19 research outputs found

    Numerical Analyses on Ultra-Lean Si Engine Integrated In a Hybrid Powertrain to Reduce Noxious Emissions

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    The topic of the research activity, presented in this Ph.D. thesis, is the numerical investigation, through a hierarchical simulation-level approach, of innovative SI engines, possibly suitable for hybrid powertrains and featured by a reduced CO2 impact. For this purpose, firstly a conventional naturally aspirated small Spark Ignition (SI) engine has been analyzed, assessing the model predictivity of engine performance, combustion, and pollutant emissions. In the second stage, several engine architectures working in ultra-lean conditions have been numerically investigated, with particular emphasis on unburned hydrocarbon emission estimation. Then, an innovative 4-cylinder SI engine, equipped with an active pre-chamber (PC) ignition system and operating with an ultra-lean mixture, has been studied. Finally, this last engine has been virtually embedded into a hybrid electric vehicle (HEV), belonging to the C segment, to estimate CO2 and pollutant emissions along the worldwide harmonized light vehicles test cycle (WLTC) and Real Driving Emission (RDE)-compliant cycles and to verify the EU regulation fulfillment

    development of an on-line energy management strategy for hybrid electric vehicle

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    Abstract The Hybrid Electric Vehicle (HEV) seems to be one of the most promising short-term solution to improve the sustainability on the transportation sector. As well-known, the numerical analyses can give a substantial contribute during the preliminary vehicle design. In this context, the development of the Energy Management Strategy (EMS) represents the most challenging task. In this paper, an on-line local optimization EMS for a parallel/series hybrid vehicle is proposed to minimize the CO2 emissions. The proposed EMS, implemented in a dynamic simulation platform, is compared to the well-assessed off-line Pontryagin's Minimum Principle (PMP). Firstly, the main differences regarding the energy management are highlighted in detail. Then, the EMSs are assessed in terms of CO2 emissions, putting into evidence that the proposed on-line strategy involves limited penalizations (3-4%) compared to the PMP target

    Assessment of an Adaptive Efficient Thermal/Electric Skipping Control Strategy for the Management of a Parallel Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicle

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    In the current scenario, where environmental concern determines the evolution of passenger cars, hybrid electric vehicles (HEV) represent a hub in the automotive sector to reach net-zero CO2 emissions. To fully exploit the energy conversion potential of advanced powertrains, proper energy management strategies are mandatory. In this work, a simulation study is presented, aiming at developing a new control strategy for a P3 parallel plug-in HEV (PHEV). The simulation model is built on MATLAB/Simulink. The proposed strategy is based on an alternative utilization of the thermal engine and electric motor to provide the vehicle power demand (efficient thermal/electric skipping strategy (ETESS)). An adaptive function is then introduced to develop a charge-blended control strategy. Fuel consumption along different driving cycles is evaluated by applying the novel adaptive-ETESS (A-ETESS). To have a proper comparison, the same adaptive function is built on the equivalent consumption minimization strategy (ECMS). Processor-in-the-loop (PIL) simulations are performed to benchmark the A-ETESS. Simulation results highlighted that the proposed strategy provides for a fuel economy similar to ECMS (worse of about 2.5% on average) and a computational effort reduced by 99% on average, opening the possibility of real-time on-vehicle applications

    A quasi-dimensional model of pre-chamber spark-ignition engines

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    Increasingly stringent pollutant and CO2 emission standards require the car manufacturers to investigate innovative solutions to further improve the fuel economy of their fleets. Among these techniques, an extremely lean combustion has a large potential to simultaneously reduce the NOx raw emissions and the fuel consumption of spark-ignition engines. Application of pre-chamber ignition systems is a promising solution to realize a favorable air/fuel mixture ignitability and an adequate combustion speed, even with very lean mixtures. In this work, the combustion characteristics of an active pre-chamber system are experimentally investigated using a single-cylinder research engine. Conventional gasoline fuel is injected into the main chamber, while the pre-chamber is fed with compressed natural gas. In a first stage, an experimental campaign was carried out at various speeds, spark timings and air-fuel ratios. Global engine operating parameters as well as cylinder pressure traces, inside main combustion chamber and pre-chamber, were recorded and analyzed. Based on the available experimental data, a phenomenological model of this unconventional combustion system with divided combustion chambers was developed and validated. The model was then implemented in a 1D code. The proposed numerical approach shows the ability to simulate the experimental data with good accuracy, using a fixed tuning constant set. The model demonstrates to correctly describe the behavior of a pre-chamber combustion system under different operating conditions and to capture the physics behind such an innovative combustion system concept

