27,613 research outputs found

    The repton model of gel electrophoresis

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    We discuss the repton model of agarose gel electrophoresis of DNA. We review previous results, both analytic and numerical, as well as presenting a new numerical algorithm for the efficient simulation of the model, and suggesting a new approach to the model's analytic solution.Comment: 17 pages including 6 PostScript figures, typeset with LaTeX 2e using the Elsevier macro package elsart.cl

    Bail Reform for the Eighties: A Reply to Senator Kennedy

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    The Bail Reform Act of 1966 may rank as the most significant legislative reform of the criminal process of this century. A product of the New Frontier and the Great Society, it reflected a broad consensus that society had the ability and the duty to alleviate tile disadvantages caused by poverty, racism, and powerlessness. The Act recognized that pretrial incarceration was frequently unnecessary to assure appearance at trial and that it was unjust and discriminatory when reasonable alternatives were available. Money bail was deemphasized, and the courts were directed to release persons without it when circumstances permitted

    The Euro Crisis, the Other Crisis and the Need for Global Thinking

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    In addition to the euro crisis the EU faces a second, more existential crisis, in the form of an ill-defined notion of the Union’s global role. This contribution argues that the euro crisis should not redefine perceptions of the EU on the global stage, which it is in danger of doing. Instead, the EU and its members should embark upon a strategic reassessment in order to define three core interrelated factors. First, the nature of the EU’s actorness remains ill-defined and it is therefore necessary to explain, both within and beyond the Union, what its global role is. Second, in order to facilitate the joining up of the myriad of sub-strategies in EU external relations, the notion of ‘red lines’ should be considered which define specific aspects of behaviour that are mainstreamed throughout the EU’s external actions and, more importantly, upheld. Third, in spite of the rapid development of the harder elements of the EU’s actorness over the last decade or so, there remains a worrying gap between rhetoric and reality. This aspect is of particular concern for the United States and will affect perceptions of the EU’s ability to be a genuine strategic partner at a time of dramatic change in the international system. By engaging in what will inevitably be a difficult debate, the EU and its members will not only help give purpose and strategic direction to the Union’s actions on the international scene, it will also speak to the euro crisis since both are fundamentally about the future shape and direction of European integration

    Now We Are One...A Rough Start for the EEAS

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    The first year of the European External Action Service (EEAS) has already elicited much comment, both internally and externally. This contribution briefly reviews the nature of this commentary and then suggests some possible short-term ‘wins’ for the Service, as well as some challenges that will require a longer-term perspective. The main shorter-term issue considers the need to create stronger linkages and priorities between existing strategies and to start the difficult process of melding a common mindset within the Service. The longer-term challenges revolve around recruitment, balance and resources. The latter is particularly important in order to enable the delegations to assume their full roles. The barrage of criticism that greeted the EEAS’s first birthday is also a commentary on how critical the role of the Service is to achieving the core goals of the Lisbon Treaty in external relations; namely, to aim towards more coherence, effectiveness and visibility

    Consistency as an Issue in EU External Activities. EIPA Working Paper 99/W/06

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    [From the Introduction]. The European Community (EC) was initially only competent in the area of trade and gradually developed a common commercial policy. The 1970s onwards saw increasing foreign policy co-operation in the framework of European Political Co-operation (EPC). Over the next two decades the increasing number of external activities of the Union highlighted the need for consistency between the EC’s external competencies conducted in the context of the first pillar and the intergovernmental ones of the second pillar and, to an growing extent, the third pillar. By the late 1990s the European Union (EU) accounted for a greater percentage of global gross national product than the U.S. and Japan. The EU also contributes more to the UN budget and peacekeeping operations than either the U.S. or Japan. Given the enormous importance of the EU as a global actor and its potential to play an even more influential role, it is not difficult to see why concerns of consistency in the EU’s external activities are legitimate. Consistency has become something of a refrain. Most recently the consolidated Treaty on European Union (CTEU) states that, 'The Union shall be served by a single institutional framework which shall ensure the consistency and the continuity of the activities carried out in order to attain its objectives while respecting and building upon the acquis communautaire.' [CTEU, 1997, Article 3] To this end, it is to the Union generally that the task of ensuring 'consistency in its external activities as a whole in the context of external relations, security, economic and development policies' falls. The Council and Commission are though charged with particular responsibility in this regard. The objective of achieving consistency in the Union’s external activities is to ensure that the Union can 'assert its identity on the international scheme.' [CTEU, 1997, Article 2] In support of the general theme of consistency the European Council identified the aim of the Common Foreign and Security Policy (CFSP) as being to enable the Union to speak with one voice. The same theme is returned to within the CFSP mechanisms, both directly but also indirectly through reference to 'common positions,' 'joint decisions,' 'joint actions,' and, most recently, 'common strategies.

