant (p < .05) small to moderate inverse correlations were observed between the mean COP velocity during quiet standing with stiffness (r = −.40 to −.58, p = .002 to .042) and tone (r = −0.42 to −0.56, p = 0.003 to 0.036) of the GL and VL (lying and standing). Tone and stiffness explained 16%–33% of the variance in the mean COP velocity. Stiffness and tone of the VL measured in the lying (supine) condition were also inversely significantly correlated with Y balance test performance (r = −0.39 to −0.46, p = 0.018 to 0.049). These findings highlight that individuals with low muscle stiffness and tone exhibit faster COP movements during quiet standing, indicative of reduced postural control but also reveal that low VL stiffness and tone are associated with greater reach distances in a lower extremity reaching task, indicative of greater neuromuscular performance

    The acute effects of assisted or resisted variable resistance back squat exercise on countermovement jump performance

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    INTRODUCTION: Back squat warm-up activities using elastic band (EB) resistance in combination with free weight resistance (FWR) can improve subsequent countermovement jump (CMJ) performance [1], a phenomenon termed post-activation performance enhancement (PAPE). However, across the literature sub-maximal loads of 85% are commonly used, with limited research existing on the effect of lighter loads on acute performance enhancement under both FWR or EB (resisted [RES] or assisted [ASS]) conditions. The aim of the present study was to compare the effects of back squats at 50% 1-RM under two EB attachment sites (ASS and RES) and FWR alone after a task-specific comprehensive warm-up on subsequent CMJ performance. METHODS: Twenty active males (age = 24.9±3.7 y, height = 1.7±5.7 m, mass = 83.4±12.6 kg) volunteered for the study and completed three separate experimental conditions (FWR, RES, ASS) separated by 48 h following a randomised crossover design. During each condition, participants first completed initial baseline CMJ tests (BL1) followed by a task-specific comprehensive warm-up that involved 5 min of cycling, two sets of 5 bodyweight squats, 5 continuous CMJs at 70% of perceived maximum, and finally, maximal CMJs every 30 s until 3 consecutive jumps were within 3% of jump height. Baseline 2 (BL2) CMJ tests were then completed and followed by 3 back squats following either the FWR, RES or ASS protocols at 50% 1-RM with 35% of the load generated by EBs during the RES and ASS conditions. CMJs were then performed 30 s, 4 min, 8 min and 12 min later. RESULTS: Significant increases (p<0.05) in both jump height (4.6-18.8%) and peak power (5.3-10.8%) were observed across all timepoints when compared with BL1 measure in all conditions. In the ASS condition, significant increases in jump height (4.6-11.8%) and peak power (6.5-2.0%) were observed at 30 s, 4 min, 8 min, and 12 min compared to BL2. In the RES condition, significant increases in jump height (7.1-1.2%) and peak power (2.3-5.4%) were observed at 30 s, 4 min, and 8 min, and in the FWR condition, significant increases in jump height (2.2-5.7%) and peak power (1-4.6%) were observed at 30 s and 4 min. DISCUSSION: The implementation of back squats into a warm-up activity at 50% 1-RM increased jump performance when EBs were used during both the ASS and RES conditions, with the increase in jump height being greater than that observed in the FWR condition. The use of EB resistance speculatively reduces loading at the sticking point, potentially allowing for greater acceleration during the concentric phase as lower-limb joints extend at the point where more optimal muscle lengths are achieved [2].These data have important implications for warm-up design for strength and power activities. REFERENCES 1. Mina et al. (2019). Scand J Med Sci Sports. 29(3):380-392. 2. Anderson et al. (2008). J Strength Cond Res. 22(2):567-574

    Manage and Evaluate the Performance of the End-to-End 5G Inter/Intra Slicing using Machine Learning in a Sustainable Environment

