34,097 research outputs found

    Validity and reliability of the DMSES UK : a measure of self-efficacy for type 2 diabetes self-management

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    Objectives Self-efficacy is an important outcome measure of self-management interventions. We aimed to establish UK validity and reliability of the diabetes management self-efficacy scale (DMSES). Methods The 20 item DMSES was available for Dutch and US populations. Consultation with people with type 2 diabetes and health professionals established UK content and face validity resulting in item reduction to 15. Participants were adults with type 2 diabetes enrolled in a randomised controlled trial (RCT) of the diabetes manual, a self-management education intervention, with an HbA1c over 7% and who understood English. Baseline trial data and follow-up control group data were used. Results A total of 175 participants completed all 15 items. Pearson’s correlation coefficient of −0.46 (P 0.30. Cronbach’s alpha was 0.89 over all items. Conclusion This evaluation demonstrates that the scale has good internal reliability, internal consistency, construct validity, criterion validity, and test-retest reliability. Practice Implications The 15 item DMSES UK is suitable for use in research and clinical settings to measure the self-efficacy of people living with type 2 diabetes in managing their diabetes

    ‘There is no choice apart from antibiotics…’: qualitative analysis of views on urinary infections in pregnancy and antimicrobial resistance

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    Background: Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) is a health risk as it can lead to life-threatening infections. There has been a rise in resistant urinary tract infections (UTIs) which is the most common infection in pregnancy. This can be challenging in pregnancy due to the additional need to safeguard foetal development. The study's aim was to explore views about AMR in women who experienced UTIs in pregnancy. Design: Fifteen semi-structured interviews were conducted in the UK and analysed using thematic analysis. Results: Results highlighted two themes: conceptualization of AMR and pregnancy as a deviation from the norm, with an overarching theme of ‘self-efficacy’. Results show that participants were concerned about AMR but uncertain about the effect on society compared to individual's taking antibiotics and about completing antibiotic courses. Participants reported an unsparing use of antibiotics was justified in pregnancy, and behaviours like drinking adequate water were ineffective at preventing UTIs. In summary, women had low self-efficacy regards tackling AMR and managing their health. Conclusion: Misconceptions about how AMR affects society vs the individual translated into viewing it as a future problem to be tackled by the health-care sector. Consequently, AMR requires reconceptualization as a current problem requiring collective action. This research also indicates women endorse a biomedical model of UTIs in pregnancy which attributes resolving illness to interventions such as medicines, implying an automatic reliance on antibiotics. Subsequently, there is a need for self-efficacy by focusing on a behavioural model which emphasizes behaviours for infection prevention, thus reducing the need for antibiotics

    The Emotional Self-Efficacy Scale: Adaptation and Validation for Young Adolescents

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    Emotional self-efficacy (ESE) is an important aspect of emotional functioning, with current measures for children and adolescents focused on the measurement of self-beliefs in relation to the management of emotions. In the present study, we report the psychometric properties of the first adaptation of the Emotional Self-Efficacy Scale for youth (Youth-ESES) that measures additional aspects of ESE, such as perceiving and understanding emotions and helping others modulate their emotions. Participants were 192 young adolescents aged 11 to 13 years from a U.K. state school. They completed the Youth-ESES and measures of ability emotional intelligence (EI) and cognitive ability. Results support the same four-factor structure that has been previously documented using the adult version of the ESES, with the four subscales being largely independent from cognitive ability and only moderately related to ability EI. However, the four subscales were less differentiated in the present study compared with adult data previously published, suggesting that there is a strong general factor underlying young adolescents’ ESE scores. Overall, the results suggest that the adapted Youth-ESES can be reliably used with youth, and that confidence in how a young person feels about his or her emotional functioning remains distinct from emotional skill

    The Role of Relapse Prevention and Goal Setting in Training Transfer Enhancement

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    This article reviews the effect of two post-training transfer interventions (relapse prevention [RP] and goal setting [GS]) on trainees’ ability to apply skills gained in a training context to the workplace. Through a review of post-training transfer interventions literature, the article identifies a number of key issues that remain unresolved or underexplored, for example, the inconsistent results on the impact of RP on transfer of training, the lack of agreement on which GS types are more efficient to improve transfer performance, the lack of clarity about the distinction between RP and GS, and the underlying process through which these two post-training transfer interventions influence transfer of training. We offer some recommendations to overcome these problems and also provide guidance for future research on transfer of training

    BOLLOCKS!! Designing pervasive games that play with the social rules of built environments

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    We propose that pervasive games designed with mechanics that are specifically in opposition with, or disruptive of, social rules of the environment in which they are played, have unique potential to provide interesting, provocative experiences for players. We explore this concept through the design and evaluation of an experimental game prototype, Shhh!, inspired by the juvenile game Bollocks, and implemented on Android mobile devices, which challenges players to make loud noises in libraries. Six participants played the game before engaging in semi-structured interviews, explored through inductive thematic analysis. Results suggest that the game provoked in players a heightened awareness of social rules, as well as a complex social dilemma of whether or not to act. We conclude by presenting a model for designing games that play with the social, as well as physical, rules of the environments in which they are set

    Use of mental simulations to change theory of planned behaviour variables

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    Objectives. The predictive validity of the theory of planned behaviour iswell established, but much less is known about: (a) whether there are causal relationships between key components of the model and (b) how to go about changing the theory of planned behaviour variables. This study tested the ability of outcome and process simulations to change variables specified in the theory of planned behaviour in relation to blood donation. Design. Participants (N ¼ 146) were randomized to one of four conditions: outcome simulation only, process simulation only, process-plus-outcome simulation and a distractor control condition. The dependent variables were state anxiety, and intention attitude, subjective norm and perceived control from the theory of planned behaviour. Methods. Participants were asked to empty their mind and visualize themselves: (a) after donating blood (outcome manipulation), (b) preparing to donate blood (process manipulation), (c) both preparing to donate blood and after having donated blood (process-plus-outcome manipulation) or (d) both preparing to get a high mark and after having got a high mark on their course (control condition). Following mental rehearsal, participants completed the dependent variables. Results. There were no main effects of outcome simulation, but process simulation successfully increased intention, subjective norm and perceived control. There was also a significant outcome simulation x process simulation interaction for attitude. The effect of the process manipulation on intention was mediated by subjective norm and perceived control. Conclusions. The findings show promise for the use of mental simulations in changing cognitions and further research is required to extend the present findings to other health behaviours.</p