1,235 research outputs found

    From Metastable to Coherent Sets – time-discretization schemes

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    Given a time-dependent stochastic process with trajectories x(t) in a space \Omega, there may be sets such that the corresponding trajectories only very rarely cross the boundaries of these sets. We can analyze such a process in terms of metastability or coherence. Metastable sets M are defined in space M \subset \Omega, coherent sets M(t) \subset \Omega are defined in space and time. Hence, if we extend the space \Omega by the time-variable t, coherent sets are metastable sets in \Omega \times [0,\infty). This relation can be exploited, because there already exist spectral algorithms for the identification of metastable sets. In this article we show that these well-established spectral algorithms (like PCCA+) also identify coherent sets of non-autonomous dynamical systems. For the identification of coherent sets, one has to compute a discretization (a matrix T) of the transfer operator of the process using a space-time-discretization scheme. The article gives an overview about different time-discretization schemes and shows their applicability in two different fields of application

    Konnatale SchĂ€delimpression: Fallbericht und LiteraturĂŒbersicht

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    A 40-week gestational age infant was delivered by cesarean section because of intense contractions and pathological fetal heart rate pattern. The umbilical artery pH was 7.03, Apgar scores were 1/4/7 at 1, 5 and 10 min of age. The 3,250-gram infant had a skull depression of 5 x 7 cm in the left temporal-parietal region with a depth of 1.5 cm. There were no edemas or hematomas in this area; neurological examination was normal. A CT scan did not show a fracture, but the cortex below the depression appeared slightly compressed. At the age of 11 days, the depressed part of the parietal squama was surgically elevated. The child was discharged in good condition 8 days later and remained well at a 6-month follow-up examination

    Randomized crossover comparison of proportional assist ventilation and patient-triggered ventilation in extremely low birth weight infants with evolving chronic lung disease

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    Background: Refinement of ventilatory techniques remains a challenge given the persistence of chronic lung disease of preterm infants. Objective: To test the hypothesis that proportional assist ventilation ( PAV) will allow to lower the ventilator pressure at equivalent fractions of inspiratory oxygen (FiO(2)) and arterial hemoglobin oxygen saturation in ventilator-dependent extremely low birth weight infants in comparison with standard patient-triggered ventilation ( PTV). Methods: Design: Randomized crossover design. Setting: Two level-3 university perinatal centers. Patients: 22 infants ( mean (SD): birth weight, 705 g ( 215); gestational age, 25.6 weeks ( 2.0); age at study, 22.9 days ( 15.6)). Interventions: One 4- hour period of PAV was applied on each of 2 consecutive days and compared with epochs of standard PTV. Results: Mean airway pressure was 5.64 ( SD, 0.81) cm H2O during PAV and 6.59 ( SD, 1.26) cm H2O during PTV ( p < 0.0001), the mean peak inspiratory pressure was 10.3 ( SD, 2.48) cm H2O and 15.1 ( SD, 3.64) cm H2O ( p < 0.001), respectively. The FiO(2) ( 0.34 (0.13) vs. 0.34 ( 0.14)) and pulse oximetry readings were not significantly different. The incidence of arterial oxygen desaturations was not different ( 3.48 ( 3.2) vs. 3.34 ( 3.0) episodes/ h) but desaturations lasted longer during PAV ( 2.60 ( 2.8) vs. 1.85 ( 2.2) min of desaturation/ h, p = 0.049). PaCO2 measured transcutaneously in a subgroup of 12 infants was similar. One infant met prespecified PAV failure criteria. No adverse events occurred during the 164 cumulative hours of PAV application. Conclusions: PAV safely maintains gas exchange at lower mean airway pressures compared with PTV without adverse effects in this population. Backup conventional ventilation breaths must be provided to prevent apnea-related desaturations. Copyright (c) 2007 S. Karger AG, Base

    Inhibition of breathing after surfactant depletion is achieved at a higher arterial PCO(2 )during ventilation with liquid than with gas

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    BACKGROUND: Inhibition of phrenic nerve activity (PNA) can be achieved when alveolar ventilation is adequate and when stretching of lung tissue stimulates mechanoreceptors to inhibit inspiratory activity. During mechanical ventilation under different lung conditions, inhibition of PNA can provide a physiological setting at which ventilatory parameters can be compared and related to arterial blood gases and pH. OBJECTIVE: To study lung mechanics and gas exchange at inhibition of PNA during controlled gas ventilation (GV) and during partial liquid ventilation (PLV) before and after lung lavage. METHODS: Nine anaesthetised, mechanically ventilated young cats (age 3.8 ± 0.5 months, weight 2.3 ± 0.1 kg) (mean ± SD) were studied with stepwise increases in peak inspiratory pressure (PIP) until total inhibition of PNA was attained before lavage (with GV) and after lavage (GV and PLV). Tidal volume (V(t)), PIP, oesophageal pressure and arterial blood gases were measured at inhibition of PNA. One way repeated measures analysis of variance and Student Newman Keuls-tests were used for statistical analysis. RESULTS: During GV, inhibition of PNA occurred at lower PIP, transpulmonary pressure (Ptp) and Vt before than after lung lavage. After lavage, inhibition of inspiratory activity was achieved at the same PIP, Ptp and Vt during GV and PLV, but occurred at a higher PaCO(2 )during PLV. After lavage compliance at inhibition was almost the same during GV and PLV and resistance was lower during GV than during PLV. CONCLUSION: Inhibition of inspiratory activity occurs at a higher PaCO(2 )during PLV than during GV in cats with surfactant-depleted lungs. This could indicate that PLV induces better recruitment of mechanoreceptors than GV

    Apnea of prematurity: from cause to treatment

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    Apnea of prematurity (AOP) is a common problem affecting premature infants, likely secondary to a “physiologic” immaturity of respiratory control that may be exacerbated by neonatal disease. These include altered ventilatory responses to hypoxia, hypercapnia, and altered sleep states, while the roles of gastroesophageal reflux and anemia remain controversial. Standard clinical management of the obstructive subtype of AOP includes prone positioning and continuous positive or nasal intermittent positive pressure ventilation to prevent pharyngeal collapse and alveolar atelectasis, while methylxanthine therapy is a mainstay of treatment of central apnea by stimulating the central nervous system and respiratory muscle function. Other therapies, including kangaroo care, red blood cell transfusions, and CO2 inhalation, require further study. The physiology and pathophysiology behind AOP are discussed, including the laryngeal chemoreflex and sensitivity to inhibitory neurotransmitters, as are the mechanisms by which different therapies may work and the potential long-term neurodevelopmental consequences of AOP and its treatment

    MUSiC: a model-unspecific search for new physics in proton–proton collisions at √s=13TeV

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    Results of the Model Unspecific Search in CMS (MUSiC), using proton–proton collision data recorded at the LHC at a centre-of-mass energy of 13TeV, corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 35.9fb-1, are presented. The MUSiC analysis searches for anomalies that could be signatures of physics beyond the standard model. The analysis is based on the comparison of observed data with the standard model prediction, as determined from simulation, in several hundred final states and multiple kinematic distributions. Events containing at least one electron or muon are classified based on their final state topology, and an automated search algorithm surveys the observed data for deviations from the prediction. The sensitivity of the search is validated using multiple methods. No significant deviations from the predictions have been observed. For a wide range of final state topologies, agreement is found between the data and the standard model simulation. This analysis complements dedicated search analyses by significantly expanding the range of final states covered using a model independent approach with the largest data set to date to probe phase space regions beyond the reach of previous general searches

    Combined searches for the production of supersymmetric top quark partners in proton–proton collisions at √s=13Te