95,845 research outputs found

    The role of intermediate layers in the c-axis conductivity of layered superconductors

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    A simplified model of c axis transport in the high T_c superconductors is presented. Expressions are found for the c axis optical conductivity, the d.c. resistivity, and the c axis penetration depth. Within the framework of this model, the pseudogap in the optical conductivity arises naturally as a result of the layered band structure of the high T_c materials. We discuss the occurence of the pseudogap in terms of three parameters: a band gap Delta_{ps}, a temperature dependent scattering rate Gamma(T), and the strength of the interlayer coupling t_{perp}. We are also able to find analytic expressions for the d.c. conductivity and the low temperature penetration depth in terms of these three parameters. This work is an attempt to present a simple, unified picture of c axis properties in the high T_c cuprates.Comment: 3 pages, 2 figures, Proceedings of Spectroscopies of Novel Superconductors '97, To be published in J. Phys. Chem. Solid

    “Isn’t it time you were finishing?”: Women’s Labor Force Participation and Childbearing in England, 1860–1920

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    This contribution examines the relationship between women’s labor force participation (LFP) and fertility in three industrial towns of nineteenth- and early twentieth-century England from a feminist economic perspective. The study augments existing, statistical, approaches to demographic history by discussing women’s motivations. Women’s LFP influenced their likelihood of family limitation (via effects on both age at marriage and marital fertility). Where women were most likely to be in paid work, they were most likely to limit family size. It is further argued that the diversity of LFP patterns is the principal explanation for the varied patterns of fertility decline in different parts of Britain

    Working around the crisis in Libya

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    This is the first in a series of chair’s notes in Libyan Studies. We hope that future notes will address easier topics and more straightforward success, but for now we think it is important to communicate what we are doing given the difficult circumstances of Libya today. We trust that this report is useful, and we welcome any feedback

    College turnaround: guidance on colleges in recovery

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    The (In)Difference engine: explaining the disappearance of diversity in the design of the personal computer

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    At the time of writing there is a clear perception of all office computers as being more or less identical. Discussion with users entails repetitive rhetoric as they describe a landscape of boring beige boxes. The office PC is indeed a ‘clone’ - an identical, characterless copy of a bland original. Through the exploration of an archive of computer manufacturer’s catalogues, this article shows how previous, innovative forms of the computer informed by cultural references as diverse as science fiction, accepted gender roles and the discourse of status as displayed through objects, have been systematically replaced by the adoption of a ‘universal’ design informed only by the nondescript, self-referential world of office equipment. The acceptance of this lack of innovation in the design of such a truly global, mass-produced, multi-purpose technological artefact has had an enormous effect on the conception, perception and consumption of the computer, and possibly of information technology itself. The very anonymity of the PC has created an attitude of indifference at odds with its potential.</p

    Evaluation of European Social Fund Priority 1 and Priority 4: extending employment opportunities to adults and young people

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    This evaluation report forms part of a suite of research gathering evidence on the delivery of the European Social Fund (ESF). It aims to improve understanding of the processes, range and delivery of ESF Priority 1 and Priority 4 provision within the 2007-2013 England and Gibraltar ESF Operational Programme (OP). Priority 1 and Priority 4 seek to increase employment and tackle worklessness through a mix of employment and skills provision, intended to support people to enter jobs and in some instances progress within work. The research is based on ten in-depth case studies of the delivery of Priority 1 and 4 provision, involving a total of 182 interviews with stakeholders in ESF Co-Financing Organisations, Jobcentre Plus, and ESF delivery contractors. Fieldwork for the evaluation was undertaken between January and March 2011. The evaluation was part-funded by ESF technical assistance under the 2007-2013 England and Gibraltar ESF programme evaluation strategy