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    The 3G Partnership Project (3GPP) defined network slicing as a set of resources that could be scaled up and down to cover users' requirements. Machine learning and network slicing will be used together to manage and optimize the resources efficiently. In this research, a set of slices is implemented over the 5G networks to provide an efficient service to the end-user using softwarization and virtualization technologies. In the proposed prototype, the end-user connected to more than eight inter and intra-slices according to the demands. Traffic is generated over multiple scenarios then End-to-End slicing was analyzed after generating real-time traffic over the 5G networks and the features extracted from the traffic based on the flow behaviors. A set of elements selected from the datasets according to machine learning behaviours. From the first and second datasets, only five out of seven features will be selected. Then, seven out of nine features will be selected from the third dataset. Machine learning is applied to our datasets using MATLAB. After that, the best model is chosen to train and predict the slices in less CPU usage and less training time to reduce the computational power in future networks to build a sustainable environment. Furthermore, regression application is used to predict the slice type on the third dataset with the minimum squared error

    “You’re trying to put yourself in boxes, which doesn’t work”: Exploring non-binary youth’s gender identity development using feminist relational discourse analysis

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    There are growing numbers of non-binary youth in the U.K. with increasing representation, whilst simultaneously forms of gender diversity are being heavily regulated. Non-binary youth face unique challenges regarding their gender development due to age-based expectations for single and stable identities, and the gender binary. This article explores the regulation of gender identity borders and how non-binary youth navigate these. 10 non-binary youth living in the U.K. aged 16-21 years old took part in semi-structured individual interviews. Feminist Relational Discourse Analysis was used to explore forms of regulation through discourse analysis whilst also tracing the personal experiences through the discursive realms by constructing I poems. The analysis highlights how a non-binary gender provides freedom from the gender binary for identity development and understanding of oneself in context. However, the freedom provided by non-binary identities is precarious and risks being regulated by individualism and attempts to shame, which cause youth to censor their gender diversities. The research contributes to non-binary theory by focusing on the intersection of age to highlight the discursive realms and voiced experiences of non-binary identity development

    Internet Gaming Disorder among Undergraduate Health Sciences Students in the Pokhara Valley: a Cross-Sectional Study

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    Introduction: Internet Gaming Disorder (IGD) is an emerging public health impact of technological advancement and globalization. This study was conducted to assess the prevalence and factors associated with IGD among Undergraduate Health Sciences students. Methods: A web-based cross-sectional study was conducted during the period of November to July 2020. A total of 412 college students from Undergraduate Health Sciences colleges of Pokhara Metropolitan city in Gandaki province, Nepal were enrolled. Online google forms were sent to all the eligible students through email and other social media sites like Facebook with the help of the coordinator and class representative. Collected data were analyzed using SPSS IBM v.22 Results: The finding of the study shows that the prevalence of Internet Gaming Disorder among Undergraduate Health Sciences students was 7.1%. Sex (p=0.027), Loneliness level at home (p=0.019), number of close friends (p Conclusion: Sex of the participants, loneliness level at home, number of close friends, types of game, time spent on the gameplay, and type of gamer are the contributing factors for developing Internet Gaming Disorder. It is important to focus on these factors to address Internet Gaming Disorder and its psychological health effects

    “It’s ok not to know what I want to do”: An exploration into the aspirations of Early Childhood Studies students

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    The importance of embedding employability skills in English Higher Education has received increased attention since the introduction of tuition fees and employers claiming that graduates lack the necessary skills for the workforce. This paper considers how these employability skills align with students’ aspirations, when there is uncertainty around their career trajectory, an area that appears unexplored in current literature. Using an interpretative approach this small-scale study (n=25) sought views of first year students within an HE institution in the East Midlands of England. This paper reports on students’ career aspirations and motivations for studying, and working in, the field of Early Childhood, at the commencement of their studies. Through questionnaires and semi-structured interviews, students reflected on their aspirations and motivations to follow this degree trajectory. This paper purports that students embark on this degree with a generic interest in working with children but are uncertain about career directions. They welcome the breadth of opportunities the degree could lead to. It is therefore argued that “it’s ok not to know what I want to do”. It is the role of academic and professional staff to embed a breath of opportunities for exposure to the range of career pathways available