    Performance and Emissions of an Advanced Multi-Cylinder SI Engine Operating in Ultra-Lean Conditions

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    In this work the performance and noxious emissions of a prototype Spark Ignition (SI) engine, working in ultra-lean conditions, are investigated. It is a four-cylinder engine, having a very high compression ratio, and an active pre-chamber. The required amount of air is provided by a low-pressure variable geometry turbocharger, coupled to a high-pressure E-compressor. The engine is equipped with a variable valve timing device on the intake camshaft. The goal of this activity is to support the development and the calibration of the described engine, and to exploit the full potential of the ultra-lean concept. To this aim, a combustion model for a pre-chamber engine, set up and validated in a previous paper for a similar single-cylinder unit, is utilized. It is coupled to additional in-house developed sub-models, employed for the prediction of the in-cylinder turbulence, heat transfer, knock and pollutant emissions. Such a complex architecture, schematized in a commercial 1D modeling framework, presents several control parameters which have to be properly selected to maximize the engine efficiency and minimize the noxious emissions over its whole operating domain. A Rule-Based (RB) calibration strategy is hence implemented in the 1D model to identify the optimal values of each control variable. The reliability of the RB calibration is also demonstrated through the comparison with the outcomes of a general-purpose optimizer, over a load sweep at a constant speed. The 1D model and the RB methodology are then applied for the performance prediction over the whole engine operating domain. The predicted performances show the possibility to achieve a wide zone of very high efficiency, with limited penalizations only at very low loads. Main advantages of the lean-combustion concept are highlighted, concerning a higher specific heat ratio, reduced heat losses, improved knock mitigation, and abatement of pollutant emissions, especially regarding CO and NOx. The presented methodology demonstrates to be a valuable tool to support the development and calibration of the considered high-efficiency engine architecture

    Potential of hydrogen addition to natural gas or ammonia as a solution towards low- or zero-carbon fuel for the supply of a small turbocharged SI engine

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    Nowadays there is an increasing interest in carbon-free fuels such as ammonia and hydrogen. Those fuels, on one hand, allow to drastically reduce CO2 emissions, helping to comply with the increasingly stringent emission regulations, and, on the other hand, could lead to possible advantages in performances if blended with conventional fuels. In this regard, this work focuses on the 1D numerical study of an internal combustion engine supplied with different fuels: pure gasoline, and blends of methane-hydrogen and ammonia-hydrogen. The analyses are carried out with reference to a downsized turbocharged two-cylinder engine working in an operating point representative of engine operations along WLTC, namely 1800 rpm and 9.4 bar of BMEP. To evaluate the potential of methane-hydrogen and ammonia-hydrogen blends, a parametric study is performed. The varied parameters are air/fuel proportions (from 1 up to 2) and the hydrogen fraction over the total fuel. Hydrogen volume percentages up to 60% are considered both in the case of methane-hydrogen and ammonia-hydrogen blends. Model predictive capabilities are enhanced through a refined treatment of the laminar flame speed and chemistry of the end gas to improve the description of the combustion process and knock phenomenon, respectively. After the model validation under pure gasoline supply, numerical analyses allowed to estimate the benefits and drawbacks of considered alternative fuels in terms of efficiency, carbon monoxide, and pollutant emissions

    Development of a 0D multi-zone model for fast and accurate prediction of homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) engine

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    Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) is a promising advanced combustion mode, featured by both high thermal efficiency and low emissions. In this context, a 0D multi-zone model has been developed, where the thermal stratification in the combustion chamber has been taken into account. The model is based on a control mass Lagrangian multi-zone approach. In addition, a procedure based on a tabulated approach (Tabulated Kinetic of Ignition - TKI) has been developed, to perform an accurate and fast prediction of the air/fuel mixture auto-ignition. This methodology allows combining the accuracy of detailed chemistry with a negligible computational effort. The tabulated procedure has been preliminarily verified through the comparison with the results of a commercial software (GT-Powerâ„¢). In this assessment, single zone simulations have been performed comparing the TKI strategy to a conventional chemical kinetics one, in four different cases at varying the intake temperature and the equivalence ratio. Then, the proposed 0D multi-zone model has been validated against experimental data available in the literature. The analyses are carried out with reference to an HCCI engine fuelled with pure hydrogen and working in a single operating point, namely 1500 rpm, 2.2 bar IMEP and with a fuel/air equivalence ratio of 0.24. Three different temperatures, i.e., 373, 383, and 393 K, have been considered for the intake air. The experimental/numerical comparisons of pressure cycles and burn rates proved that the proposed numerical approach can reproduce the experiments with good accuracy, without the need for case-by-case tuning

