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    UV micro-irradiation of the Chinese hamster cell nucleus and caffeine post-treatment immunocytochemical localization of DNA photolesions in cells with partial and generalized chromosome shattering

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    UV micro-irradiation of a small part of the Chinese hamster nucleus and caffeine post-incubation often results in shattered chromosomes at the first post-irradiation mitosis. In some of these mitotic cells, chromosome shattering is restricted to a few chromosomes spatially related in a small area of the metaphase spread; in others, shattering includes the whole chromosome complement. These 2 types of damage have been called partial and generalized chromosome shattering (PCS and GCS). Using antisera that specifically react with UV-irradiated DNA, we identified micro-irradiated chromatin in interphase nuclei and in mitotic cells with PCS or GCS by indirect immunofluorescence microscopy. In PCS, immunofluorescence staining was found in the damaged area, while the surrounding intact chromosomes were not stained. In GCS, staining was also restricted to a small region of the shattered chromosome complement. In other experiments, cells synchronized in G1 were micro-irradiated in the nucleus, pulse-labelled with [3H]thymidine and post-incubated with caffeine. Autoradiographs of cells with GCS showed unscheduled DNA synthesis restricted to a small chromatin region. Our data present direct evidence that the distribution of DNA photolesions does not coincide with the sites of chromosomal damage in GCS. As a working hypothesis, we propose that an indirect mechanism is involved in the induction of GCS by which DNA photolesions in a small nuclear segment induce shattering of both micro-irradiated and non-irradiated chromosomes

    Induction of chromosome shattering by ultraviolet light and caffeine: The influence of different distributions of photolesions

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    Cells of synchonized and of asynchronously growing cultures of a V79 Chinese hamster line were microirradiated with a low poweer laser-UV-microbeam of wavelength 257 nm. Ultraviolet light was either focused onto a small part of the nucleus (mode I) or distributed over the whole nucleus (mode II). Following microirradiation, the cells were incubated for 7–20 h with caffeine (1–2 mM) until chromosome preparation was performed. After both modes of microirradation, shattering of the entire chromosome complement (generalized chromosome shattering, GCS) was observed. It is suggested that the probability by which GCS is induced depends on the total number lesions rather than on their distribution in the chromatin. The results are consistent with the prediction of a “factor depletion model” wich assumes that in a given cell, GCS takes place both in irradiated and non-irradiated chromosomes of the total number of daughter strand-repair sites supasses a threshold value

    Immunocytochemical localization of chromatin regions UV-microirradiated in S phase or anaphase : Evidence for a territorial organization of chromosomes during cell cycle of cultured Chinese hamster cells

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    Chinese hamster cells (M3-1 line) in S phase were laser-UV-microirradiated (λ, 257 nm) at a small site of the nucleus. Cells were fixed either immediately thereafter or in subsequent stages of the cell cycle, including prophase and metaphase. The microirradiated chromatin was visualized by indirect immunofluorescence microscopy using antibodies specific for UV-irradiated DNA. During the whole post-incubation period (4–15 h) immunofluorescent labelling was restricted to a small part of the nucleus ( , 4.5 % of the total nuclear area). In mitotic cells segments of a few chromosomes only were labelled. Following microirradiation of chromosome segments in anaphase, immunofluorescent labelling was observed over a small part of the resulting interphase nucleus. A territorial organization of interphase chromosomes, i.e. interphase chromosomes occupying distinct domains, has previously been demonstrated by our group for the nucleus of Chinese hamster cells in G1. Our present findings provide evidence that this organization pattern is maintained during the entire cell cycle

    Induction of chromosome shattering by ultraviolet light and caffeine

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    Synchronized and asynchronously growing cells of a V79 sub-line of the Chinese hamster were either partial-cell irradiation (λ, 254 nm) or laser-UV-microirradiated (λ, 257 nm). Post-incubation with caffeine (1–2 mM) often resulted in chromosome shattering, which was a rare event in the absence of this compound. In experiments with caffeine, the following results were obtained. Shattering of all the chromosomes of a cell (generalized chromosome shattering, GCS) was induced by partial-cell irradiation at the first post-irradiation mitosis when the UV fluence exceeded and “threshold” valued in the sensitive phases of the cell cycle (G1 and S). GCS was also induced by laser-UV-microirradiation of a small part of the nucleus in G1 of S whereas microirradiation of cytoplasm beside the nucleus was not effective. An upper limit of the UV fluence in the non-irradiated nuclear part due to scattering of the microbeam was experimentally obtained. This UV fluence was significantly below the threshold fluence necessary to induce GCS in whole-cell irradiation experiments. In other cells, partial nuclear irradiation resulted in shattering of a few chromosomes only, while the majority remained intact (partial chromosomes shattering, PCS). G1/early S was the most sensitive phase for induction of GCS by whole-cell and partial nuclear irradiation. The frequency of PCS was observed to increase when partial nuclear irradiation was performed either at lower incident doses or at later stages of S. We suggest that PCS and GCS indicate 2 levels of chromosome damage which can be produced by the synergistic action of UV irradiation and caffeine. PCS may be restricted to microirradiated chromatin whereas GCS involves both irradiated and unirradiated chromosomes in the microirradiated nucleus
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