    European new entry into UK grocery retailing

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    Until recently, the UK grocery retail market was extremely national in nature, dominated by home-grown incumbents which had developed from regional strongholds (Sainsbury in southern England, Asda in northern England, for example). The lack of any significant presence in the UK market from Europe or the wider world was a remarkable characteristic, particularly when Europe had a number of cross-border grocery retailers. In the final years of the last decade, this changed, when two European grocery retailers, Germany's Aldi and the Danish Netto, entered the UK market. The entry of these retailers, and the possible entry of others like them, raises a number of significant matters relating to the structure, present and future, of the UK grocery retail market. The objective of this article is to explain how these new entrants were able to penetrate the market's barriers to entry, to analyse the events which created the market opportunity targeted, and to describe the response of UK incumbents and the long-run effects on the market which are likely to result

    „Eyen mi nyamkkenyam, nnọ ke ndọ…’:Deconstructing Some Stereotypic Views on Marriage in Efik Culture

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    Stereotypes within any society have consequences that are sometimes harmful and also affect targeted group of persons or ethnic group in a common way. One of the cultural stereotypes about Efik women is that they hardly believe in ‘…till death do us apart’ promised during monogamous marriage rite, that is, they walk out of marriage when conditions are unbearable. The misinterpretations of some exhortations given to the couples at Efik traditional marriage rite seem to support this claim. For example: ‘Eyen mi nyamkkenyam, nnọ ke ndọ; ebot ebot edi unyam. Mm’ ifonke mendiyak, abang okubomo ikim okuwaha utong’. This exhortation is translated as: ‘I have not sold my child but given her to you in marriage; only goat is for sale. If she is no longer good for you bring her back. Let nothing malevolent happen to her.’ This implies that the life of one’s daughter is priced over marriage. One of the aims of this article is to investigate the context of this statement and how it has shaped people’s perception of marriage among the Efiks in Nigeria. In addition, this paper seeks to deconstruct some of the stereotypical views on Efik traditional marriage with regard to the female gender. Theories of Correspondent Inferences and Attribution in Social Psychology are used in understanding how women in Efik culture respond to marriage. Data from quantitative analysis of questionnaires and oral interviews threw more light on how cultural changes influence marriage institution among the Efiks. The findings of the research show that intermarriage, education, peer group influence, Western religious cultures, socio-economic conditions, etc., have necessitated the reconsideration of stereotypical views on marriage in Efik culture

    Christian Military Chaplains as Promoters of the Gospel of Non-Violence and Mutual Co-Existence in Contemporary Nigerian Society: An Ethical Study

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    Contemporary Nigerian society is in its doldrums as regards the culture of violence and distrust among peoples from various ethnic groups that make-up this nation. To an extent, religio-political reasons are fueling this culture of violence and distrust. The thrust of this paper is that: Christian military chaplains are stakeholders as promoters of peace and mutual co-existence in Nigeria with regard to controlling the culture of violence and disunity. The core of this thesis remains Jesus’ convictions concerning non-resistance to the evil one as documented in the Sermon on the Mount, Matthew 5: 38-42, and His life as the Peace-Builder. Therefore, contemporary Nigerian context calls for Christian military chaplains to be more conscious that being messengers of peace and promoters of peaceful coexistence in our country, they have ethical responsibility to build bridges to harmony. Since Christ (God) is love, the chaplains should rediscover the poetics of testimony as a principle for building and reconstructing paths that lead to mutual co-existence in view of encouraging the reign of justice, unity, and peace in Nigeria

    Avco Lycoming emission and flight test results

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    The Avco Lycoming flight test program for reduced emissions was conducted to determine and document the lean fuel schedule limits for current production aircraft based on flight safety. Based on analysis of the emissions profile, Avco Lycoming proposed to evaluate the effect of leaner schedules in the idle/taxi, climb, and approach modes. These modes were selected as areas where it was felt that possible improvements could be made with the greatest improvement in cyclic emissions reduction. The fuel systems to produce these leaner stepped fuel schedules were tailored specifically for the flight test