    Development of a 0D multi-zone model for fast and accurate prediction of homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) engine

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    Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) is a promising advanced combustion mode, featured by both high thermal efficiency and low emissions. In this context, a 0D multi-zone model has been developed, where the thermal stratification in the combustion chamber has been taken into account. The model is based on a control mass Lagrangian multi-zone approach. In addition, a procedure based on a tabulated approach (Tabulated Kinetic of Ignition - TKI) has been developed, to perform an accurate and fast prediction of the air/fuel mixture auto-ignition. This methodology allows combining the accuracy of detailed chemistry with a negligible computational effort. The tabulated procedure has been preliminarily verified through the comparison with the results of a commercial software (GT-Powerâ„¢). In this assessment, single zone simulations have been performed comparing the TKI strategy to a conventional chemical kinetics one, in four different cases at varying the intake temperature and the equivalence ratio. Then, the proposed 0D multi-zone model has been validated against experimental data available in the literature. The analyses are carried out with reference to an HCCI engine fuelled with pure hydrogen and working in a single operating point, namely 1500 rpm, 2.2 bar IMEP and with a fuel/air equivalence ratio of 0.24. Three different temperatures, i.e., 373, 383, and 393 K, have been considered for the intake air. The experimental/numerical comparisons of pressure cycles and burn rates proved that the proposed numerical approach can reproduce the experiments with good accuracy, without the need for case-by-case tuning

    1D/3D simulation procedure to investigate the potential of a lean burn hydrogen fuelled engine

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    In recent years hydrogen, especially the one generated by renewable energy, is gaining increasing attention as a clean fuel to support the future mobility towards efficient and low emission solutions for propulsion systems. In this scenario, the present work deals with the virtual conversion of a single-cylinder Diesel engine, conceived for marine applications, into a hydrogen Spark Ignition (SI) unit. A simulation methodology is adopted, combining 1D and 3D Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) methods. First, experiments are realized on the original Diesel engine mounted on a test bench, collecting main performance indicators and emissions. A complete 1D engine model (GT-PowerTM) is developed and validated against measurements. Then, a 3D model of the cylinder (STAR-CD) is set-up and the related combustion outcomes are compared both with 1D and experimental results, showing an overall good agreement. In a second stage, the Diesel unit is converted into a port-injected hydrogen SI engine; the 3D model is re-arranged and utilized to reproduce pre-mixed hydrogen combustions under ultra-lean air/fuel (A/F) mixtures. Also, the 1D model is partly modified and coupled to an advanced combustion sub-model integrated with fast tabulated chemical kinetics to predict the knock. In particular, 1D combustion evolution is calibrated against the results of 3D CFD hydrogen combustion simulation. Finally, the calibrated 1D model is applied to investigate the advantages of ultra-lean hydrogen combustion in terms of efficiency, NO, and unburned H2 formation at medium/high loads

    Development of an Efficient Thermal Electric Skipping Strategy for the Management of a Series/Parallel Hybrid Powertrain †

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    International audienceIn recent years, the development of hybrid powertrain allowed to substantially reduce the CO2 and pollutant emissions of vehicles. The optimal management of such power units represents a challenging task since more degrees of freedom are available compared to a conventional purethermal engine powertrain. The a priori knowledge of the driving mission allows identifying the actual optimal control strategy at the expense of a quite relevant computational effort. This is realized by the off-line optimization strategies, such as Pontryagin minimum principle-PMP-or dynamic programming. On the other hand, for an on-vehicle application, the driving mission is unknown, and a certain performance degradation must be expected, depending on the degree of simplification and the computational burden of the adopted control strategy. This work is focused on the development of a simplified control strategy, labeled as efficient thermal electric skipping strategy-ETESS, which presents performance similar to off-line strategies, but with a much-reduced computational effort. This is based on the alternative vehicle driving by either thermal engine or electric unit (no power-split between the power units). The ETESS is tested in a "backward-facing" vehicle simulator referring to a segment C car, fitted with a hybrid series-parallel powertrain. The reliability of the method is verified along different driving cycles, sizing, and efficiency of the power unit components and assessed with conventional control strategies. The outcomes put into evidence that ETESS gives fuel consumption close to PMP strategy, with the advantage of a drastically reduced computational time. The ETESS is extended to an online implementation by introducing an adaptative factor, resulting in performance similar to the well-assessed equivalent consumption minimization strategy, preserving the computational effort
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