    Sexual Violence: Challenges in Changing Campus Culture

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    Sexual violence is a widespread issue on UK campuses. While not a new research concern, universities have only recently begun to respond, despite being key sites for action. While they have a duty of care for students, a gap often exists between legal requirements, experiences and university responses. Our research triangulates student perceptions, experiences, support-seeking and reporting preferences, with academic, support staff and university manager perspectives of sexual violence within campus spaces. This chapter provides a new commentary of our research, summarising our challenges, practical recommendations, experiences and successes in changing policy within UK HEI. Our findings suggest sexual violence is prevalent, but many barriers to disclosure lead to low reporting rates, with students not knowing where to seek support, lacking faith in existing mechanisms, or relying on a hierarchy of severity in determining ‘acceptable’ behaviour. While ‘Consent’ related interventions create consent conversations on campus and address difficulties young people have in negotiating consent, practices vary. Initiatives are viewed as an add-on to programme curricula, with poor attendance and limited evaluation. Perceptions of prevalence vary because university managers can be detached from frontline student-facing staff experiences. When support structures are not in place, staff seek informal disclosure or support routes, which is further compounded by a blurring of responsibility between Universities and external support services. We will argue that sexual violence is a pressing issue but, within changing HE landscapes, will remain a low priority without joined up, campus-wide approach, driven by university managers, to embed long-term, cultural changes. Key words: sexual violence, consent, universities, spaces, culture Dr Kimberley M. Hill is an Associate Professor in Psychology at The University of Northampton and Deputy Subject Lead. Kimberley is a Senior Fellow of the Higher Education Academy, a Chartered Psychologist and Associate Fellow of the British Psychological Society. Her research expertise involves promoting health and preventing health risk in young people. As a National STEM Ambassador, Kimberley is dedicated to improving access to and dissemination of psychological knowledge. Dr Melanie Crofts is an Associate Professor in Law at De Montfort University and the Director and Vice Chair of the Northamptonshire Rights and Equality Council. Melanie is a Fair Outcomes Champion for the Decolonising DMU project and her research expertise focuses on equality, diversity and discrimination in Higher Education. She is also a consultant trainer for the Football Association and sits on the Intersectionality Athena Swan Governance Committee subgroup for AdvanceHE

    Community Sentence Treatment Requirement Multisite Report July 2020 – January 2023

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    This report presents analysis from the Community Sentence Treatment Requirement Multisite Evaluation, completed by the Institute for Public Safety, Crime and Justice

    Mobile Arts for Peace: Small Grants Evaluation Report

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    The Mobile Arts for Peace (MAP) project is an international study that seeks to provide a comparative approach to peace-building utilising interdisciplinary arts-based practices, working with communities in Indonesia, Kyrgyzstan, Nepal and Rwanda (see figure 1.1). This research was commissioned by the project lead organisation, the University of Lincoln, and has been delivered by the University of Northampton’s Institute for Social Innovation and Impact (see Appendix A for research biographies). This report focuses on the Small Grants awarded across the four countries, and acts as a follow-up to the Phase One Report that was produced in the winter of 2021. The delivery of the Small Grants projects has taken place over the last 12 months across the above four countries, and this report seeks to demonstrate, through a narrative case-study approach, how the Small Grants work delivered has promoted arts-based peacebuilding and supported community cohesion. The research reported in this document took place between February and October 2022 and focused on the below research aim and four key research questions. Aim: To evaluate the efficacy of the MAP Small Grants projects and understand their impact in communities. Specifically: 1. What outputs were delivered through the Small Grants projects? 2. What outcomes for beneficiaries/stakeholders were delivered through the Small Grants projects? 3. What impacts delivered for communities and societies across the four countries were delivered through the Small Grants projects? The report is structured as follows: first, the methodological approach undertaken in the evaluation will be presented; second, the case-studies across the four countries will be presented and discussed, utilising data gathered by the in-country research teams and the arts-based outputs produced; third, the findings will be summarised, with specific recommendations also made for the implications related to the MAP Large Grant evaluation projects and the recently awarded MAP Medium Grant projects. References and Appendices can also be found at the end of the report


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